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1.  The methylated N-terminal tail of RCC1 is required for stabilisation of its interaction with chromatin by Ran in live cells 
BMC Cell Biology  2010;11:43.
Regulator of chromosome condensation 1 (RCC1) is the guanine nucleotide exchange factor for Ran GTPase. Localised generation of Ran-GTP by RCC1 on chromatin is critical for nucleocytoplasmic transport, mitotic spindle assembly and nuclear envelope formation. Both the N-terminal tail of RCC1 and its association with Ran are important for its interaction with chromatin in cells. In vitro, the association of Ran with RCC1 induces a conformational change in the N-terminal tail that promotes its interaction with DNA.
We have investigated the mechanism of the dynamic interaction of the α isoform of human RCC1 (RCC1α) with chromatin in live cells using fluorescence recovery after photobleaching (FRAP) of green fluorescent protein (GFP) fusions. We show that the N-terminal tail stabilises the interaction of RCC1α with chromatin and this function can be partially replaced by another lysine-rich nuclear localisation signal. Removal of the tail prevents the interaction of RCC1α with chromatin from being stabilised by RanT24N, a mutant that binds stably to RCC1α. The interaction of RCC1α with chromatin is destabilised by mutation of lysine 4 (K4Q), which abolishes α-N-terminal methylation, and this interaction is no longer stabilised by RanT24N. However, α-N-terminal methylation of RCC1α is not regulated by the binding of RanT24N. Conversely, the association of Ran with precipitated RCC1α does not require the N-terminal tail of RCC1α or its methylation. The mobility of RCC1α on chromatin is increased by mutation of aspartate 182 (D182A), which inhibits guanine-nucleotide exchange activity, but RCC1αD182A can still bind nucleotide-free Ran and its interaction with chromatin is stabilised by RanT24N.
These results show that the stabilisation of the dynamic interaction of RCC1α with chromatin by Ran in live cells requires the N-terminal tail of RCC1α. α-N-methylation is not regulated by formation of the binary complex with Ran, but it promotes chromatin binding through the tail. This work supports a model in which the association of RCC1α with chromatin is promoted by a conformational change in the α-N-terminal methylated tail that is induced allosterically in the binary complex with Ran.
PMCID: PMC2898669  PMID: 20565941
2.  Dynamic localisation of Ran GTPase during the cell cycle 
BMC Cell Biology  2009;10:66.
Ran GTPase has multiple functions during the cell division cycle, including nucleocytoplasmic transport, mitotic spindle assembly and nuclear envelope formation. The activity of Ran is determined by both its guanine nucleotide-bound state and its subcellular localization.
Here, we have characterised the localisation and mobility of Ran coupled to green fluorescent protein (GFP) during the cell cycle in live human cells. Ran-GFP is nuclear during interphase and is dispersed throughout the cell during mitosis. GFP-RanQ69L, a mutant locked in the GTP-bound state, is less highly concentrated in the nucleus and associates with nuclear pore complexes within the nuclear envelope. During mitosis, GFP-RanQ69L is excluded from chromosomes and localizes to the spindle. By contrast, GFP-RanT24N, a mutant with low affinity for nucleotides, interacts relatively stably with chromatin throughout the cell cycle and is highly concentrated on mitotic chromosomes.
These results show that Ran interacts dynamically with chromatin, nuclear pore complexes and the mitotic spindle during the cell cycle. These interactions are dependent on the nucleotide-bound state of the protein. Our data indicate that Ran-GTP generated at chromatin is highly mobile and interacts dynamically with distal structures that are involved in nuclear transport and mitotic spindle assembly.
PMCID: PMC2755469  PMID: 19765287

Results 1-2 (2)