Infections due to Mycobacterium tuberculosis, Burkholderia pseudomallei and non-typhoidal Salmonella cause significant morbidity and mortality throughout the world. These intracellular pathogens share some common predisposing factors and clinical features. Co-infection with two of these organisms has been reported previously but, to our knowledge, this is the first time that infection with all three has been reported in one person.
In September 2010, a 58-year-old diabetic Malaysian male presented with fever and a fluctuant mass on the right side of his neck. B. pseudomallei was isolated from an aspirate of this lesion and there was radiological evidence of disseminated infection in the liver and spleen. The recurrence of clinical symptoms over ensuing months prompted further aspiration and biopsy of a cervical abscess and underlying lymph nodes. Salmonella enterica serovar Stanley and then M. tuberculosis were identified from these specimens by culture and molecular methods. The patient responded to targeted medical management of each of these infections.
In endemic settings, a high index of suspicion and adequate tissue sampling are imperative in identifying these pathogenic organisms. Diabetes was identified as a predisposing factor in this case while our understanding of other potential risk factors is evolving.
Melioidosis; Tuberculosis; Salmonella stanley; Diabetes
Following the recent transfer of all accepted species of Penicillium subgenus Biverticillium to Talaromyces (including Talaromyces marneffei, formerly Penicillium marneffei), Penicillium species are becoming increasingly rare causal agents of invasive infections. Herein, we present a report of a type 2 diabetes patient with a fungus ball in the respiratory tract caused by Penicillium capsulatum.
A 56-year-old Chinese female gardener with a 5-year history of type 2 diabetes presented at the Shanghai Changzheng Hospital with fever, a cough producing yellow-white sputum, and fatigue. The therapeutic effect of cefoxitin was poor. An HIV test was negative, but the β-D-glucan test was positive (459.3 pg/ml). Chest radiography revealed a cavitary lesion in the left upper lobe, and a CT scan showed globate cavities with a radiopaque, gravity-dependent ball. The histopathologic features of the tissue after haematoxylin-eosin staining showed septate hyphae. The fungus was isolated from the gravity-dependent ball and identified as Penicillium capsulatum based on the morphological analysis of microscopic and macroscopic features and on ribosomal internal transcribed spacer sequencing. After surgery, the patient was cured with a sequential treatment of fluconazole 400 mg per day for 90 days and caspofungin 70 mg per day for 14 days.
Although the prognosis is often satisfactory, clinicians, mycologists and epidemiologists should be aware of the possibility of infection by this uncommon fungal pathogen in diabetes patients, since it may cause severe invasive infections in immunocompromised hosts such as diabetes and AIDS patients.
Fungal ball; Pulmonary infections; Penicillium capsulatum
Sexually transmitted diseases and most notably syphilis-infections are rising amongst men who have sex with men. In HIV-co-infected patients, an accelerated clinical course of syphilis neurological involvement is known.
A 46 year old HIV-positive male patient came in to our emergency department in the late evening with acute fever, rapidly progressive cephalgia and photophobia. Palmar skin efflorescence was evocative of an active syphilis infection. A reactive Treponema pallidum particle agglutination (TPPA) assay with positive Treponema pallidum-specific IgG/IgM immunofluorescence as well as a highly reactive Veneral diseases research laboratory (VDRL) test confirmed the diagnosis. Liquor pleocytosis, liquor protein elevation and a highly positive VDRL test in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) were interpreted in context of the clinical symptoms as neurosyphilitic manifestations within an early syphilis infection (stage II). Cranial nuclear magnetic resonance scans of the sella turcica, which were performed due to low thyroidea stimulation hormone (TSH) and thyroxin levels, showed signs of hypophysitis such as pituitary gland enlargement and inhomogeneous contrast enhancement. Advanced endocrine laboratory testing revealed hypopituitarism. Fourteen days of intravenous ceftriaxone treatment and levothyroxine- and hydrocortisone-substitution led to complete disappearance of all clinical symptoms. Two months later, nuclear magnetic resonance scan showed normal pituitary size and that the syphilis serology had normalized.
We report to the best of our knowledge the first case of a HIV-positive patient with acute hypophysitis and hypopituarism due to early neurosyphilis infection. Ceftriaxone treatment and levothyroxine- and hydrocortisone-substitution led to the disappearance of all clinical symptoms. We strongly recommend to exclude syphilis infection in every clinical situation unclear in HIV-patients, especially when additional risk factors are known.
HIV; Syphilis; Hypopituitarism; Hypophysitis
Mycobacteirum wolinskyi is a member of the Mycobacterium smegmatis group, which is less frequently found in clinical settings than other nontuberculous mycobacterium (NTM) species. However, its clinical significance has recently increased in opportunistic infections. This case is the first report of facial skin and soft tissue infection by M. wolinskyi complicating cosmetic procedures.
A 56-year-old Asian female patient with a history of receiving multiple facial cosmetic procedures over the preceding 2 years was admitted to our institution with swelling, local pain, and erythema on the right cheek. Mycobacteirum fortuitum complex isolated from a pus culture was identified as M. wolinskyi by rpoB sequencing. Metallic foreign bodies and abscess were detected by radiologic imaging. The pus was incised and drained. Treatment comprised clarithromycin (500 mg every 12 h), amikacin (200 mg every 8 h), and ciprofloxacin (400 mg every 6 h).
We report the first case of facial skin and soft tissue infection with M. wolinskyi after multiple cosmetic procedures of filler injection and laser lipolysis. Increased occurrence of NTM infection in nosocomial settings suggests the importance of appropriate treatment including culturing and rpoB gene sequencing when patients who have undergone cosmetic procedures display symptoms and signs of soft tissue infection indicative of NTM infection.
Mycobacterium wolinskyi; Cosmetic; Filler injection; Skin and soft tissue infection
Kocuria species are gram-positive, non-pathogenic commensals. However, in immunocompromised patients such as transplant recipients, cancer patients, or patients with chronic medical conditions, they can cause opportunistic infections.
We report the first case of descending necrotizing mediastinitis in a 58-year-old, relatively healthy woman caused by Kocuria rosea.
Descending necrotizing mediastinitis due to Kocuria rosea can be successfully treated with prompt surgical drainage combined with antimicrobial therapy.
Kocuria rosea; Descending necrotizing mediastinitis
Parvovirus B19 can cause petechial rashes in the acute phase of illness as well as erythema infectiosum (fifth disease) during convalescence. This petechial rash is often called “gloves and socks” syndrome because of the typical distribution of the eruption. However, involvement of other sites (e.g., intertriginous area) and generalized involvement have been recently recognized. We report here a patient with parvovirus-associated petechiae and cephalhematoma.
The patient was a previously healthy 10-year-old boy. There was a family history of fatal bleeding; his sister died of intracranial bleeding with an uncertain cause at the age of 5 months. The patient was admitted to our hospital because of sudden onset of cephalhematoma associated with fever. He reported that he had no recent head trauma but that he massaged his scalp on the day before admission. On admission, his temperature was 38.8°C; otherwise, he was in a stable condition. Besides cephalhematoma, petechial rashes were present on his trunk and limbs. The initial laboratory tests were essentially normal, including platelet count and coagulation tests. Expanded laboratory tests were repeated to explore the etiology of his skin hemorrhage, all of which indicated that hematological disorders were unlikely. His symptoms subsided spontaneously over the next few days and he was discharged uneventfully. Anti-parvovirus IgM titer was elevated during hospitalization and typical erythema infectiosum was seen approximately 1 week after discharge. During 6 months follow-up, he remained stable without recurrence of a hemorrhagic episode. Finally, we concluded that his cephalhematoma was responsible for acute parvoviral infection.
This is believed to be the first report describing a possible association between parvovirus B19 infection and cephalhematoma. Parvovirus B19 infection should be considered in the differential diagnosis of children who present with unexplained hemorrhage such as cephalhematoma or petechiae.
Parvovirus B19 infection; Erythema infectiosum; Fifth disease; Papular–purpuric gloves and socks syndrome; Cephalhematoma
Children make up a significant proportion of the global tuberculosis (TB) caseload, and experience considerable TB-related morbidity and mortality. Unfortunately, it is not easy to diagnose TB in the first years of life because of the diversity of its clinical presentation and the non-specific nature of most of its symptoms.
A 26-month-old male child was admitted to hospital because of the sudden onset of rapidly increasing swelling of the neck, face and upper trunk a few hours before. Upon admission, his temperature was 36.5°C, pulse rate 120/min, respiratory rate 36/min, and O2 saturation 97% in air. Palpation revealed subcutaneous emphysema (SE) over the swollen skin areas, and an examination of the respiratory system revealed crepitations in the left part of the chest without any significant suggestion of mediastinal shift. Chest radiography showed enlargement of the left lung hilum with pneumomediastinum and diffuse SE. Bronchoscopy was carried out because of the suspicion that the SE may have been due to the inhalation of a peanut. This excluded the presence of a foreign body but showed that the left main bronchus was partially obstructed with caseous material and showed significant signs of granulomatous inflammation on the wall. Contrast-enhanced computed tomography of the lungs confirmed the SE and pneumomediastinum, and revealed bilateral hilum lymph node disease with infiltration of the adjacent anatomical structure and a considerable breach in the left primary bronchus wall conditioning the passage of air in the mediastinum and subcutaneous tissue. As a tuberculin skin test and polymerase chain reaction for Mycobacterium tuberculosis on bronchial material and gastric aspirate were positive, a diagnosis of TB was made and oral anti-TB therapy was started, which led to the elimination of M. tuberculosis and a positive clinical outcome.
This is the first case in which SE was the first relevant clinical manifestation of TB and arose from infiltration of the bronchial wall secondary to caseous necrosis of the hilum lymph nodes. Physicians should be aware of the fact that SE is one of the possible initial signs and symptoms of early TB infection, and act accordingly.
Children; Mycobacterium tuberculosis; Subcutaneous emphysema; Tuberculosis
An association between influenza A viruses and myocarditis was noted during the 1918 influenza pandemic. Since then, the link between the influenza B virus and fulminant myocarditis or cardiogenic shock has been rarely reported.
In February 2013, a 50 year-old-woman without known heart disease presented in profound cardiogenic shock with a left ventricular ejection fraction of 10%. Her presentation was preceded by six days of fever, chills, myalgia and fatigue. She had a junctional tachycardia, a troponin I of 12.6 ng/ml and her coronary angiography demonstrated normal coronary arteries. Percutaneous extracorporeal membrane oxygenation was required. An endotracheal aspirate at admission was positive for influenza B. All other respiratory, blood and urine cultures were negative. On day 7, a repeat echocardiography demonstrated significant recovery of left ventricular function with an ejection fraction of 50%. She was later discharged home in good condition.
Influenza B infection can be complicated by fulminant cardiomyopathy leading to cardiogenic shock in adults without preexisting cardiac disease.
Influenza B; Myocarditis; Cardiogenic shock; Adult; Extracorporeal membrane oxygenation
The genus Chromobacterium consists of 7 recognized species. Among those, only C. violaceum, commonly found in the soil and water of tropical and subtropical regions, has been shown to cause human infection. Although human infection is rare, C. violaceum can cause life-threatening sepsis, with metastatic abscesses, most frequently infecting those who are young and healthy.
We recently identified a case of severe bacteremia caused by Chromobacterium haemolyticum infection in a healthy young patient following trauma and exposure to river water, in Japan. The patient developed necrotizing fasciitis that was successfully treated with a fasciotomy and intravenous ciprofloxacin and gentamicin.
C. haemolyticum should be considered in the differential diagnosis of skin lesions that progressively worsen after trauma involving exposure to river or lake water, even in temperate regions. Second, early blood cultures for the isolation and identification of the causative organism were important for initiating proper antimicrobial therapy.
Chromobacterium haemolyticum; Chromobacterium violaceum; Sepsis; Cellulitis; Necrotizing fasciitis
Anthrax had become extremely rare in Europe, but in 2010 an outbreak of anthrax among heroin users in Scotland increased awareness of contaminated heroin as a source of anthrax. We present the first two Danish cases of injectional anthrax and discuss the clinical presentations, which included both typical and more unusual manifestations.
The first patient, a 55-year old man with HIV and hepatitis C virus co-infection, presented with severe pain in the right thigh and lower abdomen after injecting heroin into the right groin. Computed tomography and ultrasonographic examination of the abdomen and right thigh showed oedematous thickened peritoneum, distended oedematous mesentery and subcutaneous oedema of the right thigh. At admission the patient was afebrile but within 24 hours he progressed to severe septic shock and abdominal compartment syndrome. Cultures of blood and intraperitoneal fluid grew Bacillus anthracis. The patient was treated with meropenem, clindamycin, ciprofloxacin and metronidazole. Despite maximum supportive care including mechanical ventilation, vasopressor treatment and continuous veno-venous hemodiafiltration the patient died on day four.
The second patient, a 39-year old man with chronic hepatitis C virus infection, presented with fever and a swollen right arm after injecting heroin into his right arm. The arm was swollen from the axilla to the wrist with tense and discoloured skin. He was initially septic with low blood pressure but responded to crystalloids. During the first week, swelling progressed and the patient developed massive generalised oedema with a weight gain of 40 kg. When blood cultures grew Bacillus anthracis antibiotic treatment was changed to meropenem, moxifloxacin and metronidazole, and on day 7 hydroxycloroquin was added. The patient responded to treatment and was discharged after 29 days.
These two heroin-associated anthrax cases from Denmark corroborate that heroin contaminated with anthrax spores may be a continuous source of injectional anthrax across Europe. Clinicians and clinical microbiologists need to stay vigilant and suspect anthrax in patients with a history of heroin use who present with soft tissue or generalised infection. Marked swelling of affected soft tissue or unusual intra-abdominal oedema should strengthen clinical suspicion.
Descending necrotizing mediastinitis (DNM), a severe infection with a high fatality rate, develops in mediastinal spaces due mainly to deep cervical abscesses. The majority of causative microbes of DNM are Streptococci and oral anaerobes. DNM associated with Lactobacillus-infection is rather rare.
A 69-year-old male with an unremarkable past medical history was referred to our hospital for surgical resection of advanced laryngeal cancer. Full examination revealed a neck abscess and DNM with a background of untreated diabetes mellitus. Initially, he was treated with meropenem. However, Lactobacillus plantarum was isolated from surgical drainage of a mediastinal abscess. Despite using antibiotics capable of eradicating all isolates with susceptibilities not differing significantly from those of the neck and mediastinal abscesses, we attributed DNM to the L. plantarum detected only in the mediastinal abscess. After DNM treatment, he underwent total pharyngolaryngectomy with bilateral neck dissection followed by reconstruction using free jejunum. He was discharged fully recovered.
We concluded that L. plantarum as the sole cause of the mediastinal abscess in the present case cannot be ruled out. As the number of immunocompromised patients increases, we should be cautious regarding this “familiar” microbe.
Descending necrotizing mediastinitis (DNM); Laryngeal cancer; Thoracoscopic surgery; Lactobacilli
Posterior reversible encephalopathy syndrome (PRES) is an uncommon pathology characterized by the acute onset of headache, vomiting, altered consciousness, seizures and focal neurological deficits. It was initially described in the setting of hypertension, uremia and immunosuppression. In the last decade there have been emerging reports of PRES in patients with advanced human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infection in the presence of hypertension, dialysis, hypercalcaemia and two opportunistic infections: blastomycosis and tuberculosis (TB).
Here we present the case of a 54 year old male being treated for disseminated varicella zoster virus (VZV) and vasculopathy in the setting of HIV infection who acutely deteriorated to the point of requiring intubation. His clinicoradiological diagnosis was of PRES and he subsequently improved within 72 h with supportive management. Serial neuroimaging correlated with the clinical findings. The pathogenesis of PRES is poorly understood but is thought to stem from vasogenic oedema either as a result of loss of endothelial integrity and transudate of fluid across the blood–brain barrier, or secondary to vasospasm resulting in tissue oedema in the absence of infarction. How HIV infection impacts on this model is unclear. It is possible the HIV infection causes endothelial dysfunction and disruption of the blood–brain barrier that may be further exacerbated by infections in the central nervous system.
The phenomenon of PRES in advanced HIV is an important clinical entity for both physicians and critical care doctors to recognize firstly given its potential mortality but also because of its favourable prognosis and reversibility with supportive care and treatment of underlying causes.
PRES; HIV; VZV; MRI; Encephalopathy; Vasculopathy
Reactivation of hepatitis B virus (HBV), characterized by increased levels of serum HBV DNA, abnormal liver function and hepatic failure, is a frequent complication of immunosuppressive therapy and chemotherapy in patients with HBV infection. However, reactivation of occult HBV infection with immunosuppressive therapy or chemotherapy is rare.
A 77-year-old man was diagnosed with nephrotic syndrome and IgM nephropathy with unclear pathogenesis. Liver function was normal, HBV-related serum markers were negative and HBV DNA titer was below the upper limits of normal. Two months following the start of prednisone therapy for his nephrotic syndrome, laboratory tests revealed a substantial increase in serum transaminase levels (ALT: 490 IU/L; AST: 149 IU/L) and an elevation of HBV DNA level (3.42×106 copies/ml). We tested stored kidney tissue for HBsAg and HBcAg using immunohistochemistry and found the sample to be HBcAg positive, allowing us to confirm the etiology of nephropathy as an occult HBV infection. The cause of the hepatitis was thought to be HBV reactivation, so we immediately administered lamivudine. One month after the initiation of daily lamivudine treatment, laboratory tests revealed that serum levels of transaminases had improved (ALT: 35 IU/L; AST: 17 IU/L). Patient examination one year later showed that HBeAg had decreased with a concomitant increase of HBeAb, the quantity of HBV DNA was undetectable, and liver function and renal function had stabilized.
This is the first report describing HBV reactivation in an occult HBV infection patient treated with oral prednisone for nephrotic syndrome. HBV-associated antigen should be regularly tested for in patients with unknown etiological glomerulonephritis in areas with high HBV viral popular and even in those with no clinical evidence for diagnosis of HBV.
Hepatitis B virus reactivation; IgM nephropathy; Occult HBV infection; Prednisone
Fournier’s gangrene is a rare necrotizing soft tissue infection of the scrotum and penis. We report, to our knowledge, the first case of Fournier’s gangrene caused by Streptococcus dysgalactiae subsp. equisimilis (SDSE), a strain of pyogenic β-hemolytic streptococci that is increasingly being recognized as an important human pathogen.
We describe a healthy 59 year-old Caucasian male who presented to the emergency department with Fournier’s gangrene of the penis and scrotum, with extension to the anterior abdominal wall. He underwent urgent surgical debridement of his scrotum, penis, and anterior abdomen. Swabs from the scrotum grew Gram-positive cocci, which were initially identified as Streptococcus anginosus group by matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization–time of flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS). However, polymerase chain reaction (PCR) amplification and sequencing of the 16S rRNA gene identified the isolate as Streptococcus dysgalatiae subspecies equisimilis (SDSE). The incidences of invasive S. anginosus group and SDSE infections at the London Health Sciences Centre, a tertiary-care institution in southwestern Ontario, were determined between August 1, 2011 and August 31, 2012, revealing a slightly lower rate of SDSE (3.2 cases per 100,000 population) than other studies.
This case highlights a unique disease manifestation of the emerging human pathogen Streptococcus dysgalatiae subspecies equisimilis that has not been previously reported. This case also underscores the limitations of MALDI-TOF MS in differentiating between closely-related streptococcal species which may have different pathogenic profiles.
Streptococcus dysgalactiae subsp. equisimilis; Fournier’s gangrene; MALDI-TOF MS; Species identification
Mayaro virus is endemic in South America and sporadic outbreaks have been described. It causes a dengue-like febrile illness accompanied by severe and long-lasting polyarthralgias. Outside endemic regions, however, the disease is not well known and can be misdiagnosed as dengue. International travellers are at risk to acquire Mayaro virus and due to increased worldwide travel infectious disease specialists need to be aware of such rare clinical entities.
We report the first Mayaro virus infection imported into Germany. A 20-year-old woman developed fever, myalgia, maculopapular rash, and polyarthralgias following a 10-day trip in the Rurrenabaque region of Bolivia. Severe polyarthralgias persisted for 5 months and were treated with non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs. Serological analysis demonstrated Mayaro virus-specific-IgM and -IgG antibodies two months after onset of symptoms. Except for CXCL8/IL-8 other proinflammatory chemokines and cytokines were unremarkable at this time.
Dissemination of knowledge on rare disease might improve patient management. Understanding the inherent features of Mayaro virus infection and how the virus interacts with its host are essential for optimal patient care and therapy.
Mayaro virus; Alphavirus; Persistent arthralgia; Inflammatory cytokines
Syphilis has been referred to as “the great imitator” due to its ability to imitate other diseases. Untreated syphilis becomes a systemic infection that can involve almost every organ systems. Treponema pallidum has a high affinity for bone tissue, but osteitis has mainly been described in late stages of the disease. Vertebral involvement is rare, and this is to our knowledge the first case describing syphilitic spondylitis in early acquired syphilis.
We here describe destructive osteitis in the vertebral column as the initial manifestation of early acquired syphilis in a 24-year-old caucasian homosexual male with HIV infection. The diagnosis was reached by universal bacterial PCR and DNA sequencing of the DNA product. It was confirmed by PCR specific for Treponema pallidum, immunohistochemistry and detection of increasing antibody titer.
As syphilis has re-emerged in Western countries and remains a worldwide common disease it is important to have in mind as a causative agent of skeletal symptoms, especially among HIV-infected individuals or men who have sex with men (MSM).
Syphilis; Osteitis; Treponema pallidum; HIV; PCR
Human cytomegalovirus infections are still significant causes of morbidity and mortality in transplant recipients. The use of antiviral agents is limited by toxicity and evolving resistance in immunocompromised patients with ongoing viral replication during therapy. Here, we present the first documented case of genotypic resistance against maribavir in a bone marrow transplant (BMT) recipient.
The female 13-year-old patient was suffering from a refractory cytopenia. Ganciclovir, foscarnet, cidofovir, leflunomide and maribavir, an inhibitor of the cytomegalovirus UL97 protein, were administered to treat a therapy-resistant cytomegalovirus infection. Viral mutations conferring resistance against nucleotide and pyrophosphate analogs as well as maribavir (MBV) have evolved sequentially. Particularly, impressive was the fast emergence of multiple mutations T409M, H411Y and H411N conferring maribavir resistance after less than 6 weeks.
We describe the fast emergence of cytomegalovirus variants with different maribavir resistance associated mutations in a bone marrow transplant recipient treated with MBV 400 mg p.o. twice per day. The results suggest that a high virus load permitted a selection of several but distinct therapy-resistant HCMV mutants. Since a phase II study with MBV is intended for the treatment of resistant or refractory HCMV infections in transplant recipients this has to be kept in mind in patients with high viral loads during therapy (NCT01611974).
Antiviral resistance; Cytomegalovirus; Maribavir; Ganciclovir; Foscarnet; Bone marrow transplantation
Mycobacterium abscessus is a rapidly growing Mycobacterium that is a common water contaminant in the environment. We report a case of M. abscessus infection with band erosion following laparoscopic gastric banding.
A 34-year-old woman developed insidiously progressing abdominal distension over a period of 1 year associated with abdominal pain, fatigue, night sweating and anorexia 4 years after laparoscopic gastric banding for obesity. Investigation revealed significant ascites with caseating granuloma in peritoneal biopsies from which M. abscessus was isolated. Band erosion with infection and multiple abdominal adhesions were confirmed during laparoscopic removal of the gastric band. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first reported case of M. abscessus infection after laparoscopic gastric banding surgery. We discuss the possible sources of infection, its indolent presentation, and therapeutic challenges.
It is important to consider environmentally acquired infection in patients with signs and symptoms of infection in the presence of surgical prosthesis.
Laparoscopic gastric banding; Mycobacterium; Peritonitis
Clostridium difficile is the major cause of nosocomial antibiotic-associated diarrhoea with the potential risk of progressing to severe clinical outcomes including death. It is not unusual for Clostridium difficile infection to progress to complications of toxic megacolon, bowel perforation and even Gram-negative sepsis following pathological changes in the intestinal mucosa. These complications are however less commonly seen in community-acquired Clostridium difficile infection than in hospital-acquired Clostridium difficile infection. To the best of our knowledge, this was the first case of community-acquired Clostridium difficile infection of its type seen in Jamaica.
We report a case of a 22-year-old female university student who was admitted to the University Hospital of the West Indies, Jamaica with a presumptive diagnosis of pseudomembranous colitis PMC. She presented with a 5-day history of diarrhoea following clindamycin treatment for coverage of a tooth extraction due to a dental abscess. Her clinical condition deteriorated and progressed from diarrhoea to toxic megacolon, bowel perforation and Gram-negative sepsis. Clostridium difficile NAP12/ribotype 087 was isolated from her stool while blood cultures grew Klebsiella pneumoniae. Despite initial treatment intervention with empiric therapy of metronidazole and antibiotic clearance of Klebsiella pneumoniae from the blood, the patient died within 10 days of hospital admission.
We believe that clindamycin used for coverage of a dental abscess was an independent risk factor that initiated the disruption of the bowel micro-flora, resulting in overgrowth of Clostridium difficile NAP12/ribotype 087. This uncommon strain, which is the same ribotype (087) as ATCC 43255, was apparently responsible for the increased severity of the infection and death following toxic megacolon, bowel perforation and pseudomembranous colitis involving the entire large bowel. K. pneumoniae sepsis, resolved by antibiotic therapy was secondary to Clostridium difficile infection. The case registers community-acquired Clostridium difficile infection as producing serious complications similar to hospital-acquired Clostridium difficile infection and should be treated with the requisite importance.
Clostridium difficile; Klebsiella pneumoniae; Community-Acquired Infection; Diarrhoea; Clindamycin; Pseudomembranous Colitis; Toxic Megacolon
Acute myopericarditis and exertional rhabdomyolysis, two uncommon but well-described diseases with potentially life-threatening effects, are generally considered as independent clinical entities. However, they may in fact be pathophysiologically related under certain circumstances. This is the first ever report of influenza myopericarditis provoked by exertional rhabdomyolysis to the best of our knowledge.
A 25-year-old immunocompetent Chinese man presented with bilateral leg pain, dizziness, and shortness of breath on admission soon after completing vigorous training comprising running drills. Exertional rhabdomyolysis was diagnosed with 44 fold high serum creatine phosphokinase. Then he developed chest pain, pericardial effusion, changes of electrocardiography and positive troponin I suggestive of myopericarditis. Influenza A (H3N2) virus infection was confirmed by polymerase chain reaction analysis of nasopharyngeal wash samples. Other possible infective and autoimmune causes were excluded. Patient recovered completely with anti-inflammatory therapy and the supportive care.
This case suggests that clinicians who treat patients with exertional rhabdomyolysis should be aware of the potential vulnerability to acute myopericarditis, especially in the presence of recent influenza A infection.
Myopericarditis; Exertional rhabdomyolysis; Influenza A; Inflammation
Chronic osteomyelitis due to direct bone trauma or vascular insufficiency is a frequent problem in orthopaedic surgery. In contrast, acute haematogenous osteomyelitis represents a rare entity that almost exclusively affects prepubescent children or immunodeficient adults.
In this article, we report the case of acute pneumococcal osteomyelitis of the humerus in an immunocompetent and otherwise healthy 44-year-old male patient presenting with minor inflammation signs and misleading clinical features.
The diagnosis had to be confirmed by open biopsy which allowed the initiation of a targeted therapy. A case of pneumococcal osteomyelitis of a long bone, lacking predisposing factors or trauma, is unique in adults and has not been reported previously.
Acute osteomyelitis; Haematogenous; S. pneumoniae; Long bones; Immunodeficiency; Osteomyelitis of the humerus
About ninety percent of immunocompetent adults recover from hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection within 6 months after transmission. The infection is considered to be terminated if the antibodies (HBsAb) to the hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) become detectable and the HBsAg and Hepatitis B virus DNA (HBV DNA,) are no longer perceptible. After recovery from an acute infection, the detection of HBsAb is assumed to indicate lifelong immunity. However, after initiation of severe immunosuppression, HBV reactivation, as detected by HBsAg seroreversion may be observed in patients with previously resolved HBV infections.
We present an unusual case of a 64-year-old Caucasian woman showing clinically apparent HBV seroreversion more than 45 months after hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT). Despite living without immunosuppressive agents for more than 40 months, she developed a fulminant HBV infection with detection of a mutated hepatitis B virus carrying two immune escape mutations (D144E/G145R) in the HBsAg (HBsIE mutation).
After HSCT, the absence of risk factors such as strong immunosuppression and graft-versus-host disease decreases the risk of HBV seroreversion but may rearward seroreversion to a later time. Therefore, when monitoring HSCT, patients with serological markers of a resolved HBV infection [HBcAb + (hepatitis B core antibody), HBsAb+, and HBsAg−], the follow up has to be extended over several years to exclude HBV reactivation with HBsAg seroreversion. Furthermore, this case demonstrates the complexity of virus evolution after HBsAg seroreversion as a result of immunosuppression after HSCT.
Hepatitis B virus; Seroreversion; Reactivation; Immune escape mutation; HSCT; Immunosuppression
In 1872, in British Medical Journal (BMJ) Dr. David Ferrier published that Sarcina ventriculi (Goodsir) constantly occurred in the blood of man and the lower animals. His observation was based on bleeding experiments, incubation of blood at 100oF (37.8oC) and later examination. He found “immense numbers of beautifully formed sarcinæ”. In the next issue of BMJ Dr. Charlton Bastian expressed concerns that Sarcina might indeed be “really a living thing” or “might be partly organic and partly mineral in its constitutions”.
Anaerobic gram-positive giant coccae assembled in tetrads were recovered from one anaerobic blood culture bottle of a 48-year-old female who in her early childhood was diagnosed with congenital chloride diarrhoea. This is a rare recessively inherited disease that belongs to the Finnish disease heritage. The bacteria were identified with the 16S rRNA gene sequencing.
Here, after more than a century we present the first report that Sarcina ventriculi can indeed cause bacteremia in a susceptible person.
Sarcina ventriculi; Bacteremia; Blood stream infection
In recent years, Nocardia farcinica has been reported to be an increasingly frequent cause of localized and disseminated infections in the immunocompromised patient. However, recent literature is limited. We report a case of left thigh phlegmon caused by N. farcinica that occurred in a patient with Leprosy undergoing treatment with prednisone for leprosy reaction.
We describe the case of left thigh phlegmon caused by Nocardia farcinica in a 54-year-old Italian man affected by multi-bacillary leprosy. The patient had worked in South America for 11 years. Seven months after his return to Italy, he was diagnosed with Leprosy and started multi-drug antibiotic therapy plus thalidomide and steroids. Then, during therapy with rifampicin monthly, minocycline 100 mg daily, moxifloxacin 400 mg daily, and prednisone (the latter to treat type 2 leprosy reaction), the patient complained of high fever associated with erythema, swelling, and pain in the left thigh. Therefore, he was admitted to our hospital with the clinical suspicion of cellulitis. Ultrasound examination and Magnetic Resonance Imaging showed left thigh phlegmon. He was treated with drainage and antibiotic therapy (meropenem and vancomycin replaced by daptomycin). The responsible organism, Nocardia farcinica, was identified by 16S rRNA sequencing in the purulent fluid taken out by aspiration. The patient continued treatment with intravenous trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole and imipenem followed by oral trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole and moxifloxacin. A whole-body computed tomography did not reveal dissemination to other organs like the lung or brain.
The patient was discharged after complete remission. Oral therapy with trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole, moxifloxacin, rifampicin monthly, clofazimine and thalidomide was prescribed to be taken at home. One month after discharge from the hospital the patient is in good clinical condition with complete resolution of the phlegmon.
N. farcinica is a rare infectious agent that mainly affects immunocompromised patients. Presentation of phlegmon only without disseminated infection is unusual, even in these kinds of patients. In any case, a higher index of suspicion is needed, as diagnosis can easily be missed due to the absence of characteristic symptoms and the several difficulties usually encountered in identifying the pathogen.
Nocardia; Hansen’s disease; Phlegmon
Poststreptococcal syndrome (PSS) can be a consequence of nonpurulent primary infection with group A streptococci (GAS). Postreptococcal uveitis is a well recognized entity with quite a few descriptions in the literature, but so far no conjunctival involvement has been reported.
The aim of the study is to present a rare case of postreptococcal conjunctival lesions mimicking a lymphoma.
19-years-old Caucasian female presented with pink, nodular infiltrates in the right conjunctiva that occurred a few months after upper respiratory tract infection and tonsillectomy. Histopathological examination of collected lesion samples revealed inflammatory reaction with lymphocytes proliferation and failed to rule out a myeloma. Complementary flow-cytometry did not show monoclonal proliferation of lymphocytes B. During follow-up we observed the complete regression of conjunctival lesions after the benzyl penicillin treatment prescribed by ENT specialist due to elevated plasma ASO levels. Therefore, we suppose that those lesions must have represented a part of poststreptococcal syndrome.
To conclude, this is, to the best of our knowledge, the first report of conjunctival involvement in the course of PSS related to group A streptococci.
Postreptococcal syndrome; Anti-streptolysine 0; Conjunctival lymphoma