Coronary heart disease (CHD) is a major cause of morbidity and mortality, and cardiac rehabilitation (CR) is still not well developed in mainland China. The objective of this study is to investigate the barriers associated with those seeking cardiac rehabilitation (CR) and to explore appropriate secondary prevention modalities tailored to the needs of Chinese patients with coronary heart disease (CHD).
A consecutive series of eligible patients was recruited from the cardiac department of a teaching hospital in Nanjing, located in southeast China. Structured face-to-face interviews were conducted with 328 patients prior to hospital discharge. Patient preferences for seeking an outpatient CR program or an alternative outpatient self-choice, minimal-cost educational program were evaluated. Socio-demographic characteristics and clinical data were assessed. Additionally, patients were asked to provide the reasons affecting their choice.
Overall, only 14.3% patients preferred the standard CR program. Factors associated with non-participating were female gender (odds ratios [ORs], 6.05, 95% CI, 1.30-28.19), older age (ORs, 1.11, 95% CI, 1.04-1.19, per year), less education (ORs, 8.13, 95% CI, 2.83-23.38), low income (ORs, 3.26, 95% CI, 1.24-8.54), and having either basic medical care or a lack of health insurance (ORs, 10.01, 95% CI, 3.90-25.68). The most common reason for refusing to participate in CR was that patients could not afford it. Of the remaining patients, 65.8% patients chose self-choice educational programs, especially for female (ORs, 5.84, 95% CI, 2.67-12.79), older (ORs, 1.06, 95% CI, 1.02-1.11, per year), and low income (ORs, 2.14, 95% CI, 1.12-4.10) patients. The main reasons for their preferences were their desires for more information about disease and risk factors, the low cost, feasibility, and saving time.
Multiple barriers, which may occur at the patient, health system, and societal levels, have prevented eligible patients from participating in CR programs. Self-choice educational programs, an alternative model incorporating more information, would strongly meet the needs of most patients. A feasible delivery format for secondary prevention should be provided for all CHD patients.
Coronary heart disease; Secondary prevention; Cardiac rehabilitation; Health education
Chronic kidney disease is associated with increased risk of mortality. We examined the impact of moderate and severe renal insufficiency (RI) on short- and long-term mortality among unselected patients with ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) treated with primary percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI).
From January 1, 2002 to December 31, 2010 all patients with STEMI treated with primary PCI were identified. The hazard ratio (HR) for death was estimated using a Cox regression model, controlling for potential confounders. RI was defined as creatinine clearance (CrCl) < 60 mL/min (moderate RI: CrCl ≤30 < 60 mL/min and severe RI: CrCl < 30 mL/min).
The study cohort consisted of 4,116 patients of whom 898 (21.8%) had RI and 3,218 (78.2%) had a CrCl ≥ 60 mL/min. Compared to patients without RI, patients with RI were older, more often female and more likely to have diabetes mellitus, hypertension and to present with a higher Killip class.
Among patients with a preserved kidney function and patients with RI, 30-day all-cause mortality was 3.5% vs. 20.9% (log-rank p < 0.001); 1-year all-cause mortality was 5.7% vs. 29.4% (log-rank p < 0.001); 5-year all-cause mortality was 13.4% vs. 47.4% (log-rank p < 0.001). Moderate and severe RI were associated with higher 1-year mortality compared to patients with a preserved renal function (CrCl ≤30 < 60 mL/min: adjusted HR 2.71 [95% CI 2.09-3.51], p < 0.001), and (CrCl < 30 mL/min: adjusted HR 7.09 [4.82-10.44], p < 0.001).
In unselected STEMI patients treated with primary PCI, moderate and severe RI were associated with increased risk of mortality.
ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction; Renal insufficiency; Mortality
Little is known about the relationship between cardiovascular risk, disease and actual use of aspirin in the community.
The Measuring Disparities in Chronic Conditions (MDCC) study is a community and health facility-based survey designed to track disparities in the delivery of health interventions for common chronic diseases. MDCC includes a survey instrument designed to collect detailed information about aspirin use. In King County, WA between 2011 and 2012, we surveyed 4633 white, African American, or Hispanic adults (45% home address-based sample, 55% health facility sample). We examined self-reported counseling on, frequency of use and risks of aspirin for all respondents. For a subgroup free of CAD or cerebral infarction that underwent physical examination, we measured 10-year coronary heart disease risk and blood salicylate concentration.
Two in five respondents reported using aspirin routinely while one in five with a history of CAD or cerebral infarction and without contraindication did not report routine use of aspirin. Women with these conditions used less aspirin than men (65.0% vs. 76.5%) and reported more health problems that would make aspirin unsafe (29.4% vs. 21.2%). In a subgroup undergoing phlebotomy a third of respondents with low cardiovascular risk used aspirin routinely and only 4.6% of all aspirin users had no detectable salicylate in their blood.
In this large urban county where health care delivery should be of high quality, there is insufficient aspirin use among those with high cardiovascular risk or disease and routine aspirin use by many at low risk. Further efforts are needed to promote shared-decision making between patients and clinicians as well as inform the public about appropriate use of routine aspirin to reduce the burden of atherosclerotic vascular disease.
Aspirin; Prevention; Coronary disease
Lactococcus garvieae is a rare cause of infective endocarditis (IE) in humans and the bacterium can easily be misidentified. Intracranial haemorrhage often occurs in conjunction with IE, but subdural haemorrhage (SDH) is very rarely encountered.
The patient was an 81-year-old male with a history of cardiovascular disease and a prosthetic biologic aortic valve. He presented with fatigue and an acute onset of headache. Computed tomography (CT) revealed a left-sided fronto-temporal subdural haematoma. Low-grade fever was noted and blood cultures yielded growth of L. garvieae. Transesophageal echocardiography (TEE) revealed small vegetations on the native mitral valve and on the prosthetic aortic valve. Treatment with penicillin and tobramycin was initiated and the recovery was slow but uneventful.
This is the first report of a case where SDH was the sole presenting neurological sign of IE. The case demonstrates that IE should be considered in patients with SDH where a history of trauma is absent, especially if the patient has fever or predisposing conditions such as a prosthetic heart valve.
Infective endocarditis; Lactococcus garvieae; Subdural haematoma
Weight monitoring is an important element of HF self-care, yet the most clinically meaningful way to evaluate weight monitoring adherence is uncertain. We conducted this study to evaluate the association of (1) self-reported recall and (2) daily diary-recorded weight monitoring adherence with heart failure-related (HF-related) hospitalization.
We conducted a prospective cohort study among 216 patients within a randomized trial of HF self-care training. All patients had an initial self-care training session followed by 15 calls (median) to reinforce educational material; patients were also given digital scales, instructed to weigh daily, record weights in a diary, and mail diaries back monthly. Weight monitoring adherence was assessed with a self-reported recall question administered at 12 months and dichotomized into at least daily versus less frequent weighing. Diary-recorded weight monitoring was evaluated over 12 months and dichotomized into ≥80% and <80% adherence. HF-related hospitalizations were ascertained through patient report and confirmed through record review.
Over 12 months in 216 patients, we identified 50 HF-related hospitalizations. Patients self-reporting daily or more frequent weight monitoring had an incidence rate ratio of 1.34 (95% CI 0.24-7.32) for HF-related hospitalizations compared to those reporting less frequent weight monitoring. Patients who completed ≥80% of weight diaries had an IRR of 0.37 (95% CI 0.18-0.75) for HF-related hospitalizations compared to patients who completed <80% of weight diaries.
Self-reported recall of weight monitoring adherence was not associated with fewer HF hospitalizations. In contrast, diary-recorded adherence ≥80% of days was associated with fewer HF-related hospitalizations. Incorporating diary-based measures of weight monitoring adherence into HF self-care training programs may help to identify patients at risk for HF-related hospitalizations.
Heart failure; Patient compliance; Monitoring; Physiologic
Even though intra-cardiac cystic lesions are extremely unusual in adults, they should be considered in the differential diagnosis of patients presenting with valvular masses. Cardiac magnetic resonance imaging has emerged as modality of choice for non-invasive characterization of cardiac masses.
We report a case of an intra-cardiac mass of the mitral valve in a 51-year old male, detected by echocardiography after transient ischemic attack and retinal artery occlusion. Cardiac magnetic resonance (CMR) imaging was performed at 3 T to evaluate and characterize the lesion prior to surgery. Diagnosis of a calcified left-ventricular pseudocyst of the mitral valve was confirmed by histological evaluation.
This case presents the unusual finding of contrast uptake in an intra-cardiac cystic lesion and points to the potential of T1 and T2 mapping for assisting in the characterization and diagnosis of intra-cardiac masses by CMR.
Structural changes of the left and right atria associated with atrial fibrillation (AF) in mitral stenosis (MS) patients are well known, and alterations in microRNA (miRNA) expression profiles of the right atria have also been investigated. However, miRNA changes in the left atria still require delineation. This study evaluated alterations in miRNA expression profiles of left atrial tissues from MS patients with AF relative to those with normal sinus rhythm (NSR).
Sample tissues from left atrial appendages were obtained from 12 MS patients (6 with AF) during mitral valve replacement surgery. From these tissues, miRNA expression profiles were created and analyzed using a human miRNA microarray. Results were validated via reverse-transcription and quantitative PCR for 5 selected miRNAs. Potential miRNA targets were predicted and their functions and potential pathways analyzed via the miRFocus database.
The expression levels of 22 miRNAs differed between the AF and NSR groups. Relative to NSR patients, in those with AF the expression levels of 45% (10/22) of these miRNAs were significantly higher, while those of the balance (55%, 12/22) were significantly lower. Potential miRNA targets and molecular pathways were identified.
AF alters the miRNA expression profiles of the left atria of MS patients. These findings may be useful for the biological understanding of AF in MS patients.
Atrial fibrillation; Microrna; Mitral stenosis; Microarray; Mirfocus
Deaths from coronary heart disease (CHD) have been decreasing in most Western countries over the last few decades. In contrast, a flattening of the decrease in mortality has been recently reported among younger age groups in some countries. We aimed to determine whether the decrease in CHD mortality is flattening among Swedish young adults.
We examined trends in CHD mortality in Sweden between 1987 and 2009 among persons aged 35 to 84 years using CHD mortality data from the Swedish National Register on Cause of Death. Annual percent changes in rates were examined using Joinpoint software.
Overall, CHD mortality rates decreased by 67.4% in men and 65.1% in women. Among men aged 35–54 years, there was a modest early attenuation from a marked initial decrease. In the oldest women aged 75–84 years, an attenuation in the mortality decrease was observed from 1989 to 1992, followed by a decrease, as in all other age groups.
In Sweden, coronary heart disease deaths are still falling. We were unable to confirm a flattening of the decline in young people. Death rates continue to decline in men and women across all age groups, albeit at a slower pace in younger men since 1991. Continued careful monitoring of CHD mortality trends in Sweden is required, particularly among young adults.
Myocardial ischemia; Mortality; Risk factors; Coronary heart disease
There is a paucity of diagnostic and therapeutic facilities in Nigeria to confirm coronary artery disease and offer appropriate interventional therapy. There is now a private cardiac catheterization laboratory in Lagos but as there are no sustained Open Heart Surgery programmes, percutaneous coronary interventions are currently being performed without surgical backup. This study was designed to assess results of stand-alone percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) as currently practiced in Lagos, Nigeria.
This cross-sectional study was conducted between July 2009 and July 2012. The study included all patients that underwent PCI in Lagos. Data was extracted from a prospectively maintained database.
Coronary artery disease was confirmed in 80 (52.6%) of 152 Nigerians referred with a diagnosis of Ischaemic Heart Disease. There were 53 males (66.2%) and 27 females (33.8%). The average age was 60.3 +/−9.6 years and average euroscore was 4.5 +/−3.1. Of the 80 patients, 77 (96.3%) had significant stenoses and were candidates for revascularization. Distribution of significant stenoses was one in 32 patients (41.5%), two in 11 patients (14.3%), three in 19 patients (24.7%), four in 13 patients (16.9%) and five in 2 patients (2.6%). PCI was performed in 48 (62.3%) of the patients eligible for revascularization as the coronary anatomy in the remaining patients was not suitable for PCI. The indication for PCI was for myocardial infarction or unstable angina in 39 patients (81.2%). PCI was performed with PTCA plus stenting in 41 patients (85.4%) and with PTCA alone in 7 patients (14.6%) with good angiographic results. Overall 29 of the 48 patients (60.4%) had complete revascularization of significant stenoses. Complications of PCI were bleeding that required blood transfusion in 1 patient (2.1%), minor femoral haematomas in 2 patients (4.2%), and a major adverse clinical event in 1 patient (2.1%).
A stand-alone PCI programme has been developed in Lagos, Nigeria. Both elective and urgent PCIs have been performed with no mortalities and a low complication rate. Increased volumes will however accrue and complete revascularization rates would be improved with the establishment of Open Heart Surgery programmes to provide CABG as back-up for PCI and alternate therapy for more complex lesions.
Insulin resistance (IR) is a risk factor for ischaemic heart disease and myocardial infarction (MI). IR often manifests in MI and is regarded as an independent predictor of in-hospital mortality, which can provide early risk stratification for recurrent acute coronary events.
The study enrolled 200 patients (130 males and 70 females aged 61.4 ± 1.12 years) diagnosed with ST elevation MI. At days 1 and 12 from the MI onset, IR levels and lipid profiles, as well as serum glucose, insulin, adipokine and ghrelin levels, were measured.
Free fatty acid (FFA) levels had the most pronounced changes: IR patients had a 9-fold increase in FFA levels at day 1, and patients without IR had a 6-fold increase. Leptin levels at days 1 and 12, in IR patients were, on average, 1.5- and 2-fold higher compared to the controls and patients with no IR (р < 0.05). Leptin levels in IR patients were increased throughout the entire hospital stay. Resistin levels in IR patients were, on average, 1.4-fold higher throughout the entire hospital stay, while in non-IR patients, resistin levels were similar to the controls. Adiponectin levels in IR patients were decreased compared to the controls, while in patients with IR, they were similar to the controls. Both IR and non-IR MI patients had 3-fold and 3.7-fold lower ghrelin levels at day 1, respectively, compared to the controls. The correlation analysis showed a negative correlation between ghrelin and FFA (r = −0.48 р = 0.007), ghrelin and leptin (r = −0.4 р = 0.003), ghrelin and insulin (r = −0.54 р = 0.002), and ghrelin and glucose (r = −0.31 р = 0.002) in MI patients.
Dyslipidaemia, along with insulinaemia and glycaemia, is one of the most significant IR risk factors in the acute and early recovery phases of MI. Dyslipidaemia is characterised by a high FFA level; an imbalance of leptin, resistin, and adiponectin; and a deficiency of ghrelin in the acute and early recovery periods of MI. FFA and ghrelin can be used as promising molecular markers to stratify the risk of recurrent acute coronary events and diabetes mellitus in MI patients.
Insulin resistance; Myocardial infarction; Free fatty acids; Adipokines; Ghrelin
The Ryanodine receptor 3 gene (RYR3) encodes an intracellular calcium channel that mediates the efflux of Ca2+ from intracellular stores. Two single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the RYR3 gene have been shown to associate with stroke (rs877087) and carotid intima-media thickness (rs2229116) in two independent genome-wide association studies (GWAS) in Caucasian. We investigated the effect of these two SNPs as well as the 31.1 kilobases spanning region on atherosclerosis in Japanese population.
Atherosclerotic severity was assessed by carotid artery (n = 1374) and pathological atherosclerosis index (PAI) (n = 1262), which is a macroscopic examination of the luminal surfaces of 8 systemic arteries in consecutive autopsy samples. 4 tag SNPs in the 31.1 Kb region, rs877087, rs2132207, rs658750 and rs2229116, were genotyped and haplotypes were inferred to study the association with atherosclerotic indices.
rs877087 and rs2229116 were associated with PAI (OR = 2.07 [1.04-4.12] (95% CI), p = 0.038; and OR = 1.38 [1.02-1.86], p = 0.035, respectively). rs2229116 was also associated with common carotid atherosclerosis (OR = 1.45 [1.13-1.86], p = 0.003). The risk allele of rs2229116 was opposite from the original report. The haplotype block of this 31.1 Kb region was different between Caucasian and Japanese. Haplotype analysis revealed that only TAGG haplotype was associated with PAI (OR = 0.67 [0.48-0.94], p = 0.020) and atherosclerosis of common carotid artery (OR = 0.75 [0.58-0.98], p = 0.034).
rs877087 and rs2229116 of RYR3 gene are associated with atherosclerosis severity in Japanese. The functional difference caused by rs2229116 needs to be investigated.
Atherosclerosis; Polymorphism; Ryanodine receptor 3; Japanese
Both carotid-femoral (cf) pulse wave velocity (PWV) and brachial-ankle (ba) PWV employ arterial sites that are not consistent with the path of blood flow. Few previous studies have reported the differential characteristics between cfPWV and baPWV by simultaneously comparing these with measures of pure central (aorta) and peripheral (leg) arterial stiffness, i.e., heart-femoral (hf) PWV and femoral-ankle (fa) PWV in healthy populations. We aimed to identify the degree to which these commonly used measures of cfPWV and baPWV correlate with hfPWV and faPWV, respectively, and to evaluate whether both cfPWV and baPWV are consistent with either hfPWV or faPWV in their associations with cardiovascular (CV) risk factors.
A population-based sample of healthy 784 men aged 40–49 (202 white Americans, 68 African Americans, 202 Japanese-Americans, and 282 Koreans) was examined in this cross-sectional study. Four regional PWVs were simultaneously measured by an automated tonometry/plethysmography system.
cfPWV correlated strongly with hfPWV (r = .81, P < .001), but weakly with faPWV (r = .12, P = .001). baPWV correlated moderately with both hfPWV (r = .47, P < .001) and faPWV (r = .62, P < .001). After stepwise regression analyses with adjustments for race, cfPWV shared common significant correlates with both hfPWV and faPWV: systolic blood pressure (BP) and body mass index (BMI). However, BMI was positively associated with hfPWV and cfPWV, and negatively associated with faPWV. baPWV shared common significant correlates with hfPWV: age and systolic BP. baPWV also shared the following correlates with faPWV: systolic BP, triglycerides, and current smoking.
Among healthy men aged 40 – 49, cfPWV correlated strongly with central PWV, and baPWV correlated with both central and peripheral PWVs. Of the CV risk factors, systolic BP was uniformly associated with all the regional PWVs. In the associations with factors other than systolic BP, cfPWV was consistent with central PWV, while baPWV was consistent with both central and peripheral PWVs.
Arterial stiffness; Aorta; Carotid arteries; Brachial artery; Femoral artery
Metabolic syndrome (MetS) is related with left ventricular diastolic dysfunction (LVDD) and poor cardiovascular outcome. Epicardial adipose tissue (EAT) thickness, measured by echocardiography, is increased in subjects with MetS. However, the association of EAT with LV diastolic function has not been evaluated in subjects with MetS.
In this retrospective study, EAT thickness was measured in 1,486 consecutive asymptomatic patients with no known heart disease who had transthoracic echocardiography during a self-referred healthcare exam. Subjects with a history of ischemic heart disease, cardiomyopathy or significant valvular heart disease were excluded. LVDD was defined as E/e’ ratio ≥ 15. Subjects were grouped into two groups, those with MetS and those without.
MetS was present in 346 subjects. There was no difference in LV systolic function between the two groups. However compared to patients without MetS, patients with MetS had larger left atrium (LA) size and higher E/e’ ratio (38 ± 5 versus 35 ± 5 mm for LA and 10.0 ± 3.3 versus 8.7 ± 2.7 for E/e’ ratio in subjects with versus without MetS both p < 0.001). LVDD was found in 27 (7.8%) subjects with MetS, compared to 30 (2.6%) subjects without MetS (p < 0.001). In subjects with MetS, EAT was significantly correlated with LVDD, even after adjusting for other cardiometabolic risk factors such as age, systolic blood pressure, BMI, blood glucose and LDL cholesterol (OR 1.845, 95% CI 1.153-2.951, p = 0.011).
Greater EAT is found in subjects with MetS. EAT is significantly associated with LVDD in subjects with MetS, even after adjusting for other risk factors.
Epicardial fat; Diastolic function; Metabolic syndrome
Despite recommended pharmacotherapies the use of secondary prevention therapy after myocardial infarction (MI) remains suboptimal. Patients with diabetes mellitus (DM) have worse prognosis after MI compared to patients without DM and aggressive secondary prevention pharmacotherapy in this population is therefore warranted. We examined the changes in use of evidence-based secondary prevention pharmacotherapy in patients with and without DM discharged after first MI.
All patients aged 30 years or older admitted with first MI in Denmark during 1997–2006 were identified by individual-level linkage of nationwide registries of hospitalizations. Univariate and multivariate logistic regression models were used to identify patient characteristics associated with initiation of acetylsalicylic acid, angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors or angiotensin receptor blockers, β-blockers, and clopidogrel within 90 days, and statins within 180 days of discharge, respectively.
A total of 78,230 patients were included, the mean age was 68.3 years (SD 13.0), 63.5% were men and 9,797 (12.5%) had diabetes. Comparison of claimed prescriptions in the period 1997–2002 and 2003–2006 showed significant (p < 0.001) increases in claims for acetylsalicylic acid (38.9% vs. 69.7%), angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors or angiotensin receptor blockers (38.7% vs. 50.4%), β-blockers (69.2% vs. 77.9%), clopidogrel (16.7% vs. 66.3%), and statins (41.3% vs. 77.3%). During 2003–2006, patients with DM claimed significantly less acetylsalicylic acid (odds ratio [OR] 0.81 [95% confidence interval [CI] 0.74–0.88) and clopidogrel (OR 0.91 [95% CI 0.83–1.00]) than patients without DM.
Despite sizeable increase in use of evidence-based secondary prevention pharmacotherapy after MI from 1997 to 2006, these drugs are not used in a substantial proportion of subjects and patients with DM received significantly less antiplatelet therapy than patients without DM. Increased focus on initiation of secondary prevention pharmacotherapy after MI is warranted, especially in patients with DM.
Doubts remain about atherosclerotic disease and risk stratification of asymptomatic type-2 diabetic patients (T2DP). This study aims to evaluate the usefulness of calcium score (CS) and coronary computed tomography (CT) angiography (CTA) to predict fatal and non fatal cardiovascular events (CVEV) in T2DP.
Eighty-five consecutive T2DP undergoing CT (Phillips Brilliance, 16-slice) with CS and CTA were prospectively enrolled in a transversal case-control study. Patients were followed for 48 months (range 18 - 68) to assess CVEV: cardiovascular death, acute coronary syndrome, revascularisation and stroke. Potential predictors of CVEV were identified. Predictive models based on clinical features, CTA and CS were created and compared.
Performing CT impacted T2DP treatment. Cardiovascular risk was lowered during follow-up but metabolic control remained suboptimal. CVEV occurred in 11.8% T2DP (3.1%/year). CS ≥86.6 was predictor of CVEV over time, with a high negative predictive value, an 80% sensitivity and 74.7% specificity. Although its prognostic value was not independent of the presence/absence of obstructive CAD, adding CS and CTA data to clinical parameters improved the prediction of CVEV: the combined model had the highest AUC (0.888, 95%CI 0.789-0.987, p < 0.001) for the prediction of the study endpoints.
CS showed great value in T2DP risk stratification and its prognostic value was further enhanced by CTA data. Information provided by CT may help predict CVEV in T2DP and potentially improve their outcome.
Cardiac computed tomography; Coronary artery calcium; Coronary CT angiography; Cardiovascular risk; Type-2 diabetes; Coronary artery disease
Most patients with heart failure are diagnosed and managed in primary care, however, underdiagnosis and undertreatment are common. We assessed whether implementation of a diagnostic-therapeutic strategy improves functionality, health-related quality of life, and uptake of heart failure medication in primary care.
A selective screening study followed by a single-blind cluster randomized trial in primary care. The study population consists of patients aged 65 years or over who presented themselves to the general practitioner in the previous 12 months with shortness of breath on exertion. Patients already known with established heart failure, confirmed by echocardiography, are excluded. Diagnostic investigations include history taking, physical examination, electrocardiography, and serum N-terminal pro B-type natriuretic peptide levels. Only participants with an abnormal electrocardiogram or an N-terminal pro B-type natriuretic peptide level exceeding the exclusionary cutpoint for non-acute onset heart failure (> 15 pmol/L (≈ 125 pg/ml)) will undergo open-access echocardiography. The diagnosis of heart failure (with reduced or preserved ejection fraction) is established by an expert panel consisting of two cardiologists and a general practitioner, according to the criteria of the European Society of Cardiology guidelines.
Patients with newly established heart failure are allocated to either the 'care as usual’ group or the 'intervention’ group. Randomization is at the level of the general practitioner. In the intervention group general practitioners receive a single half-day training in heart failure management and the use of a structured up-titration scheme. All participants fill out quality of life questionnaires at baseline and after six months of follow-up. A six-minute walking test will be performed in patients with heart failure. Information on medication and hospitalization rates is extracted from the electronic medical files of the general practitioners.
This study will provide information on the prevalence of unrecognized heart failure in elderly with shortness of breath on exertion, and the randomized comparison will reveal whether management based on a half-day training of general practitioners in the practical application of an up-titration scheme results in improvements in functionality, health-related quality of life, and uptake of heart failure medication in heart failure patients compared to care as usual.
Heart failure; Diagnosis; Treatment; Elderly; Primary care; Cluster randomized trial
The high burden and rising incidence of cardiovascular disease (CVD) in resource constrained countries necessitates implementation of robust and pragmatic primary and secondary prevention strategies. Many current CVD management guidelines recommend absolute cardiovascular (CV) risk assessment as a clinically sound guide to preventive and treatment strategies. Development of non-laboratory based cardiovascular risk assessment algorithms enable absolute risk assessment in resource constrained countries.
The objective of this review is to evaluate the performance of existing non-laboratory based CV risk assessment algorithms using the benchmarks for clinically useful CV risk assessment algorithms outlined by Cooney and colleagues.
A literature search to identify non-laboratory based risk prediction algorithms was performed in MEDLINE, CINAHL, Ovid Premier Nursing Journals Plus, and PubMed databases. The identified algorithms were evaluated using the benchmarks for clinically useful cardiovascular risk assessment algorithms outlined by Cooney and colleagues.
Five non-laboratory based CV risk assessment algorithms were identified. The Gaziano and Framingham algorithms met the criteria for appropriateness of statistical methods used to derive the algorithms and endpoints. The Swedish Consultation, Framingham and Gaziano algorithms demonstrated good discrimination in derivation datasets. Only the Gaziano algorithm was externally validated where it had optimal discrimination. The Gaziano and WHO algorithms had chart formats which made them simple and user friendly for clinical application.
Both the Gaziano and Framingham non-laboratory based algorithms met most of the criteria outlined by Cooney and colleagues. External validation of the algorithms in diverse samples is needed to ascertain their performance and applicability to different populations and to enhance clinicians’ confidence in them.
Global risk assessment; Risk assessment algorithms; Discrimination; Calibration; Absolute cardiovascular risk
Compression of the trachea, bronchi, and pulmonary arteries are complications in patients with large thoracic aortic aneurysms. In this case, we report unexpected cardiopulmonary collapse manifested by general anesthesia before surgery in an asymptomatic patient with a large thoracic aortic aneurysm.
We present the case of a 32-year-old man with a 10-cm aneurysm in the ascending aorta. A total aortic arch replacement was planned. After intravenous anesthesia, his aneurysm occluded the left main bronchus and right pulmonary artery simultaneously, and induced severe hypoxia. Percutaneous cardiopulmonary support was conducted and the patient recovered from cardiopulmonary collapse successfully. After the patient regained consciousness from anesthesia, the findings of organ compressions disappeared. At the second surgery, percutaneous cardiopulmonary support was initiated with local anesthesia before general anesthesia and intubation. The operation was performed successfully without any adverse events.
We experienced a case of hemodynamic collapse induced by general anesthesia in a patient of an unruptured thoracic aortic aneurysm. It is important to recognize that fatal organ compression might be caused by general anesthesia even in asymptomatic patients with thoracic aortic aneurysm.
Thoracic aortic aneurysm; Anesthesia; Percutaneous cardiopulmonary support
Little is known on whether there are ethnic differences in outcomes following percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) and coronary artery bypass grafting surgery (CABG) after acute myocardial infarction (AMI). We compared 30-day and long-term mortality, recurrent AMI, and congestive heart failure in South Asian, Chinese and White patients with AMI who underwent PCI and CABG.
Hospital administrative data in British Columbia (BC), Canada were linked to the BC Cardiac Registry to identify all patients with AMI who underwent PCI (n = 4729) or CABG (n = 1687) (1999–2003). Ethnicity was determined from validated surname algorithms. Logistic regression for 30-day mortality and Cox proportional-hazards models were adjusted for age, sex, socio-economic status, severity of coronary disease, comorbid conditions, time from AMI to a revascularization procedure and distance to the nearest hospital.
Following PCI, Chinese had higher short-term mortality (Odds Ratio (OR): 2.36, 95% CI: 1.12-5.00; p = 0.02), and South Asians had a higher risk for recurrent AMI (OR: 1.34, 95% CI: 1.08-1.67, p = 0.007) and heart failure (OR 1.81, 95% CI: 1.00-3.29, p = 0.05) compared to White patients. Risk of heart failure was higher in South Asian patients who underwent CABG compared to White patients (OR (95% CI) = 2.06 (0.92-4.61), p = 0.08). There were no significant differences in mortality following CABG between groups.
Chinese and South Asian patients with AMI and PCI or CABG had worse outcomes compared to their White counterparts. Further studies are needed to confirm these findings and investigate potential underlying causes.
PCI; CABG; Ethnicity; AMI; Outcomes
Advanced lower extremity peripheral artery disease (PAD), whether presenting as acute limb ischemia (ALI) or chronic critical limb ischemia (CLI), is associated with high rates of cardiovascular ischemic events, amputation, and death. Past research has focused on strategies of revascularization, but few data are available that prospectively evaluate the impact of key process of care factors (spanning pre-admission, acute hospitalization, and post-discharge) that might contribute to improving short and long-term health outcomes.
The FRIENDS registry is designed to prospectively evaluate a range of patient and health system care delivery factors that might serve as future targets for efforts to improve limb and systemic outcomes for patients with ALI or CLI. This hypothesis-driven registry was designed to evaluate the contributions of: (i) pre-hospital limb ischemia symptom duration, (ii) use of leg revascularization strategies, and (iii) use of risk-reduction pharmacotherapies, as pre-specified factors that may affect amputation-free survival. Sequential patients would be included at an index “vascular specialist-defined” ALI or CLI episode, and patients excluded only for non-vascular etiologies of limb threat. Data including baseline demographics, functional status, co-morbidities, pre-hospital time segments, and use of medical therapies; hospital-based use of revascularization strategies, time segments, and pharmacotherapies; and rates of systemic ischemic events (e.g., myocardial infarction, stroke, hospitalization, and death) and limb ischemic events (e.g., hospitalization for revascularization or amputation) will be recorded during a minimum of one year follow-up.
The FRIENDS registry is designed to evaluate the potential impact of key factors that may contribute to adverse outcomes for patients with ALI or CLI. Definition of new “health system-based” therapeutic targets could then become the focus of future interventional clinical trials for individuals with advanced PAD.
Peripheral artery disease; Amputation; Atherosclerosis; Health service research; Outcomes research
Peripheral arterial disease (PAD) of the lower limbs is a cardiovascular disease highly prevalent particularly in the asymptomatic form. Its prevalence starts to be a concern in low coronary risk countries like Spain. Few studies have analyzed the relationship between ankle-brachial index (ABI) and cardiovascular morbi-mortality in low cardiovascular risk countries like Spain where we observe significant low incidence of ischemic heart diseases together with high prevalence of cardiovascular risk factors. The objective of this study is to determine the relationship between pathological ABI and incidence of cardiovascular events (coronary disease, cerebrovascular disease, symptomatic aneurism of abdominal aorta, vascular surgery) and death in the >49 year population-based cohort in Spain (ARTPER).
Baseline ABI was measured in 3,786 randomly selected patients from 28 Primary Health Centers in Barcelona, distributed as: ABI<0.9 peripheral arterial disease (PAD), ABI ≥1.4 arterial calcification (AC), ABI 0.9-1.4 healthy; and followed during 4 years.
3,307 subjects were included after excluding those with previous vascular events. Subjects with abnormal ABI were older with higher proportion of men, smokers and diabetics. 260 people presented cardiovascular events (incidence 2,117/100,000 person-years) and 124 died from any cause (incidence 978/100,000 person-years). PAD had two-fold greater risk of coronary disease (adjusted hazard ratio (HR) = 2.0, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.3-3.2) and increased risk of vascular surgery (HR = 5.6, 95%CI 2.8-11.5) and mortality (HR = 1.8, 95%CI 1.4-2.5). AC increased twice risk of cerebrovascular events (HR = 1.9, 95%CI 1.0-3.5) with no relationship with ischemic heart disease.
PAD increases coronary disease risk and AC cerebrovascular disease risk in low cardiovascular risk Mediterranean population. ABI could be a useful tool to detect patients at risk in Primary Health Care.
Peripheral arterial disease; Ankle-brachial index; Cardiovascular diseases; Incidence; Primary health care; Cohort studies
Coronary heart disease remains the leading cause of death in developed countries. In Africa, the disease continues to rise with varying rates of progression in different countries. At present, there is little available work on its juvenile forms. The objective of this work was to study the epidemiological, clinical and evolutionary aspects of acute coronary syndrome in young Sub-Saharan Africans.
This was a prospective multicenter study done at the different departments of cardiology in Dakar. We included all patients of age 40 years and below, and who were admitted for acute coronary syndrome between January 1st, 2005 and July 31st, 2007. We collected and analyzed the epidemiological, clinical, paraclinical and evolutionary data of the patients.
Hospital prevalence of acute coronary syndrome in young people was 0.45% (21/4627) which represented 6.8% of all cases of acute coronary syndrome admitted during the same period. There was a strong male predominance with a sex-ratio (M:F) of 6. The mean age of patients was 34 ± 1.9 years (range of 24 and 40 years). The main risk factor was smoking, found in 52.4% of cases and the most common presenting symptom was chest pain found in 95.2% of patients. The average time delay before medical care was 14.5 hours. Diagnosis of ST- elevation myocardial infarction in 85.7% of patients and non-ST-elevation myocardial infarction in 14.3% was made by the combination electrocardiographic features and troponin assay. Echocardiography found a decreased left ventricular systolic function in 37.5% of the patients and intraventricular thrombus in 20% of them. Thrombolysis using streptokinase was done in 44.4% of the patients with ST- elevation myocardial infarction. Hospital mortality was 14.3%.
Acute coronary syndrome is present in young Sub-Saharan Africans. The main risk factor found was smoking.
Acute coronary syndrome; Young Sub-Saharan African; Dakar
There is an association between cryptogenic stroke and patent foramen ovale (PFO). The optimal treatment strategy for secondary prevention remains unclear. The purpose of this study was to analyze aggregate data examining the safety and efficacy of transcatheter device closure versus standard medical therapy in patients with PFO and cryptogenic stroke.
A search of published data identified 3 randomized clinical trials for inclusion. The primary outcome was a composite end-point of death, stroke and transient-ischemic attack (TIA). Pre-defined subgroup analysis was performed with respect to baseline characteristics including age, sex, atrial septal aneurysm and shunt size. Data was synthesized using a random effects model and results presented as hazard ratios (HRs) with 95% confidence intervals (CIs).
A cohort of 2,303 patients with a history of cryptogenic stroke and PFO were randomized to device closure (n = 1150) and medical therapy (n = 1153). Mean follow-up was 2.5 years. Transcatheter closure was not superior to medical therapy in the secondary prevention of stroke or TIA in intention-to-treat analysis (HR: 0.66, 95% CI: 0.43 to 1.01; p = 0.056). However, the results were statistically significant using per-protocol analysis (HR: 0.64, 95% CI: 0.41 to 0.98; p = 0.043). Males had significant benefit with device closure (HR: 0.48, 95% CI: 0.24 to 0.96; p = 0.038).
In this meta-analysis, using intention-to-treat analysis, transcatheter device closure of PFO was not superior to standard medical therapy in the secondary prevention of cryptogenic stroke. Transcatheter closure was superior using per-protocol analysis.
Patent foramen ovale; Inter atrial shunt; Transcatheter closure; Cryptogenic stroke
Coronary heart disease (CHD) causes an estimated 7 million deaths worldwide each year. In the last few decades, mortality from CHD has been decreasing in many countries. The aim of this study was to analyze the trends of mortality from CHD and myocardial infarction (MI) in the population of Belgrade during the period 1990–2010.
Mortality data for CHD and MI were obtained from the Municipal Institute of Statistics in Belgrade and used to calculate age- and sex-specific and age-adjusted mortality rates. Joinpoint regression analysis was used to estimate annual percent changes (APCs) in mortality and to identify points in time where significant changes in trend occur.
Trends in CHD mortality rates showed significant decline in men during the period studied (APC -0.5%, no joinpoints detected), but no significant change among women (APC +0.4%, no joinpoints detected). While we observed significant declines in CHD mortality in men aged 35–44, 55–64 and 65–74 and women aged 55–64, there was a significant increase in mortality in men aged ≥85 and women aged 75–84 and ≥85. Trends in MI mortality rates showed similar patterns in both genders, with a significant decline from the mid-1990s. Significant decline in MI mortality was observed in almost all age groups, except the two oldest (75–84 and ≥85) in women population.
Given that CHD and MI mortality trends showed different patterns during the period studied, especially in women, our results imply that further observation of trend is needed.
Coronary heart disease; Myocardial infarction; Trend; Joinpoint regression; Mortality
The aim of the present study was to evaluate the acute effects of resistance exercise (RE) leading to failure and RE that was not to failure on 24 h blood pressure (BP) and heart rate variability (HRV) in sedentary normotensive adult women.
Ten women (33.2 ± 5.8 years; 159.3 ± 9.4 cm; 58.0 ±6.4 kg; body fat 28.4 ± 2.8%) randomly underwent three experimental sessions: control (40 minutes of seated rest), RE leading to failure with 3 sets of 10 repetitions maximum (10-RM), and RE not to failure at 60% of 10-RM with 3 sets of 10 repetitions. Immediately post session BP and HRV were measured for 24 h.
Ratings of perceived exertion and heart rate were higher during the 10-RM session when compared with 60% of 10-RM (6.4 ± 0.5 vs 3.5 ± 0.8 and 123.7 ± 13.9 vs 104.5 ± 7.3 bpm, respectively). The systolic, diastolic and mean BP decreased at 07:00 a.m. after the 10-RM session when compared with the control session (−9.0 ± 7.8 mmHg, -16.0 ± 12.9 mmHg and −14.3 ± 11.2 mmHg, respectively). The root mean square of the squared differences between R-R intervals decreased after both the 60% of 10-RM and 10-RM sessions compared with the control session.
An acute RE session leading to failure induced a higher drop of BP upon awakening, while both RE sessions reduced cardiac parasympathetic modulation. RE may be an interesting training strategy to acutely decrease BP in adult women.
Resistance training; Blood pressure; Hypotension