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1.  Significantly reduced CCR5-tropic HIV-1 replication in vitro in cells from subjects previously immunized with Vaccinia Virus 
BMC Immunology  2010;11:23.
At present, the relatively sudden appearance and explosive spread of HIV throughout Africa and around the world beginning in the 1950s has never been adequately explained. Theorizing that this phenomenon may be somehow related to the eradication of smallpox followed by the cessation of vaccinia immunization, we undertook a comparison of HIV-1 susceptibility in the peripheral blood mononuclear cells from subjects immunized with the vaccinia virus to those from vaccinia naive donors.
Vaccinia immunization in the preceding 3-6 months resulted in an up to 5-fold reduction in CCR5-tropic but not in CXCR4-tropic HIV-1 replication in the cells from vaccinated subjects. The addition of autologous serum to the cell cultures resulted in enhanced R5 HIV-1 replication in the cells from unvaccinated, but not vaccinated subjects. There were no significant differences in the concentrations of MIP-1α, MIP-1β and RANTES between the cell cultures derived from vaccinated and unvaccinated subjects when measured in culture medium on days 2 and 5 following R5 HIV-1 challenge.
Since primary HIV-1 infections are caused almost exclusively by the CCR5-tropic HIV-1 strains, our results suggest that prior immunization with vaccinia virus might provide an individual with some degree of protection to subsequent HIV infection and/or progression. The duration of such protection remains to be determined. A differential elaboration of MIP-1α, MIP-1β and RANTES between vaccinated and unvaccinated subjects, following infection, does not appear to be a mechanism in the noted protection.
PMCID: PMC2881106  PMID: 20482754
2.  Long-term changes of serum chemokine levels in vaccinated military personnel 
BMC Immunology  2006;7:21.
Members of the United States Armed Forces receive a series of vaccinations during their course of service. To investigate the influence of multiple vaccinations on innate immunity, we measured concentrations of a panel of immunomodulatory and pro-inflammatory cytokines in serum samples from a group of such individuals.
Significantly increased levels of macrophage inflammatory protein 1α (MIP-1α), MIP-1β and interleukin 8 (IL-8) were detected. Since these cytokines are known to have anti-human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) activity, we tested the effect of serum from these individuals on HIV-1 infectivity and susceptibility of their peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) to HIV-1 infection in vitro. Sera from vaccinated military personnel inhibited, and their PBMCs were partially resistant to, infection by HIV-1 strains tropic to CCR5 (R5), but not to CXCR4 (X4), chemokine receptor.
These findings demonstrate that increased anti-HIV chemokines can be detected in vaccine recipients up to 68 weeks following immunization.
PMCID: PMC1578581  PMID: 16965634

Results 1-2 (2)