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1.  Cardiac medication prescribing and adherence after acute myocardial infarction in Chinese and South Asian Canadian patients 
Background
Failure to adhere to cardiac medications after acute myocardial infarction (AMI) is associated with increased mortality. Language barriers and preference for traditional medications may predispose certain ethnic groups at high risk for non-adherence. We compared prescribing and adherence to ACE-inhibitors (ACEI), beta-blockers (BB), and statins following AMI among elderly Chinese, South Asian, and Non-Asian patients.
Methods
Retrospective-cohort study of elderly AMI survivors (1995-2002) using administrative data from British Columbia. AMI cases and ethnicity were identified using validated ICD-9/10 coding and surname algorithms, respectively. Medication adherence was assessed using the 'proportion of days covered' (PDC) metric with a PDC ≥ 0.80 indicating optimal adherence. The independent effect of ethnicity on adherence was assessed using multivariable modeling, adjusting for socio-demographic and clinical characteristics.
Results
There were 9926 elderly AMI survivors (258 Chinese, 511 South Asian patients). More Chinese patients were prescribed BBs (79.7% vs. 73.1%, p = 0.04) and more South Asian patients were prescribed statins (73.5% vs. 65.2%, p = 0.001). Both Chinese (Odds Ratio [OR] 0.53; 95%CI, 0.39-0.73; p < 0.0001) and South Asian (OR 0.78; 95%CI, 0.61-0.99; p = 0.04) patients were less adherent to ACEI compared to Non-Asian patients. South Asian patients were more adherent to BBs (OR 1.3; 95%CI, 1.04-1.62; p = 0.02). There was no difference in prescribing of ACEI, nor adherence to statins among the ethnicities.
Conclusion
Despite a higher likelihood of being prescribed evidence-based therapies following AMI, Chinese and South Asian patients were less likely to adhere to ACEI compared to their Non-Asian counterparts.
doi:10.1186/1471-2261-11-56
PMCID: PMC3189887  PMID: 21923931
medication adherence; acute myocardial infarction; ethnicity
2.  Home care utilization and outcomes among Asian and other Canadian patients with heart failure 
Background
Heart failure (HF) is a major cause of hospitalization and death in the aging population around the world. Home care utilization is associated with improved survival for the patients with HF, and varies by ethno-culture. The purpose of this study was to investigate the difference in hospital readmission rate and mortality between Asian and other Canadian HF patients.
Methods
HF patients were identified using hospital discharge abstracts from March 31, 2000 to April 1, 2006 in Calgary Health Region. Readmission and one-year mortality for HF were determined by linking hospital discharge and vital statistics data. Stratified by home care services use, readmission and mortality rates were compared between the Asians and other Canadians while controlling for age, sex, comorbidities, and household income.
Results
Of 26,171 HF patients discharged from hospital, 56.6% of Asians and 58.0% of other Canadians used home care services [adjusted odds ratio (OR) for Asian: 0.84, 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.74-0.89]. The hospital readmission rate was similar between Asians and other Canadians regardless of home care services use. Mortality was similar between those who used home care services (adjusted OR for Asian: 0.96, 95% CI: 0.81-1.13). For patients who did not use home care services, Asians had significantly lower mortality than other Canadians (adjusted OR for Asian: 0.76, 95% CI: 0.60-0.86).
Conclusion
Mortality was similar between Asian and other Canadian patients when home care services were utilized. However, among those without home care, Asian patients had a significantly lower mortality than other Canadian patients.
doi:10.1186/1471-2261-10-12
PMCID: PMC2838806  PMID: 20202209
3.  Risk-taking attitudes and their association with process and outcomes of cardiac care: a cohort study 
Background
Prior research reveals that processes and outcomes of cardiac care differ across sociodemographic strata. One potential contributing factor to such differences is the personality traits of individuals within these strata. We examined the association between risk-taking attitudes and cardiac patients' clinical and demographic characteristics, the likelihood of undergoing invasive cardiac procedures and survival.
Methods
We studied a large inception cohort of patients who underwent cardiac catheterization between July 1998 and December 2001. Detailed clinical and demographic data were collected at time of cardiac catheterization and through a mailed survey one year post-catheterization. The survey included three general risk attitude items from the Jackson Personality Inventory. Patients' (n = 6294) attitudes toward risk were categorized as risk-prone versus non-risk-prone and were assessed for associations with baseline clinical and demographic characteristics, treatment received (i.e., medical therapy, coronary artery bypass graft (CABG) surgery, percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI)), and survival (to December 2005).
Results
2827 patients (45%) were categorized as risk-prone. Having risk-prone attitudes was associated with younger age (p < .001), male sex (p < .001), current smoking (p < .001) and higher household income (p < .001). Risk-prone patients were more likely to have CABG surgery in unadjusted (Odds Ratio [OR] = 1.21; 95% CI 1.08–1.36) and adjusted (OR = 1.18; 95% CI 1.02–1.36) models, but were no more likely to have PCI or any revascularization. Having risk-prone attitudes was associated with better survival in an unadjusted survival analysis (Hazard Ratio [HR] = 0.78 (95% CI 0.66–0.93), but not in a risk-adjusted analysis (HR = 0.92, 95% CI 0.77–1.10).
Conclusion
These exploratory findings suggest that patient attitudes toward risk taking may contribute to some of the documented differences in use of invasive cardiac procedures. An awareness of these associations could help healthcare providers as they counsel patients regarding cardiac care decisions.
doi:10.1186/1471-2261-9-36
PMCID: PMC2734744  PMID: 19660137

Results 1-3 (3)