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1.  Horner's syndrome in patients admitted to the intensive care unit that have undergone central venous catheterization: a prospective study 
Eye  2015;30(1):31-33.
Purpose
Central venous catheterization (CVC) is estimated to be performed in millions of patients per year. Swan–Ganz catheters used for CVC are most often inserted into the internal jugular vein and during this procedure they may come into contact with the sympathetic chain. This study aims to determine the incidence of Horner's syndrome in patients admitted to intensive care unit that have undergone internal jugular CVC insertion during their admission and to determine whether ultrasonography-assisted insertion has decreased the frequency of this complication.
Patients and methods
A total of 100 prospective patients admitted to the ICU were examined for the presence of anisocoria and ptosis after undergoing recent CVC. Presence of Horner's syndrome was confirmed by testing with 0.5% apraclonidine and looking for the reversal of anisocoria.
Results
Frequency of Horner's syndrome after CVC was 2% in a sample of 100 prospectively examined patients.
Conclusion
Horner's syndrome remains a relatively rare but definitive complication of CVC. ICU physicians should be educated about its existence and prevalence and ophthalmologists should inquire about any history of ICU admission necessitating CVC insertion in any patient presenting with Horner's syndrome.
doi:10.1038/eye.2015.181
PMCID: PMC4709528  PMID: 26381100
2.  Authors’ correction for Euro Surveill. 2016;21(38) 
Eurosurveillance  2016;21(39):30357.
doi:10.2807/1560-7917.ES.2016.21.39.30357
PMCID: PMC5069431  PMID: 27719757
3.  Reduced Emergency Department Utilization after Increased Access to Primary Care 
PLoS Medicine  2016;13(9):e1002114.
Sanjay Basu and Russell Phillips discuss the findings from Whittaker and colleagues on the link between extending primary care hours and emergency department utilization.
doi:10.1371/journal.pmed.1002114
PMCID: PMC5012576  PMID: 27598299
4.  Categorization of Cathartic (Purgative) Medicines Mentioned in TPM Resources According to Their Specific Function 
Background:
According to traditional Persian medicine (TPM) resources, the human digestive system includes four steps. In the first step, gastric digestion, the ingested food pours into the stomach and changes into the leachate called chylous due to the heat produced in the stomach. In the second step, hepatic digestion, the chylous enters in the liver through mesenteric vessels and transforms into the quadruple humors, sanguine, phlegm, bile and black bile due to the liver heat. In the case of humor predominance, using moshel or cathartic medicines is considered as a strategic medical plan. In this study, we introduce cathartic (purgative) medicines mentioned in TPM resources according to their specific function.
Methods:
Literature review of TPM resources, including Canon of Medicine and Aghili’s Makhzan-ul-Adwiah was performed in order to find cathartics cited in the aforementioned books, prescribed specifically for different humor’s predominance in the body.
Results:
The survey found that the cathartics are categorized into eight groups:
Cathartic of “balgham” such as “Citrullus colocynthis and Colchicum autumnale”Cathartic of bile such as “Prunus domestica and Alhagi Camelorum A. maurorum”Cathartic of “sovda” such as “lajward stone and Armenian stone”Cathartic of “Ma’a-e-asfar” such as “Marrubium vulgarre and Rivand extract”Cathartic of melancholy and phlegm such as “Cuscuta epithymum and Adiantum capillus venerisCathartic of bile and phlegm such as “Nepeta menthoides and Fumaria parviflora”Cathartic of “Ma’a-e-asfar and phlegm such as Urtica dioica and Qsa’alhmarCathartic of all mucus such as “Cassia acutifolia” and “kharbaghe Aswad”
Conclusion:
Medical students of traditional Persian medicine should be familiar with cathartics and purgatives specific for each humor. In this study, cathartics has classified into main cathartics of phlegm, bile, black bile, Ma’a-e-asfar, black bile and phlegm, Ma’a-e-asfar and phlegm, as well as cathartic of all triple humors for a better memorization and feasibility of prescribing in practice.
PMCID: PMC4955310  PMID: 27516658
Cathartics; Mucus; Medicine; Traditional
5.  Oral lesions in Tuberculosis 
doi:10.11604/pamj.2015.22.336.8420
PMCID: PMC4773054  PMID: 26977243
Oral tuberculous ulcer; atypical oral lesions; oral cancer
6.  An analysis of online messages about probiotics 
BMC Gastroenterology  2013;13:5.
Internet websites are a resource for patients seeking information about probiotics. We examined a sample of 71 websites presenting probiotic information. We found that descriptions of benefits far outnumbered descriptions of risks and commercial websites presented significantly fewer risks than noncommercial websites. The bias towards the presentation of therapeutic benefits in online content suggests that patients are likely interested in using probiotics and may have unrealistic expectations for therapeutic benefit. Gastroenterologists may find it useful to initiate conversations about probiotics within the context of a comprehensive health management plan and should seek to establish realistic therapeutic expectations with their patients.
doi:10.1186/1471-230X-13-5
PMCID: PMC3558380  PMID: 23311418
Probiotics; Doctor-patient communication; Complementary and alternative medicine; Ethics
7.  Quantitative modeling of the physiology of ascites in portal hypertension 
BMC Gastroenterology  2012;12:26.
Although the factors involved in cirrhotic ascites have been studied for a century, a number of observations are not understood, including the action of diuretics in the treatment of ascites and the ability of the plasma-ascitic albumin gradient to diagnose portal hypertension. This communication presents an explanation of ascites based solely on pathophysiological alterations within the peritoneal cavity. A quantitative model is described based on experimental vascular and intraperitoneal pressures, lymph flow, and peritoneal space compliance. The model's predictions accurately mimic clinical observations in ascites, including the magnitude and time course of changes observed following paracentesis or diuretic therapy.
doi:10.1186/1471-230X-12-26
PMCID: PMC3361476  PMID: 22453061
Ascites; Cirrhosis; Portal hypertension; Wedge pressure
9.  A proposal for a new clinical classification of chronic pancreatitis 
BMC Gastroenterology  2009;9:93.
Background
The clinical course of chronic pancreatitis is still unpredictable, which relates to the lack of the availability of a clinical classification. Therefore, patient populations cannot be compared, the course and the outcome of the disease remain undetermined in the individual patient, and treatment is not standardized.
Aim
To establish a clinical classification for chronic pancreatitis which is user friendly, transparent, relevant, prognosis- as well as treatment-related and offers a frame for future disease evaluation.
Methods
Diagnostic requirements will include one clinical criterion, in combination with well defined imaging or functional abnormalities.
Results
A classification system consisting of three stages (A, B and C) is presented, which fulfils the above-mentioned criteria. Clinical criteria are: pain, recurrent attacks of pancreatitis, complications of chronic pancreatitis (e.g. bile duct stenosis), steatorrhea, and diabetes mellitus. Imaging criteria consist of ductal or parenchymal changes observed by ultrasonography, ERCP, CT, MRI, and/or endosonography.
Conclusion
A new classification of chronic pancreatitis, based on combination of clinical signs, morphology and function, is presented. It is easy to handle and an instrument to study and to compare the natural course, the prognosis and treatment of patients with chronic pancreatitis.
doi:10.1186/1471-230X-9-93
PMCID: PMC2804657  PMID: 20003450
10.  Time esophageal pH < 4 overestimates the prevalence of pathologic esophageal reflux in subjects with gastroesophageal reflux disease treated with proton pump inhibitors 
BMC Gastroenterology  2008;8:15.
Background
A Stanford University study reported that in asymptomatic GERD patients who were being treated with a proton pump inhibitor (PPI), 50% had pathologic esophageal acid exposure.
Aim
We considered the possibility that the high prevalence of pathologic esophageal reflux might simply have resulted from calculating acidity as time pH < 4.
Methods
We calculated integrated acidity and time pH < 4 from the 49 recordings of 24-hour gastric and esophageal pH from the Stanford study as well as from another study of 57 GERD subjects, 26 of whom were treated for 8 days with 20 mg omeprazole or 20 mg rabeprazole in a 2-way crossover fashion.
Results
The prevalence of pathologic 24-hour esophageal reflux in both studies was significantly higher when measured as time pH < 4 than when measured as integrated acidity. This difference was entirely attributable to a difference between the two measures during the nocturnal period. Nocturnal gastric acid breakthrough was not a useful predictor of pathologic nocturnal esophageal reflux.
Conclusion
In GERD subjects treated with a PPI, measuring time esophageal pH < 4 will significantly overestimate the prevalence of pathologic esophageal acid exposure over 24 hours and during the nocturnal period.
doi:10.1186/1471-230X-8-15
PMCID: PMC2409349  PMID: 18498663

Results 1-10 (10)