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1.  Effects of an eight-week supervised, structured lifestyle modification programme on anthropometric, metabolic and cardiovascular risk factors in severely obese adults 
Lifestyle modification is fundamental to obesity treatment, but few studies have described the effects of structured lifestyle programmes specifically in bariatric patients. We sought to describe changes in anthropometric and metabolic characteristics in a cohort of bariatric patients after participation in a nurse-led, structured lifestyle programme.
We conducted a retrospective, observational cohort study of adults with a body mass index (BMI) ≥40 kgm−2 (or ≥35 kgm−2 with significant co-morbidity) who were attending a regional bariatric service and who completed a single centre, 8-week, nurse-led multidisciplinary lifestyle modification programme. Weight, height, waist circumference, blood pressure, HbA1c, fasting glucose and lipid profiles as well as functional capacity (Incremental Shuttle Walk Test) and questionnaire-based anxiety and depression scores before and after the programme were compared in per-protocol analyses.
Of 183 bariatric patients enrolled, 150 (81.9 %) completed the programme. Mean age of completers was 47.9 ± 11.2 years. 34.7 % were male. There were statistically significant reductions in weight (129.6 ± 25.9 v 126.9 ± 26.1 kg, p < 0.001), BMI (46.3 ± 8.3 v 44.9 ± 9.0 kgm−2, p < 0.001), waist circumference (133.0 ± 17.1 v 129.3 ± 17.5 cm in women and 143.8 ± 19.0 v 135.1 ± 17.9 cm in men, both p < 0.001) as well as anxiety and depression scores, total- and LDL-cholesterol and triglyceride levels, with an increase in functional capacity (5.9 ± 1.7 v 6.8 ± 2.1 metabolic equivalents of thermogenesis (METS), p < 0.001) in completers at the end of the programme compared to the start. Blood pressure improved, with reductions in systolic and diastolic blood pressure from 135 ± 16.2 to 131.6 ± 17.1 (p = 0.009) and 84.7 ± 10.2 to 81.4 ± 10.9 mmHg (p < 0.001), respectively. The proportion of patients achieving target blood pressure increased from 50.3 to 59.3 % (p = 0.04). The proportion of patients with diabetes achieving HbA1c <53 mmol/mol increased from 28.6 to 42.9 %, p = 0.02.
Bariatric patients completing an 8 week, nurse-led structured lifestyle programme had improved adiposity, fitness, lipid profiles, psychosocial health, blood pressure and glycaemia. Further assessment of this programme in a pragmatic randomised controlled trial seems warranted.
PMCID: PMC4522055  PMID: 26231181
Bariatric; Structured lifestyle modification; Cardiovascular risk; CLANN (Changing Lifestyle with Activity and Nutrition) Programme; Nurse-led; Diabetes
2.  Randomized controlled trial of the efficacy of aerobic exercise in reducing metabolic risk in healthy older people: The Hertfordshire Physical Activity Trial 
While there are compelling observational data confirming that individuals who exercise are healthier, the efficacy of aerobic exercise interventions to reduce metabolic risk and improve insulin sensitivity in older people has not been fully elucidated. Furthermore, while low birth weight has been shown to predict adverse health outcomes later in life, its influence on the response to aerobic exercise is unknown. Our primary objective is to assess the efficacy of a fully supervised twelve week aerobic exercise intervention in reducing clustered metabolic risk in healthy older adults. A secondary objective is to determine the influence of low birth weight on the response to exercise in this group.
We aim to recruit 100 participants born between 1931–1939, from the Hertfordshire Cohort Study and randomly assign them to no intervention or to 36 fully supervised one hour sessions on a cycle ergometer, over twelve weeks. Each participant will undergo detailed anthropometric and metabolic assessment pre- and post-intervention, including muscle biopsy, magnetic resonance imaging and spectroscopy, objective measurement of physical activity and sub-maximal fitness testing.
Given the extensive phenotypic characterization, this study will provide valuable insights into the mechanisms underlying the beneficial effects of aerobic exercise as well as the efficacy, feasibility and safety of such interventions in this age group.
Trial Registration
Current Controlled Trials: ISRCTN60986572
PMCID: PMC2708167  PMID: 19545359

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