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1.  Capsule endoscopy with flexible spectral imaging color enhancement reduces the bile pigment effect and improves the detectability of small bowel lesions 
BMC Gastroenterology  2012;12:83.
Background
Capsule endoscopy with flexible spectral imaging color enhancement (CE-FICE) has been reported to improve the visualization and detection of small-bowel lesions, however, its clinical usefulness is still not established. Therefore, we conducted a study to evaluate whether CE-FICE contributes to improve the detectability of small-bowel lesions by CE trainees.
Methods
Four gastroenterology trainees without prior CE experience were asked to read and interpret 12 CE videos. Each of the videos was read by conventional visualization method and under three different FICE settings. To evaluate whether the lesion recognition ability of the CE trainees could be improved by the FICE technology, the lesion detection rate under each of the three FICE settings was compared with that by conventional CE. CE trainees tend to miss small-bowel lesions in bile-pigment-positive condition, therefore we evaluated whether CE-FICE contributes to reducing the bile-pigment effect. The bile-pigment condition was determined by the color values around the small-bowel lesions according to the results of the receiver-operating-characteristic analysis. Moreover, we also evaluated whether poor bowel preparion might affect the accuracy of lesion recognition by CE-FICE.
Results
Of a total of 60 angioectasias, CE trainees identified 26 by conventional CE, 40 under FICE setting 1, 38 under FICE setting 2, and 31 under FICE setting 3. Of a total of 82 erosions/ulcerations, CE trainees identified 38 by conventional CE, 62 under FICE setting 1, 60 under FICE setting 2, and 20 under FICE setting 3. Compared with conventional CE, FICE settings 1 and 2 significantly improved the detectability of angioectasia (P = 0.0017 and P = 0.014, respectively) and erosions/ulcerations (P = 0.0012 and P = 0.0094, respectively). Although the detectability of small-bowel lesions by conventional CE (P = 0.020) and under FICE setting 2 (P = 0.0023) was reduced by the presence of bile-pigments, that under FICE setting 1 was not affected (P = 0.59). Our results also revealed that in poor bowel visibility conditions, CE-FICE yielded a high rate of false-positive findings.
Conclusions
CE-FICE may reduce the bile-pigment effect and improve the detectability of small-bowel lesions by CE trainees; the reliability of CE-FICE may be improved by good bowel preparation.
doi:10.1186/1471-230X-12-83
PMCID: PMC3444425  PMID: 22748141
Capsule endoscopy (CE); Computed virtual chromoendoscopy system; Flexible spectral imaging color enhancement (FICE); Small bowel
2.  Early effect of oral administration of omeprazole with mosapride as compared with those of omeprazole alone on the intragastric pH 
BMC Gastroenterology  2012;12:25.
Background
The ideal medication for acid-related diseases should have a rapid onset of action to promote hemostasis and cause efficient resolution of symptoms. The aim of our study was to comparatively investigate the inhibitory effect on gastric acid secretion of a single oral administration of omeprazole plus mosapride with that of omeprazole alone.
Methods
Ten Helicobacter pylori-negative male subjects participated in this randomized, two-way crossover study. Intragastric pH was monitored continuously for 6 hours after a single oral administration of omeprazole 20 mg or that of omeprazole 20 mg plus mosapride 5 mg (the omeprazole being administered one hour after the mosapride). Each administration was separated by a 7-days washout period.
Results
The average pH during the 6-hour period after administration of omeprazole 20 mg plus mosapride 5 mg was higher than that after administration of omeprazole 20 mg alone (median: 3.22 versus 4.21, respectively; p = 0.0247).
Conclusions
In H. pylori -negative healthy male subjects, an oral dose of omeprazole 20 mg plus mosapride 5 mg increased the intragastric pH more rapidly than omeprazole 20 mg alone.
doi:10.1186/1471-230X-12-25
PMCID: PMC3342890  PMID: 22448810
Intragastric acidity; Omeprazole; Mosapride
3.  Visceral obesity and the risk of Barrett's esophagus in Japanese patients with non-alcoholic fatty liver disease 
BMC Gastroenterology  2009;9:56.
Background
The association between obesity and the risk of Barrett's esophagus (BE) is unclear. Furthermore, the association between visceral obesity and the risk of BE is entirely unknown.
Methods
We conducted a retrospective study in 163 patients with non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) who underwent both endoscopy and abdominal CT at an interval of less than a year at our institution. BE was endoscopically diagnosed based on the Prague C & M Criteria. The surface areas of visceral adipose tissue (VAT) and subcutaneous adipose tissue (SAT) were calculated from CT images at the level of the umbilicus. The correlations between the BMI, VAT, and SAT and the risk of BE were examined by univariate and multivariate analyses.
Results
Sixty-nine of the 163 study participants (42.3%) were diagnosed to have endoscopic BE, which was classified as short-segment BE (SSBE) in almost all of the cases. There were no significant differences in the age or gender distribution between the groups with and without BE. According to the results of the univariate analysis, VAT was significantly associated with the risk of BE; the BMI tended to be higher in the group with BE than in the group without BE, but this relation did not reach statistical significance. VAT was independently associated with the risk of BE even after adjustment for the BMI.
Conclusion
In Japanese patients with NAFLD, obesity tended to be associated with the risk of BE, and this risk appeared to be mediated for the most part by abdominal visceral adiposity.
doi:10.1186/1471-230X-9-56
PMCID: PMC2718904  PMID: 19622165
4.  Early effects of oral administration of lafutidine with mosapride compared with lafutidine alone on intragastric pH values 
BMC Gastroenterology  2009;9:52.
Background
The ideal medication for treatment of acid related diseases should have a rapid onset of action to promote hemostasis and resolution of symptoms. The aim of our study was to investigate the inhibitory effects on gastric acid secretion after a single oral administrations of lafutidine, is a newly synthesized H2-receptor antagonist, with mosapride 5 mg or lafutidine alone.
Methods
Ten Helicobacter pylori negative male subjects participated in this randomized, two-way crossover study. Intragastric pH was monitored continuously for 4 hours after a single oral administration of lafutidine 10 mg or lafutidine 10 mg with mosapride 5 mg (the lafutidine being administrated one hour after the mosapride). Each administration was separated by a 7-day washout period.
Results
The average pH during the 4-hour period after administration of lafutidine 10 mg with mosapride 5 mg was higher than after lafutidine 10 mg alone (median: 5.25 versus 4.58, respectively; p = 0.0318). During the 3–4 hour study period, lafutidine 10 mg with mosapride 5 mg provided a higher pH, compared to lafutidine 10 mg alone (median: 7.28 versus 6.42; p = 0.0208).
Conclusion
In H. pylori negative healthy male subjects, an oral dose of lafutidine 10 mg with mosapride 5 mg more rapidly increased intragastric pH than lafutidine 10 mg alone.
doi:10.1186/1471-230X-9-52
PMCID: PMC2714527  PMID: 19589146
5.  Macroscopic extent of gastric mucosal atrophy: increased risk factor for esophageal squamous cell carcinoma in Japan 
BMC Gastroenterology  2009;9:34.
Background
We aimed to estimate whether the macroscopic extent of gastric mucosal atrophy is associated with a risk for esophageal squamous cell carcinoma using a case-control study in Japanese subjects, a population known to have a high prevalence of CagA-positive H. pylori infection.
Methods
Two hundred and fifty-three patients who were diagnosed as having esophageal squamous cell carcinoma, and 253 sex- and age-matched controls were enrolled in the present study. The macroscopic extent of gastric mucosal atrophy was evaluated based on the Kimura and Takemoto Classification. A conditional logistic regression model with adjustment for potential confounding factors was used to assess the associations.
Results
Body gastritis, defined endoscopically, was independently associated with an increased risk for esophageal squamous cell carcinoma.
Conclusion
Our findings suggest that macroscopic body gastritis may be a risk factor for esophageal squamous cell carcinoma in Japan. Further studies are needed to confirm these findings.
doi:10.1186/1471-230X-9-34
PMCID: PMC2689248  PMID: 19450276
6.  Alcohol consumption is associated with an increased risk of erosive esophagitis and Barrett's epithelium in Japanese men 
BMC Gastroenterology  2008;8:58.
Background
Evidence regarding the association between alcohol consumption and the gastro-esophageal reflux disease (GERD) spectrum has been conflicting. We examined the association between alcohol consumption and erosive esophagitis and Barrett's epithelium in Japanese men.
Methods
The study population comprised 463 men subjects who had undergone an upper endoscopy at the Gastroenterology Division of Yokohama City University Hospital between August 2005 and July 2006. The presence of erosive esophagitis and Barrett's epithelium was diagnosed based on the Los Angeles Classification and the Prague C and M Criteria, respectively. We divided the study population into four groups: never drinkers, light drinkers (less than 25.0 g of ethanol per day), moderate drinkers (25.0 to 50.0 g of ethanol per day), and heavy drinkers (more than 50.0 g of ethanol per day). A linear regression of the logistic regression analysis was used to analyze the dose-response trends.
Results
Compared with never drinkers, light drinkers (less than 25.0 g ethanol per day), moderate drinkers (25.0 to 50.0 g per day), and heavy drinkers (more than 50.0 g per day) had ORs for erosive esophagitis of 1.110 (95% CI: 0.553 – 2.228, p = 0.7688), 1.880 (95% CI: 1.015 – 3.484, p = 0.0445) and 1.988 (95% CI: 1.120 – 3.534, p = 0.0190), respectively. These groups had ORs for Barrett's epithelium of 1.278 (95% CI: 0.752 – 2.170, p = 0.3643), 1.458 (95% CI: 0.873 – 2.433, p = 0.1500), and 1.912 (95% CI: 1.185 – 3.086, p = 0.0079), respectively. The odds ratios/grams (alcohol)/day of dose response trends for erosive esophagitis and Barrett's epithelium were 1.015 (95% CI: 1.004–1.026, p = 0.0066) and 1.012 (95% CI: 1.003–1.021, p = 0.0079), respectively.
Conclusion
These findings suggest that alcohol consumption in Japanese men tends to be associated with an increased risk of erosive esophagitis and Barrett's epithelium.
doi:10.1186/1471-230X-8-58
PMCID: PMC2615024  PMID: 19077221
7.  Association between PPARGC1A polymorphisms and the occurrence of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) 
BMC Gastroenterology  2008;8:27.
Background
Genetic factors as well as environmental factors are important in the development of NAFLD and in this study we investigated associations between polymorphisms of peroxisome proliferators-activated receptor γ coactivator 1α polymorphism (PPARGC1A) and NAFLD.
Aims
We recruited 115 patients with biopsy-proven NAFLD, 65 with NASH and 50 with simple steatosis, and 441 healthy control subjects and investigated 15 SNPs of PPARGC1A.
Results
SNP rs2290602 had the lowest p value in the dominant mode (p = 0.00095), and the odds ratio for NAFLD (95% CI) was 2.73 (1.48 – 5.06). rs2290602 was significantly associated with NAFLD even when the most conservative Bonferroni's correction was applied (p = 0.0143). The frequency of the T allele of rs2290602 was significantly higher in the NASH patients than in the control subjects (p = 0.00093, allele frequency mode), and its frequency in the NASH patients tended to be higher than in the simple steatosis patients (p = 0.09). The results of the real-time RT-PCR study showed that intrahepatic mRNA expression of PPARGC1A was lower in the TT group than in the GG or GT group at SNP rs2290602 (p = 0.0454).
Conclusion
This is the first study to demonstrate a significant association between genetic variations in PPARGC1A and NAFLD. This finding suggested that PPARGC1A polymorphism and lower expression of PPARGC1A mRNA in the liver are an important genetic contribution to etiology of NAFLD.
doi:10.1186/1471-230X-8-27
PMCID: PMC2453128  PMID: 18588668

Results 1-7 (7)