PMCC PMCC

Search tips
Search criteria

Advanced
Results 1-25 (146)
 

Clipboard (0)
None
Journals
Year of Publication
1.  Down-regulation of HSP70 sensitizes gastric epithelial cells to apoptosis and growth retardation triggered by H. pylori 
BMC Gastroenterology  2011;11:146.
Background
H. pylori infection significantly attenuated the expression of HSP70 in gastric mucosal cells. However, the role of HSP70 cancellation in H. pylori-associated cell damages is largely unclear.
Methods
Small interfering RNA (siRNA) was used to down-regulate HSP70 in gastric epithelial cell lines AGS. The transfected cells were then incubated with H. pylori and the functions of HSP70 suppression were observed by viability assay, cell cycle analyses and TUNEL assay. HSP70 target apoptotic proteins were further identified by Western blot.
Results
The inhibition of HSP70 has further increased the effect of growth arrest and apoptosis activation triggered by H. pylori in gastric epithelial cells. The anti-proliferation function of HSP70 depletion was at least by up-regulating p21 and cell cycle modulation with S-phase accumulation. An increase of apoptosis-inducing factor (AIF) and cytosolic cytochrome C contributes to the activation of apoptosis following down-regulation of intracellular HSP70. Extracellular HSP70 increased cellular resistance to apoptosis by suppression the release of AIF and cytochrome c from mitochondria, as well as inhibition of p21 expression.
Conclusions
The inhibition of HSP70 aggravated gastric cellular damages induced by H. pylori. Induction of HSP70 could be a potential therapeutic target for protection gastric mucosa from H. pylori-associated injury.
doi:10.1186/1471-230X-11-146
PMCID: PMC3264526  PMID: 22208848
2.  Gastric transit and small intestinal transit time and motility assessed by a magnet tracking system 
BMC Gastroenterology  2011;11:145.
Background
Tracking an ingested magnet by the Magnet Tracking System MTS-1 (Motilis, Lausanne, Switzerland) is an easy and minimally-invasive method to assess gastrointestinal transit. The aim was to test the validity of MTS-1 for assessment of gastric transit time and small intestinal transit time, and to illustrate transit patterns detected by the system.
Methods
A small magnet was ingested and tracked by an external matrix of 16 magnetic field sensors (4 × 4) giving a position defined by 5 coordinates (position: x, y, z, and angle: θ, ϕ). Eight healthy subjects were each investigated three times: (1) with a small magnet mounted on a capsule endoscope (PillCam); (2) with the magnet alone and the small intestine in the fasting state; and (3) with the magnet alone and the small intestine in the postprandial state.
Results
Experiment (1) showed good agreement and no systematic differences between MTS-1 and capsule endoscopy when assessing gastric transit (median difference 1 min; range: 0-6 min) and small intestinal transit time (median difference 0.5 min; range: 0-52 min). Comparing experiments (1) and (2) there were no systematic differences in gastric transit or small intestinal transit when using the magnet-PillCam unit and the much smaller magnetic pill. In experiments (2) and (3), short bursts of very fast movements lasting less than 5% of the time accounted for more than half the distance covered during the first two hours in the small intestine, irrespective of whether the small intestine was in the fasting or postprandial state. The mean contraction frequency in the small intestine was significantly lower in the fasting state than in the postprandial state (9.90 min-1 vs. 10.53 min-1) (p = 0.03).
Conclusion
MTS-1 is reliable for determination of gastric transit and small intestinal transit time. It is possible to distinguish between the mean contraction frequency of small intestine in the fasting state and in the postprandial state.
doi:10.1186/1471-230X-11-145
PMCID: PMC3295650  PMID: 22206545
3.  Comparison of percutaneous radiofrequency thermal ablation and surgical resection for small hepatocellular carcinoma 
BMC Gastroenterology  2011;11:143.
Background
The purpose of this investigation was to compare the outcome of percutaneous radiofrequency thermal ablation therapy (PRFA) with surgical resection (SR) in the treatment of single and small hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC).
Methods
We conducted a retrospective cohort study on 231 treatment naive patients with a single HCC ≤ 3 cm who had received either curative PRFA (162 patients) or curative SR (69 patients). All patients were regularly followed up after treatment at our department with blood and radiologic tests.
Results
The 1-, 3- and 5-year overall survival rates after PRFA and SR were 95.4%, 79.6% and 63.1%, respectively in the PRFA group and 100%, 81.4% and 74.6%, respectively in the SR group. The corresponding recurrence free survival rates at 1, 3 and 5 years after PRFA and SR were 82.0%, 38.3% and 18.0%, respectively in the PRFA group and 86.0%, 47.2% and 26.0%, respectively in the SR group. In terms of overall survival and recurrence free survival, there were no significant differences between these two groups. In comparison of PRFA group patients with liver cirrhosis (LC) (n = 127) and SR group patients with LC (n = 50) and in comparison of PRFA group patients without LC (n = 35) and SR group patients without LC (n = 19), there were also no significant differences between two groups in terms of overall survival and recurrence free survival. In the multivariate analysis of the risk factors contributing to overall survival, serum albumin level was the sole significant factor. In the multivariate analysis of the risk factors contributing to recurrence free survival, presence of LC was the sole significant factor. The rate of serious adverse events in the SR group was significantly higher than that in the PRFA group (P = 0.023). Hospitalization length in the SR group was significantly longer than in the PRFA group (P = 0.013).
Conclusions
PRFA is as effective as SR in the treatment of single and small HCC, and is less invasive than SR. Therefore, PRFA could be a first choice for the treatment of single and small HCC.
doi:10.1186/1471-230X-11-143
PMCID: PMC3260104  PMID: 22204311
PRFA; surgical resection; HCC; survival; recurrence
4.  In vivo and ex vivo effects of propofol on myocardial performance in rats with obstructive jaundice 
BMC Gastroenterology  2011;11:144.
Background
Responsiveness of the "jaundiced heart" to propofol is not completely understood. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of propofol on myocardial performance in rats with obstructive jaundice.
Methods
Male Sprague-Dawley rats (n = 40) were randomly allocated into two groups, twenty underwent bile duct ligation (BDL), and 20 underwent a sham operation. Seven days after the surgery, propofol was administered in vivo and ex vivo (Langendorff preparations). Heart rate, left ventricular end-systolic pressure (LVESP) left ventricular end-diastolic pressure (LVEDP), and maximal rate for left ventricular pressure rise and decline (± dP/dtmax ) were measured to determine the influence of propofol on the cardiac function of rats.
Results
Impaired basal cardiac function was observed in the isolated BDL hearts, whereas in vivo indices of basal cardiac function (LVESP and ± dP/dt) in vivo were significantly higher in rats that underwent BDL compared with controls. With low or intermediate concentrations of propofol, these indices of cardiac function were within the normal physiologic range in both groups, and responsiveness to propofol was unaffected by BDL. When the highest concentration of propofol was administrated, a significant decline in cardiac function was observed in the BDL group.
Conclusions
In rats that underwent BDL, basal cardiac performance was better in vivo and worse ex vivo compared with controls. Low and intermediate concentrations of propofol did not appear to impair cardiac function in rats with obstructive jaundice.
doi:10.1186/1471-230X-11-144
PMCID: PMC3276443  PMID: 22204383
5.  Arsenic, vinyl chloride, viral hepatitis, and hepatic angiosarcoma: A hospital-based study and review of literature in Taiwan 
BMC Gastroenterology  2011;11:142.
Background
Hepatic angiosarcoma (HAS) is a rare type of liver cancer that is often fatal, and arsenic and vinyl chloride monomer (VCM) are two major causal agents. Whereas Taiwan is an endemic area of liver cancer, epidemiologic data on HAS are limited. We reviewed the cases observed at a teaching hospital to evaluate the roles of VCM, arsenic, and viral hepatitis in the occurrence of HAS.
Methods
We reviewed the medical records of patients with pathological proof of HAS from January 2000 to August 2010 at a teaching hospital which is adjacent to the major VCM processing area in Taiwan and nearby an endemic area of arsenic exposure from drinking water. We also conducted a literature review and included all patients of HAS reported in Taiwan.
Results
Six male and three female cases aged from 56 to 83 years (64.6 ± 8.2 years) were identified at the hospital. The differences in clinical features between men and women were not statistically significant. None of them had exposure to VCM or arsenic in drinking water. Two had evidence of hepatitis C infection, but none had evidence of hepatitis B infection. Five male and four female cases aged 30 to 82 years (58.6 ± 15.5 years) were identified in the literature, including two with arsenic exposure and one with chronic hepatitis B infection.
Conclusions
HAS is rare in Taiwan, and we found no evidence supporting a major role of VCM, arsenic in drinking water, or viral hepatitis in its occurrence.
doi:10.1186/1471-230X-11-142
PMCID: PMC3280174  PMID: 22200164
hepatic angiosracoma; vinyl chloride; arsenic; viral hepatitis
6.  Association between Helicobacter pylori cagA-related genes and clinical outcomes in Colombia and Japan 
BMC Gastroenterology  2011;11:141.
Background
Specific genotypes of several virulence factors of Helicobacter pylori (eg, cagA-positive, vacA s1, oipA "on" and babA-positive) have been reported to be predictors of severe clinical outcomes. Importantly, the presence of these genotypes correlates with each other. We hypothesized that novel virulence genes correlate with the presence of cagA. Therefore, we aimed to find novel candidate virulence genes that correlate with cagA and examined the association of these genes with clinical outcomes in Colombian and Japanese populations.
Methods
cagA-associated genes were selected based on previous H. pylori genome microarray data. A total of 343 strains (174 from Colombia and 169 from Japan) were examined for the status of cagA, vacA, and candidate genes by polymerase chain reaction and dot blot.
Results
Microarray data showed that 9 genes were significantly correlated with the presence of cagA. Among the 9 genes, the functions of 4 were known, and we selected these 4 genes as candidate genes (hp0967, jhp0045, jhp0046, and jhp0951). The prevalences of cagA, vacA s1/m1 genotype, and hp0967 were significantly higher in Japan than Colombia, whereas those of jhp0045 and jhp0046 were more prevalent in Colombia than Japan. The prevalences of jhp0045 and jhp0046 in cagA-positive cases of gastric cancer were significantly higher than those from gastritis in Colombia (P = 0.015 and 0.047, respectively). In contrast, the prevalence of 4 candidate genes was independent of clinical outcomes in Japan.
Conclusions
jhp0045 and jhp0046 might be novel markers for predicting gastric cancer in cagA-positive cases in Colombia, but not in Japan.
doi:10.1186/1471-230X-11-141
PMCID: PMC3260095  PMID: 22189161
7.  Cerebral air embolism as a complication of peptic ulcer in the gastric tube: case report 
BMC Gastroenterology  2011;11:139.
Background
The reported incidence of ulcer formation in the gastric tube in esophageal replacement is rare.
Case Presentation
This is the first report of a case of cerebral air embolism as a result of spontaneous perforation of an ulcer in the constructed gastric tube into the pulmonary vein during post-operative follow-up in a patient with esophageal cancer.
Conclusions
Cerebral air embolism is a rare complication of penetrating gastric ulcer, but should be considered in patients with a history of esophagectomy with gastric conduit that present with acute neurologic findings.
doi:10.1186/1471-230X-11-139
PMCID: PMC3258223  PMID: 22189053
8.  Postprandial fullness correlates with rapid inflow of gastric content into duodenum but not with chronic gastritis 
BMC Gastroenterology  2011;11:140.
Background
The aim of this study is evaluating the correlation of postprandial fullness with chronic gastritis or rapid inflow of gastric content into duodenum, based on double-contrast barium X-ray imaging.
Methods
253 healthy subjects who underwent upper gastrointestinal barium X-ray examination were analyzed. Chronic gastritis was judged from mucosal atrophy and hypertrophic thickened folds on barium X-ray images. For the gastric excretion, the tips of barium flow on the single-contrast frontal barium X-ray images of the stomach were classified into four categories; V type (all the barium remained in the stomach), V-H type (some barium had flowed into the duodenum but the tip of barium remained in the proximal half of the duodenal bulb), H-V type (some barium had flowed into the duodenum and the tip of barium was in the distal half of duodenal the bulb, but no barium was observed in the descending part of the duodenum), and H type (some barium had flowed into the descending part of the duodenum). The chi-square test and Cochran-Mantel-Haenzel test were used for evaluation.
Results
Chronic gastritis was observed in 72 subjects, among which 21 subjects (29.2%) presented with postprandial fullness. For the remaining 181 subjects without chronic gastritis, 53 subjects (29.3%) complained of postprandial fullness. There is no significant correlation between chronic gastritis and postprandial fullness (p = 0.973). For the rapid flow of gastric content into duodenum, all the 253 subjects comprised 136 subjects with V type (in the stomach), 40 subjects with V-H type (in the proximal half of the duodenal bulb), 21 subjects with H-V type (in the distal half of the duodenal bulb), and 56 subjects with H type (in the descending part of the duodenum). Postprandial fullness was present in 30 subjects with V type (22.1%), 9 subjects with V-H type (22.5%), 8 subjects with H-V type (38.1%), and 27 subjects with H type (48.2%). There is a distinct correlation between postprandial fullness and gastric barium excretion on barium X-ray imaging (p = 0.002).
Conclusions
Bothersome postprandial fullness correlates with rapid inflow of gastric content into duodenum, but not with chronic gastritis.
doi:10.1186/1471-230X-11-140
PMCID: PMC3293739  PMID: 22189089
9.  A randomised controlled trial on hypnotherapy for irritable bowel syndrome: design and methodological challenges (the IMAGINE study) 
BMC Gastroenterology  2011;11:137.
Background
Irritable Bowel Syndrome (IBS) is a common gastro-intestinal disorder in primary and secondary care, characterised by abdominal pain, discomfort, altered bowel habits and/or symptoms of bloating and distension. In general the efficacy of drug therapies is poor. Hypnotherapy as well as Cognitive Behaviour Therapy and short Psychodynamic Therapy appear to be useful options for patients with refractory IBS in secondary care and are cost-effective, but the evidence is still limited. The IMAGINE-study is therefore designed to assess the overall benefit of hypnotherapy in IBS as well as comparing the efficacy of individual versus group hypnotherapy in treating this condition.
Methods/Design
The design is a randomised placebo-controlled trial. The study group consists of 354 primary care and secondary care patients (aged 18-65) with IBS (Rome-III criteria). Patients will be randomly allocated to either 6 sessions of individual hypnotherapy, 6 sessions of group hypnotherapy or 6 sessions of educational supportive therapy in a group (placebo), with a follow up of 9 months post treatment for all patients. Ten hospitals and four primary care psychological practices in different parts of The Netherlands will collaborate in this study. The primary efficacy parameter is the responder rate for adequate relief of IBS symptoms. Secondary efficacy parameters are changes in the IBS symptom severity, quality of life, cognitions, psychological complaints, self-efficacy as well as direct and indirect costs of the condition. Hypnotherapy is expected to be more effective than the control therapy, and group hypnotherapy is expected not to be inferior to individual hypnotherapy.
Discussion
If hypnotherapy is effective and if there is no difference in efficacy between individual and group hypnotherapy, this group form of treatment could be offered to more IBS patients, at lower costs.
Trial registration number
ISRCTN: ISRCTN22888906
doi:10.1186/1471-230X-11-137
PMCID: PMC3285532  PMID: 22185606
10.  Transcript levels of Toll-Like receptors 5, 8 and 9 correlate with inflammatory activity in Ulcerative Colitis 
BMC Gastroenterology  2011;11:138.
Background
Dysregulation of innate immune response by Toll-Like Receptors (TLRs) is a key feature in Ulcerative Colitis (UC). Most studies have focused on TLR2, TLR3, and TLR4 participation in UC. However, few studies have explored other TLRs. Therefore, the aim of this study was to evaluate the mRNA profiles of TLR1 to 9 in colonic mucosa of UC patients, according to disease activity.
Methods
Colonic biopsies were taken from colon during colonoscopy in 51 patients with Ulcerative Colitis and 36 healthy controls. mRNA levels of TLR1 to 9, Tollip, inflammatory cytokines IL6 and TNF were assessed by RT-qPCR with hydrolysis probes. Characterization of TLR9 protein expression was performed by Immunohistochemistry.
Results
Toll-like receptors TLR8, TLR9, and IL6 mRNA levels were significantly higher in the colonic mucosa from UC patients (both quiescent and active) as compared to healthy individuals (p < 0.04). In the UC patients group the TLR2, TLR4, TLR8 and TLR9 mRNA levels were found to be significantly lower in patients with quiescent disease, as compared to those with active disease (p < 0.05), whereas TLR5 showed a trend (p = 0.06). IL6 and TNF mRNA levels were significantly higher in the presence of active disease and help to discriminate between quiescent and active disease (p < 0.05). Also, IL6 and TNF mRNA positively correlate with TLRs mRNA with the exception for TLR3, with stronger correlations for TLR5, TLR8, and TLR9 (p < 0.0001). TLR9 protein expression was mainly in the lamina propria infiltrate.
Conclusions
This study demonstrates that TLR2, TLR4, TLR8, and TLR9 expression increases in active UC patients, and that the mRNA levels positively correlate with the severity of intestinal inflammation as well as with inflammatory cytokines.
doi:10.1186/1471-230X-11-138
PMCID: PMC3287145  PMID: 22185629
11.  Clinical benefit of gluten-free diet in screen-detected older celiac disease patients 
BMC Gastroenterology  2011;11:136.
Background
The utility of serologic screening for celiac disease is still debatable. Evidence suggests that the disorder remains undetected even in the older population. It remains obscure whether screening makes good or harm in subjects with long-standing gluten ingestion. We evaluated whether older subjects benefit from active detection and subsequent gluten free dietary treatment of celiac disease.
Methods
Thirty-five biopsy-proven patients aged over 50 years had been detected by serologic mass screening. We examined the disease history, dietary compliance, symptoms, quality of life and bone mineral density at baseline and 1-2 years after the commencement of a gluten-free diet. Symptoms were evaluated by gastrointestinal symptom rating scale and quality of life by psychological general well-being questionnaires. Small bowel biopsy, serology, laboratory parameters assessing malabsorption, and bone mineral density were investigated.
Results
Dietary compliance was good. The patients had initially low mean serum ferritin values indicating subclinical iron deficiency, which was restored by a gluten-free diet. Vitamin B12, vitamin D and erythrocyte folic acid levels increased significantly on diet. Celiac patients had a history of low-energy fractures more often than the background population, and the diet had a beneficial effect on bone mineral density. Alleviation in gastrointestinal symptoms was observed, even though the patients reported no or only subtle symptoms at diagnosis. Quality of life remained unchanged. Of all the cases, two thirds would have been diagnosed even without screening if the family history, fractures or concomitant autoimmune diseases had been taken carefully into account.
Conclusions
Screen-detected patients benefited from a gluten-free diet. We encourage a high index of suspicion and active case-finding in celiac disease as an alternative to mass screening in older patients.
doi:10.1186/1471-230X-11-136
PMCID: PMC3377922  PMID: 22176557
12.  Application of magnifying narrow-band imaging endoscopy for diagnosis of early gastric cancer and precancerous lesion 
BMC Gastroenterology  2011;11:135.
Background
Gastric carcinoma is the second commonest cause of cancer deaths worldwide. Early detection and diagnosis of gastric cancer in the stomach is important for improving the prognosis of gastric cancer. This retrospective study was designed to investigate the value of magnifying narrow-band imaging (NBI) in the diagnosis of precancerous lesions and early gastric cancer.
Methods
This study included 122 patients who were diagnosed with early gastric cancer or precancerous gastric lesions by endoscopy. The patients underwent an examination with conventional endoscopy, magnifying NBI, and magnifying chromoendoscopy. Images resolution was evaluated, and the morphology, pit patterns and blood capillary forms of lesions were analyzed. The presence of gastric carcinoma and high grade intraepithelial neoplasia in the biopsy samples was considered as a positive pathological result, which is used to assess accuracy of endoscopic diagnosis.
Results
For image resolution, magnifying NBI and magnifying chromoendoscopy were significantly superior to magnifying conventional endoscopy in morphology, pit pattern and blood capillary form (P < 0.01), and magnifying NBI was significantly superior to magnifying chromoendoscopy in blood capillary form (P < 0.01). IV, V1, and VI type of gastric pit pattern were detected in 14 cases, 43 cases, and 17 cases in patients with high grade intraepithelial neoplasia, respectively. V1 and VI type of gastric pit pattern were detected in 9 cases and 39 cases in patients with early gastric cancer, respectively. The presence of irregular minute vessels and variation in the caliber of vessels was found in 109 cases. The accuracy, sensitivity, specificity, false positive rate and false negative rate for diagnosis of early gastric cancer and precancerous gastric lesions were 68.9%, 95.1%, 63.1%, 24.5%, and 32.4% for conventional endoscopy, 93.6%, 92.7%, 94.5%, 5.7%, and 6.9% for magnifying NBI, and 91.3%, 88.6%, 93.2%, 13.2%, and 21.48% for magnifying chromoendoscopy, respectively.
Conclusions
This study demonstrates that magnifying NBI is superior to conventional endoscopy in the diagnosis of early gastric cancer and precancerous gastric lesions, and can be used for screening early malignancies of the stomach.
doi:10.1186/1471-230X-11-135
PMCID: PMC3259040  PMID: 22168239
13.  A capillary blood ammonia bedside test following glutamine load to improve the diagnosis of hepatic encephalopathy in cirrhosis 
BMC Gastroenterology  2011;11:134.
Background
Hepatic encephalopathy (HE) is a frequent and severe complication of cirrhosis. A single determination of ammonia in venous blood correlates poorly with neurological symptoms. Thus, a better biological marker is needed.
Aim
To make a diagnosis of HE, we explored the value of ammonia in capillary blood, an equivalent to arterial blood, measured at bedside following an oral glutamine challenge.
Methods
We included 57 patients (age 56 yrs; M/F: 37/20) with cirrhosis (alcoholic = 42; MELD score 13.8 [7-29], esophageal varices = 38) and previous episodes of HE (n = 19), but without neurological deficits at time of examination, and 13 healthy controls (age 54 yrs). After psychometric tests and capillary (ear lobe) blood ammonia measurements, 20 gr of glutamine was administered orally. Tests were repeated at 60 minutes (+ blood ammonia at 30'). Minimal HE was diagnosed if values were > 1.5 SD in at least 2 psychometric tests. Follow-up lasted 12 months.
Results
The test was well tolerated (nausea = 1; dizziness = 1). Patients showed higher values of capillary blood ammonia over time as compared to controls (0'-30'-60 minutes: 75, 117, 169 versus 52, 59, 78 umol/L, p < 0.05). At baseline, 25 patients (44%) had minimal HE, while 38 patients (67%) met the criteria for HE at 60 minutes (chi2: p < 0.01). For the diagnosis of minimal HE, using the ROC curve analysis, baseline capillary blood ammonia showed an AUC of 0.541 (CI: 0.38-0.7, p = 0.6), while at 60 minutes the AUC was 0.727 (CI: 0.58-0.87, p < 0.006). During follow-up, 18 patients (31%) developed clinical episodes of HE. At multivariate analysis, the MELD score (1.12 [1.018-1.236]), previous episodes of HE (3.2[1.069-9.58]), but not capillary blood ammonia, were independent predictors of event.
Conclusions
In patients with cirrhosis and normal neurological examination, bedside determination of ammonia in capillary blood following oral glutamine load is well tolerated and achieves a better diagnostic performance for minimal HE than basal capillary ammonia levels. However, capillary blood ammonia is a poor predictor of development of clinically overt HE.
doi:10.1186/1471-230X-11-134
PMCID: PMC3253684  PMID: 22151412
14.  The MLH1 2101C>A (Q701K) variant increases the risk of gastric cancer in Chinese males 
BMC Gastroenterology  2011;11:133.
Background
Gastric cancer is one of the most common cancers affecting East Asians, and MLH1 could play a critical role during tumorigenesis in this condition.
Methods
Samples from 236 Chinese patients suffering from gastric cancer were screened for MLH1 germline mutations. Carrier frequencies of the mutations were compared between gastric cancer patients and 240 cancer-free controls. Bioinformatic analysis was used to predict the effect of these mutations on protein function and mRNA splicing.
Results
Six MLH1 sequence alterations were identified in gastric cancer patients including two promoter region substitutions, -93G>A and -28A>G, and four missense mutations 649C>T (R217C), 655A>G (I219V), 1151T>A (V384D) and 2101C>A (Q701K). Compared with the MLH1 2101CC genotype, the 2101CA genotype was associated with a risk of gastric cancer (OR = 8.42, 95% CI = 1.04-68.06) in males. Furthermore, the MLH1 2101C>A mutant was predicted by in silico analysis to affect exon splicing ability. Immunohistochemistry of one index patient carrying the MLH1 2101C>A mutation demonstrated a loss of MLH1 protein and normal expression of MSH2 and E-cadherin. No significant differences were demonstrated between cases and controls for the other five MLH1 variants but the data indicated an ethnic difference in the frequency of these variations between Eastern Asians and Western populations.
Conclusions
An ethnic-specific MLH1 mutation spectrum occurred in Chinese gastric cancer patients. The MLH1 2101C>A mutation could be a marker for susceptibility to gastric cancer, particularly in males.
doi:10.1186/1471-230X-11-133
PMCID: PMC3275522  PMID: 22136435
15.  Comparison of accuracy of fibrosis degree classifications by liver biopsy and non-invasive tests in chronic hepatitis C 
BMC Gastroenterology  2011;11:132.
Background
Non-invasive tests have been constructed and evaluated mainly for binary diagnoses such as significant fibrosis. Recently, detailed fibrosis classifications for several non-invasive tests have been developed, but their accuracy has not been thoroughly evaluated in comparison to liver biopsy, especially in clinical practice and for Fibroscan. Therefore, the main aim of the present study was to evaluate the accuracy of detailed fibrosis classifications available for non-invasive tests and liver biopsy. The secondary aim was to validate these accuracies in independent populations.
Methods
Four HCV populations provided 2,068 patients with liver biopsy, four different pathologist skill-levels and non-invasive tests. Results were expressed as percentages of correctly classified patients.
Results
In population #1 including 205 patients and comparing liver biopsy (reference: consensus reading by two experts) and blood tests, Metavir fibrosis (FM) stage accuracy was 64.4% in local pathologists vs. 82.2% (p < 10-3) in single expert pathologist. Significant discrepancy (≥ 2FM vs reference histological result) rates were: Fibrotest: 17.2%, FibroMeter2G: 5.6%, local pathologists: 4.9%, FibroMeter3G: 0.5%, expert pathologist: 0% (p < 10-3). In population #2 including 1,056 patients and comparing blood tests, the discrepancy scores, taking into account the error magnitude, of detailed fibrosis classification were significantly different between FibroMeter2G (0.30 ± 0.55) and FibroMeter3G (0.14 ± 0.37, p < 10-3) or Fibrotest (0.84 ± 0.80, p < 10-3). In population #3 (and #4) including 458 (359) patients and comparing blood tests and Fibroscan, accuracies of detailed fibrosis classification were, respectively: Fibrotest: 42.5% (33.5%), Fibroscan: 64.9% (50.7%), FibroMeter2G: 68.7% (68.2%), FibroMeter3G: 77.1% (83.4%), p < 10-3 (p < 10-3). Significant discrepancy (≥ 2 FM) rates were, respectively: Fibrotest: 21.3% (22.2%), Fibroscan: 12.9% (12.3%), FibroMeter2G: 5.7% (6.0%), FibroMeter3G: 0.9% (0.9%), p < 10-3 (p < 10-3).
Conclusions
The accuracy in detailed fibrosis classification of the best-performing blood test outperforms liver biopsy read by a local pathologist, i.e., in clinical practice; however, the classification precision is apparently lesser. This detailed classification accuracy is much lower than that of significant fibrosis with Fibroscan and even Fibrotest but higher with FibroMeter3G. FibroMeter classification accuracy was significantly higher than those of other non-invasive tests. Finally, for hepatitis C evaluation in clinical practice, fibrosis degree can be evaluated using an accurate blood test.
doi:10.1186/1471-230X-11-132
PMCID: PMC3247188  PMID: 22129438
16.  Autoimmune enteropathy with a CD8+ CD7- T-cell small bowel intraepithelial lymphocytosis: case report and literature review 
BMC Gastroenterology  2011;11:131.
Background
Adult onset autoimmune enteropathy (AIE) is a rare condition characterized by diarrhea refractory to dietary therapy diagnosed in patients with evidence of autoimmune conditions. Auto-antibodies to gut epithelial cells and other tissues are commonly demonstrated. Despite increasing awareness, the pathogenesis, histologic, immunologic and clinical features of AIE remain uncertain. There remains controversy regarding the diagnostic criteria, the frequency and types of auto-antibodies and associated autoimmune conditions, and the extent and types of histologic and immunologic abnormalities. CD4+ T-cells are thought to at least responsible for this condition; whether other cell types, including B- and other T-cell subsets are involved, are uncertain. We present a unique case of AIE associated with a CD8+CD7- lymphocytosis and review the literature to characterize the histologic and immunologic abnormalities, and the autoantibodies and autoimmune conditions associated with AIE.
Case Presentation
We present a case of immune mediated enteropathy distinguished by the CD8+CD7- intra-epithelial and lamina propria lymphocytosis. Twenty-nine cases of AIE have been reported. The majority of patients had auto-antibodies (typically anti-enterocyte), preferential small bowel involvement, and predominately CD3+ CD4+ infiltrates. Common therapies included steroids or immuno-suppressive agents and clinical response with associated with histologic improvement.
Conclusions
AIE is most often characterized (1) IgG subclass anti-epithelial cell antibodies, (2) preferential small bowel involvement, and (3) CD3+ alphabeta TCR+ infiltrates; there is insufficient evidence to conclude CD4+ T-cells are solely responsible in all cases of AIE.
doi:10.1186/1471-230X-11-131
PMCID: PMC3287162  PMID: 22126605
17.  Recipient and donor thrombophilia and the risk of portal venous thrombosis and hepatic artery thrombosis in liver recipients 
BMC Gastroenterology  2011;11:130.
Background
Vascular complications, such as HAT, are an important cause of graft loss and recipient mortality. We aimed to characterize post-transplant thrombotic events in a cohort of liver transplant recipients, and identify independent risk factors for these complications.
Methods
We conducted a thrombophilic study of 293 orthotopic liver transplants performed in the Digestive Surgery Department of the 12 de Octubre Hospital (Madrid, Spain) between January 2001 and December 2006.
Results
The most frequent post-transplant thrombotic events were HAT (9%) and PVT (1.7%). The one variable associated with post-transplant thrombotic event was a high fibrinogen level in the global cohort of liver transplantation. But toxicity as event post-OLT has been associated with post-transplant thrombotic event in the retrospective group and high fibrinogen level and low protein C levels were associated post-transplant thrombotic event in the prospective group. Liver disease relapse (HR 6.609, p < 0.001), high levels of FVIII (HR 1.008, p = 0.019)) and low levels of antithrombin (HR 0.946, p < 0.001) were associated with poor overall survival (OS).
In conclusion, high fibrinogen and decreased protein C levels were associated with allograft thrombosis. Further studies are required in order to assess the clinical relevance of these parameters in prospective studies and to study the effect of anticoagulation prophylaxis in this group of risk.
doi:10.1186/1471-230X-11-130
PMCID: PMC3287260  PMID: 22123067
18.  Small- bowel mucosal changes and antibody responses after low- and moderate-dose gluten challenge in celiac disease 
BMC Gastroenterology  2011;11:129.
Background
Due to the restrictive nature of a gluten-free diet, celiac patients are looking for alternative therapies. While drug-development programs include gluten challenges, knowledge regarding the duration of gluten challenge and gluten dosage is insufficient.
We challenged adult celiac patients with gluten with a view to assessing the amount needed to cause some small-bowel mucosal deterioration.
Methods
Twenty-five celiac disease adults were challenged with low (1-3 g) or moderate (3-5g) doses of gluten daily for 12 weeks. Symptoms, small-bowel morphology, densities of CD3+ intraepithelial lymphocytes (IELs) and celiac serology were determined.
Results
Both moderate and low amounts of gluten induced small-bowel morphological damage in 67% of celiac patients. Moderate gluten doses also triggered mucosal inflammation and more gastrointestinal symptoms leading to premature withdrawals in seven cases. In 22% of those who developed significant small- intestinal damage, symptoms remained absent. Celiac antibodies seroconverted in 43% of the patients.
Conclusions
Low amounts of gluten can also cause significant mucosal deterioration in the majority of the patients. As there are always some celiac disease patients who will not respond within these conditions, sample sizes must be sufficiently large to attain to statistical power in analysis.
doi:10.1186/1471-230X-11-129
PMCID: PMC3240817  PMID: 22115041
19.  Increased proportion of nitric oxide synthase immunoreactive neurons in rat ileal myenteric ganglia after severe acute pancreatitis 
BMC Gastroenterology  2011;11:127.
Background
Severe acute pancreatitis (SAP) remains a potentially life-threatening disease. Gastrointestinal motility disturbance such as intestinal ileus is seen in every case. By now, the mechanisms of pancreatitis-induced ileus are largely unknown. The main purpose of the present study was to observe changes of nitric oxide synthase-immunoreactive (NOS-IR) neurons in ileal myenteric ganglia in SAP rats with gastrointestinal dysmotility, trying to explore underlying nervous mechanisms of pancreatitis-induced ileus.
Methods
Twenty Sprague Dawley rats were randomly divided into sham operated group and SAP group. SAP was induced by retrograde cholangiopancreatic duct injection of 5% sodium taurocholate. Abdominal X-ray and intestinal transit were performed to detect the existence of paralytic ileus and intestinal dysmotility. Pathological damage of pancreas was evaluated. Double-immunolabeling was employed for the whole-mount preparations of ileal myenteric ganglia. The morphology of NOS-IR neurons were observed and the percentage of NOS-IR neurons was calculated based on the total Hu-immunoreactive neurons. Total RNA of ileum was extracted according to Trizol reagent protocol. Neuronal NOS (nNOS) mRNA expression was evaluated by RT-PCR.
Results
The small intestinal transit index in the SAP group was significantly lower compared with the sham operated group (29.21 ± 3.68% vs 52.48 ± 6.76%, P <0.01). The percentage of NOS-IR neurons in ileal myenteric ganglia in the SAP group was significantly higher than that in the sham operated group (37.5 ± 12.28% vs 26.32 ± 16.15%, P <0.01). nNOS mRNA expression in ileum of SAP group was significantly higher than that in the sham operated group (1.02 ± 0.10 vs 0.70 ± 0.06, P < 0.01).
Conclusions
The increased quantity of NOS-IR neurons in ileal myenteric ganglia and increased nNOS mRNA expression may suggest nNOS over expression as one of the nervous mechanisms of gastrointestinal dysmotility in SAP rat.
doi:10.1186/1471-230X-11-127
PMCID: PMC3250940  PMID: 22111589
severe acute pancreatitis; gastrointestinal dysmotility; enteric nervous system; myenteric ganglion; nitric oxide synthase; neuron
20.  A randomized double-blind placebo-controlled trial to evaluate the value of a single bolus intravenous alfentanil in CT colonography 
BMC Gastroenterology  2011;11:128.
Background
Although CT colonography is a less invasive alternative for colonoscopy for the detection of colorectal polyps and cancer, procedural pain is common. In several studies, CT colonography pain and burden is higher than in colonoscopy. Apart from discomfort, anxiety and its related stress-induced peri- procedural side effects, this may influence the adherence for CT colonography as a possible screening tool for colorectal cancer. We hypothesize that a single bolus intravenous alfentanil will give a clinically relevant reduction in maximum pain defined as at least 1.3 point reduction on an 11-point numeric rating scale (NRS).
Methods/Design
A randomized double-blind placebo-controlled trial in which patients scheduled for elective CT colonography in a single tertiary centre are eligible for inclusion. The first 90 consenting patient will be block-randomized to either the alfentanil group or the placebo group. Before bowel insufflation, the alfentanil group receives a single bolus intravenous alfentanil 7.5 μg/kg dissolved in 0.9% NaCl, while the placebo group receives an intravenous bolus injection of pure 0.9% NaCl. For both groups an equal amount of fluid per kilogram (75 μL/kg) is injected. The primary outcome is the difference in maximum pain on an 11-point NRS. Secondary outcomes include: pain and burden of different CT colonography aspects, side effects, procedural time and recovery time. For the primary outcome an independent samples t-test is performed and a P value < 0.05 is considered statistically significant.
Discussion
This study will provide evidence whether a single bolus intravenous alfentanil gives a clinically relevant reduction in maximum pain during CT colonography.
Trial registration
Netherlands Trial Register (NTR): NTR2902
This trial will be conducted in accordance with the protocol and in compliance with the moral, ethical, and scientific principles governing clinical research as set out in the Declaration of Helsinki (1989) and Good Clinical Practice (GCP). The department of radiology of the Academic Medical Center of Amsterdam is responsible for the design and conduct of the trial.
doi:10.1186/1471-230X-11-128
PMCID: PMC3339326  PMID: 22111658
21.  Development of a validated patient-reported symptom metric for pediatric Eosinophilic Esophagitis: qualitative methods 
BMC Gastroenterology  2011;11:126.
Background
Previous attempts to measure symptoms in pediatric Eosinophilic Esophagitis (EoE) have not fully included patients and parents in the item development process. We sought to identify and validate key patient self-reported and parent proxy-reported outcomes (PROs) specific to EoE.
Methods
We developed methodology for focus and cognitive interviews based on the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) guidelines for PROs, the validated generic PedsQL™ guidelines, and the consolidated criteria for reporting qualitative research (COREQ). Both child (ages 8-12 and 13-18) and parent-proxy (ages 2-4, 5-7, 8-12, and 13-18) interviews were conducted.
Results
We conducted 75 interviews to construct the new instrument. Items were identified and developed from individual focus interviews, followed by cognitive interviews for face and content validation. Initial domains of symptom frequency and severity were developed, and open-ended questions were used to generate specific items during the focus interviews. Once developed, the instrument construct, instructions, timeframe, scoring, and specific items were systematically reviewed with a separate group of patients and their parents during the cognitive interviews.
Conclusions
To capture the full impact of pediatric EoE, both histologic findings and PROs need to be included as equally important outcome measures. We have developed the face and content validated Pediatric Eosinophilic Esophagitis Symptom Score (PEESS™ v2.0). The PEESS™ v2.0 metric is now undergoing multisite national field testing as the next iterative instrument development phase.
doi:10.1186/1471-230X-11-126
PMCID: PMC3228698  PMID: 22099448
22.  Ringer's lactate improves liver recovery in a murine model of acetaminophen toxicity 
BMC Gastroenterology  2011;11:125.
Background
Acetaminophen (APAP) overdose induces massive hepatocyte necrosis. Liver regeneration is a vital process for survival after a toxic insult. Since hepatocytes are mostly in a quiescent state (G0), the regeneration process requires the priming of hepatocytes by cytokines such as TNF-α and IL-6. Ringer's lactate solution (RLS) has been shown to increase serum TNF-α and IL-6 in patients and experimental animals; in addition, RLS also provides lactate, which can be used as an alternative metabolic fuel to meet the higher energy demand by liver regeneration. Therefore, we tested whether RLS therapy improves liver recovery after APAP overdose.
Methods
C57BL/6 male mice were intraperitoneally injected with a single dose of APAP (300 mg/kg dissolved in 1 mL sterile saline). Following 2 hrs of APAP challenge, the mice were given 1 mL RLS or Saline treatment every 12 hours for a total of 72 hours.
Results
72 hrs after APAP challenge, compared to saline-treated group, RLS treatment significantly lowered serum transaminases (ALT/AST) and improved liver recovery seen in histopathology. This beneficial effect was associated with increased hepatic tissue TNF-α concentration, enhanced hepatic NF-κB DNA binding and increased expression of cell cycle protein cyclin D1, three important factors in liver regeneration.
Conclusion
RLS improves liver recovery from APAP hepatotoxicity.
doi:10.1186/1471-230X-11-125
PMCID: PMC3228804  PMID: 22085740
23.  Lactase non-persistent genotype influences milk consumption and gastrointestinal symptoms in Northern Russians 
BMC Gastroenterology  2011;11:124.
Background
Milk is an important source of nutrients. The consumption of milk, however, may cause abdominal complaints in lactose intolerant individuals. The frequency of -13910C/C genotype is known to be high among Northern Russians, exceeding the prevalence in northern Europe. In our study we tested two hypotheses: 1) subjects with lactase non-persistent genotype (-13910C/C) have more gastrointestinal (GI) symptoms associated with milk 2) subjects with lactase non-persistence avoid using milk.
Methods
In total, 518 students aged 17 to 26 years were randomly selected from different departments in the Northern State Medical University (NSMU) for genotyping the lactase activity-defining -13910C/T variant. All subjects filled in a questionnaire covering their personal data, self-reported GI symptoms and milk consumption habits.
Results
Northern Russians consume very small amounts of milk daily. Among carriers of the lactase non-persistent (LNP) genotype there were 10 percentage units of milk-consumers fewer than among lactase-persistent (LP) subjects (p = 0.03). Complaints of GI disorders caused by milk were different between the genotypes (p = 0.02). Among all types of food analyzed only milk was associated with increased GI symptoms among subjects with the LNP genotype (OR = 1.95, CI 1.03-3.69)
Conclusions
Subjects with -13910C/C have more GI symptoms from milk. Subjects with lactase non-persistent genotype avoid using milk. In the case of increasing milk consumption symptoms may increase the need for medical consultation. It is thus important either for people themselves or for health care staff to be aware of lactase persistence/non-persistence.
doi:10.1186/1471-230X-11-124
PMCID: PMC3287141  PMID: 22078123
24.  Predictive value of metabolic 18FDG-PET response on outcomes in patients with locally advanced pancreatic carcinoma treated with definitive concurrent chemoradiotherapy 
BMC Gastroenterology  2011;11:123.
Background
We aimed to study the predictive value of combined 18F-fluoro-deoxy-D-glucose positron emission tomography and computerized tomography (FDG-PET-CT), on outcomes in locally advanced pancreatic carcinoma (LAPC) patients treated with concurrent chemoradiotherapy (C-CRT).
Methods
Thirty-two unresectable LAPC patients received 50.4 Gy (1.8 Gy/fr) of RT and concurrent 5-FU followed by 4 to 6 cycles of gemcitabine consolidation. Response was evaluated by FDG-PET-CT at post-C-CRT 12-week. Patients were stratified into two groups according to the median difference between pre- and post-treatment maximum standard uptake values (SUVmax) as an indicator of response for comparative analysis.
Results
At a median follow-up of 16.1 months, 16 (50.0%) patients experienced local/regional failures, 6 of which were detected on the first follow-up FDG-PET-CT. There were no marginal or isolated regional failures. Median pre- and post-treatment SUVmax and median difference were 14.5, 3.9, and -63.7%, respectively. Median overall survival (OS), progression-free survival (PFS), and local-regional progression-free survival (LRPFS) were 14.5, 7.3, and 10.3 months, respectively. Median OS, PFS, and LRPFS for those with greater (N = 16) versus lesser (N = 16) SUVmax change were 17.0 versus 9.8 (p = 0.001), 8.4 versus 3.8 (p = 0.005), and 12.3 versus 6.9 months (p = 0.02), respectively. On multivariate analysis, SUVmax difference was predictive of OS, PFS, and LRPFS, independent of existing covariates.
Conclusions
Significantly higher OS, PFS, and LRPFS in patients with greater SUVmax difference suggest that FDG-PET-CT-based metabolic response assessment is an independent predictor of clinical outcomes in LAPC patients treated with definitive C-CRT.
doi:10.1186/1471-230X-11-123
PMCID: PMC3224773  PMID: 22074002
Concurrent chemoradiotherapy; locally advanced pancreas cancer; positron emission tomography, metabolic response; clinical outcome prediction
25.  The impact of laxative use upon symptoms in patients with proven slow transit constipation 
BMC Gastroenterology  2011;11:121.
Background
Constipation severity is often defined by symptoms including feelings of complete evacuation, straining, stool frequency and consistency. These descriptors are mostly obtained in the absence of laxative use. For many constipated patients laxative usage is ubiquitous and long standing. Our aim was to determine the impact of laxative use upon the stereotypic constipation descriptors.
Methods
Patients with confirmed slow transit constipation completed 3-week stool diaries, detailing stool frequency and form, straining, laxative use and pain and bloating scores. Each diary day was classified as being under laxative affect (laxative affected days) or not (laxative unaffected days). Unconditional logistic regression was used to assess the affects of laxatives on constipation symptoms.
Results
Ninety four patients with scintigraphically confirmed slow transit constipation were enrolled in the study. These patients reported a stool frequency of 5.6 ± 4.3 bowel motions/week, only 21 patients reported <3 bowel motions/week. Similarly, 21 patients reported a predominant hard stool at defecation. The majority (90%) of patients reported regular straining. A regular feeling of complete evacuation was reported in just 7 patients. Daily pain and/or bloating were reported by 92% of patients. When compared with laxative unaffected days, on the laxative affected days patients had a higher stool frequency (OR 2.23; P <0.001) and were more likely to report loose stools (OR 1.64; P <0.009). Laxatives did not increase the number of bowel actions associated with a feeling of complete evacuation. Laxative use had no affect upon straining, pain or bloating scores
Conclusions
The reporting of frequent and loose stools with abdominal pain and/or bloating is common in patients with slow transit constipation. While laxative use is a significant contributor to altering stool frequency and form, laxatives have no apparent affect on pain or bloating or upon a patients feeling of complete evacuation. These factors need to be taken into account when using constipation symptoms to define this population.
doi:10.1186/1471-230X-11-121
PMCID: PMC3226636  PMID: 22073923

Results 1-25 (146)