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1.  Diabetic ketoacidosis and hyperglycemic hyperosmolar syndrome after renal transplantation in the United States 
Background
The incidence and risk factors for diabetic ketoacidosis (diabetic ketoacidosis) and hyperglycemic hyperosmolar syndrome (hyperglycemic hyperosmolar syndrome, previously called non-ketotic hyperosmolar coma) have not been reported in a national population of renal transplant (renal transplantation) recipients.
Methods
We performed a historical cohort study of 39,628 renal transplantation recipients in the United States Renal Data System between 1 July 1994 and 30 June 1998, followed until 31 Dec 1999. Outcomes were hospitalizations for a primary diagnosis of diabetic ketoacidosis (ICD-9 code 250.1x) and hyperglycemic hyperosmolar syndrome (code 250.2x). Cox Regression analysis was used to calculate adjusted hazard ratios for time to hospitalization for diabetic ketoacidosis or hyperglycemic hyperosmolar syndrome.
Results
The incidence of diabetic ketoacidosis and hyperglycemic hyperosmolar syndrome were 33.2/1000 person years (PY) and 2.7/1000 PY respectively for recipients with a prior diagnosis of diabetes mellitus (DM), and 2.0/1000 PY and 1.1/1000 PY in patients without DM. In Cox Regression analysis, African Americans (AHR, 2.71, 95 %CI, 1.96–3.75), females, recipients of cadaver kidneys, patients age 33–44 (vs. >55), more recent year of transplant, and patients with maintenance TAC (tacrolimus, vs. cyclosporine) had significantly higher risk of diabetic ketoacidosis. However, the rate of diabetic ketoacidosis decreased more over time in TAC users than overall. Risk factors for hyperglycemic hyperosmolar syndrome were similar except for the significance of positive recipient hepatitis C serology and non-significance of female gender. Both diabetic ketoacidosis (AHR, 2.44, 95% CI, 2.10–2.85, p < 0.0001) and hyperglycemic hyperosmolar syndrome (AHR 1.87, 95% CI, 1.22–2.88, p = 0.004) were independently associated with increased mortality.
Conclusions
We conclude that diabetic ketoacidosis and hyperglycemic hyperosmolar syndrome were associated with increased risk of mortality and were not uncommon after renal transplantation. High-risk groups were identified.
doi:10.1186/1472-6823-3-1
PMCID: PMC153547  PMID: 12659645
diabetic ketoacidosis; hyperglycemic hyperosmolar syndrome; nonketotic hyperosomoalr coma; graft loss; African American; female; hepatitis C; rejection; Cyclosporine; Tacrolimus; hospitalization; complications; USRDS

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