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1.  Effects of carvedilol treatment on cardiac cAMP response element binding protein expression and phosphorylation in acute coxsackievirus B3-induced myocarditis 
Background
The role of β-adrenergic stimulation on viral myocarditis has been investigated in animal models of viral myocarditis. Excess stimulation of β-adrenergic receptors by catecholamines causes phosphorylation/activation of cAMP response element binding protein (CREB) by the cAMP signaling pathway. CREB as an important regulator of gene expression mediates the cardiovascular remodeling process and promotes anti-inflammatory immune responses. However, the CREB expression and phosphorylation have not been studied, and the effects of carvedilol (a nonselective β-adrenoceptor antagonist) on the CREB has not been investigated in the setting of acute viral myocarditis.
Methods
This study was therefore designed to examine the effects of carvedilol on the transcriptional factor CREB in a murine model of acute viral myocarditis. In a coxsackievirus B3 murine myocarditis model (Balb/c), effects of carvedilol on plasma noradrenaline, heart rate and blood pressure, myocardial histopathological changes and fibrosis, cardiomyocyte apoptosis, cardiac CREB and phosphorylated CREB, cytokine levels, and viral RNA were studied.
Results
The expression and phosphorylation of CREB were decreased with concomitant increase of IL-6 and TNF-α in murine coxsackievirus-induced acute viral myocarditis. The levels of IL-6 and TNF-α were correlated with the expression of CREB or phosphorylated CREB. Carvedilol increased the cardiac CREB expression and phosphorylation and decreased the plasma catecholamine levels and the production of IL-6 and TNF-α with amelioration of acute viral myocarditis.
Conclusion
These results show that CREB may be involved in the pathophysiology of viral myocarditis and carvedilol exerts some of its beneficial effects by increasing the CREB expression and phosphorylation.
doi:10.1186/1471-2261-13-100
PMCID: PMC3840656  PMID: 24225056
Viral myocarditis; cAMP response element binding protein; Carvedilol
2.  Establishment of a canine model of cardiac memory using endocardial pacing via internal jugular vein 
Background
Development of experimental animal models has played an important role in understanding the mechanisms of cardiac memory. The purpose of this study was to evaluate a new canine model of cardiac memory using endocardial ventricular pacing via internal jugular vein.
Methods
Twelve Beagle dogs underwent placement of a permanent ventricular pacemaker mimicking the use of pacemakers in humans and induction of cardiac memory by endocardial ventricular pacing.
Results
Cardiac memory was achieved in 11 of 12 attempts overall. Procedural mortality due to cardiac tamponade (n = 1) occurred in the first attempt. The T-wave memory persisted for 96 ± 17 minutes and 31 ± 6 days in the short-term and long-term cardiac memory groups, respectively. There were no significant differences in the heart rate, blood pressure and echocardiographic parameters in the animals between before and after ventricular pacing in the short-term and long-term cardiac memory groups. No significant pathologic changes with the light microscopy were found in the present study in all dogs.
Conclusion
The model does require surgery but is not as invasive as an open-chest model. This canine model can serve as a useful tool for studying mechanisms of cardiac memory.
doi:10.1186/1471-2261-10-30
PMCID: PMC2906410  PMID: 20569432

Results 1-2 (2)