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1.  Unique perception of clinical trials by Korean cancer patients 
BMC Cancer  2012;12:594.
Background
In the past few years, the number of clinical trials has increased rapidly in East Asia, especially for gastric and hepatobiliary cancer that are prevalent in Asian populations. However, the actual degree of understanding or perceptions of clinical trials by cancer patients in East Asian countries have seldom been studied.
Methods
Between July 1st and November 30th of 2011, we conducted a prospective study to survey cancer patients regarding their awareness of, and willingness to participate in, a clinical trial. Patients with gastrointestinal/hepatobiliary cancer who visited the Hematology-Oncology outpatient clinic at Samsung Medical Center (SMC) were enrolled. A total of 21 questions were asked including four questions which used the Visual analogue scale (VAS) score.
Results
In this survey study, 1,000 patients were asked to participate and 675 patients consented to participate (67.5%). The awareness of clinical trials was substantially higher in patients who had a higher level of education (p<0.001), were married (p=0.004), and had a higher economic status (p=0.001). However, the willingness to participate in a clinical trial was not affected by the level of education or economic status of patients. The most influential factors for patient willingness to participate were a physician recommendation (n=181, 26.8%), limited treatment options (n=178, 26.4%), and expectations of effectiveness of new anti-cancer drugs (n=142, 21.0%). Patients with previous experience in clinical trials had a greater willingness to participate in clinical trials compared to patients without previous experience (p<0.001).
Conclusions
This large patient cohort survey study showed that Korean cancer patients are more aware of clinical trials, but awareness did not translate into willingness to participate.
doi:10.1186/1471-2407-12-594
PMCID: PMC3572433  PMID: 23234342
Cancer clinical trial; Survey; Awareness and willingness to participate
2.  ERCC1 as a biomarker for bladder cancer patients likely to benefit from adjuvant chemotherapy 
BMC Cancer  2012;12:187.
Background
The role of adjuvant chemotherapy and the value of molecular biomarkers in bladder cancer have not been determined. We aimed to assess the predictive and prognostic values of excision repair cross-complementation 1 (ERCC1) in identifying appropriate patients who may potentially benefit from adjuvant chemotherapy for bladder cancer.
Methods
A retrospective analysis was performed on 93 patients with completely resected transitional cell carcinoma of the bladder. ERCC1 expression was assessed by immunohistochemistry. ERCC1 expression was analyzed in 57 patients treated with adjuvant gemcitabine plus cisplatin chemotherapy and 36 who were not treated.
Results
Among 93 patients, ERCC1 expression was positive in 54 (58.1%) and negative in 39 (41.9%). ERCC1 positivity was significantly associated with longer survival (adjusted hazard ratio for death, 0.12, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.014-0.99; P = 0.049) in the group without adjuvant chemotherapy while ERCC1 positivity was associated with shorter survival among patients who have received adjuvant chemotherapy (adjusted hazard ratio for death, 2.64; 95% CI 1.01-6.85; P = 0.047). Therefore, clinical benefit from adjuvant chemotherapy was associated with ERCC1 negativity as measured by overall survival (test for interaction, P = 0.034) and by disease-free survival (test for interaction, P = 0.20).
Conclusions
Among patients with completely resected transitional cell carcinoma of the bladder, those with ERCC1-negative tumors seemed to benefit more from adjuvant gemcitabine plus cisplatin chemotherapy than those with ERCC1-positive tumors. Future prospective, randomized studies are warranted to confirm our findings.
doi:10.1186/1471-2407-12-187
PMCID: PMC3404914  PMID: 22616552
3.  Retrospective analyses of cisplatin-based doublet combination chemotherapy in patients with advanced gastric cancer 
BMC Cancer  2010;10:583.
Backgrounds
Cisplatin-based chemotherapy, in combination with fluoropyrimidines or taxanes, have demonstrated efficacy against advanced gastric cancer (AGC). This retrospective study was performed with the data obtained from our cancer chemotherapy registry and eight another cancer centers.
Methods
In 2008, a total of 283 AGC patients were treated with cisplatin-based doublet chemotherapy in the first-line setting: capecitabine plus cisplatin (XP, n = 77), S-1 plus cisplatin (SP, n = 97), taxanes (docetaxel, paclitaxel) plus cisplatin (TP, n = 72), and 5-fluorouracil plus platinum (FP, n = 37). The primary endpoint of this study was overall survival (OS) and the secondary endpoints were safety, response rate and progression-free survival (PFS).
Results
The median age was 54 years with a range of 28-78 years and median delivered number of chemotherapy cycles were XP: 4, SP: 5, TP: 5 and FP: 5, respectively. Objective tumor responses (38%; 95% CI, 32-43%) were 40% for XP, 42% for SP, 36% for DP, and 24% for FP. The estimated median PFS was 4.5 months (95% CI, 3.6-5.4 months) and the median OS was 12.3 months (95% CI, 10.8-13.7 months). No statistically significant difference was found between each regimen used as first-line chemotherapy. At multivariate analysis, independent prognostic parameters for OS were prior gastrectomy, peritoneal dissemination, performance status and hemoglobin level
Conclusion
All of the cisplatin-based doublet chemotherapy regimens appear to be active as first-line chemotherapy for AGC. With better patient selection according to clinical parameters and molecular markers, clinical outcomes of AGC patients in first-line setting can be improved.
doi:10.1186/1471-2407-10-583
PMCID: PMC2978206  PMID: 20977739
4.  Metastatic lymph node in gastric cancer; Is it a real distant metastasis? 
BMC Cancer  2010;10:25.
Background
Currently, the TNM staging system is a widely accepted method for assessing the prognosis of the disease and planning therapeutic strategies for cancer. Of the TNM system, the extent of lymph node involvement is the most important independent prognostic factor for gastric cancer. The aim of our study is to evaluate the survival and prognosis of gastric cancer patients with LN#12 or #13 involvement only and to assess the impact of anatomic regions of primary gastric tumor on survival in this particular subset of patients.
Methods
Among data of 1,008 stage IV gastric cancer patients who received curative R0 gastrectomy, a total of 79 patients with LN#12 (n = 68) and/or #13 (n = 11) were identified. All patients performed gastrectomy with D2 or D3 lymph node dissection.
Results
In 79 patients with LN#12/13 involvement, the estimated one-, three- and five-year survival rate was 77.2%, 41.8% and 26.6% respectively. When we compared the patients with LN#12/13 involvement to those without involvement, there was no significant difference in OS (21.0 months vs. 25.0 months, respectively; P = 0.140). However, OS was significantly longer in patients with LN#12/13 involvement only than in those with M1 lymph node involvement (14.3 months; P = 0.001). There was a significant difference in survival according to anatomic locations of the primary tumor (lower to mid-body vs. high body or whole stomach): 26.5 vs. 9.2 months (P = 0.009). In Cox proportional hazard analysis, only N stage (p = 0.002) had significance to predict poor survival.
Conclusion
In this study we found that curatively resected gastric cancer patients with pathologic involvement of LN #12 and/or LN #13 had favorable survival outcome, especially those with primary tumor location of mid-body to antrum. Prospective analysis of survival in gastric cancer patients with L N#12 or #13 metastasis is warranted especially with regards to primary tumor location.
doi:10.1186/1471-2407-10-25
PMCID: PMC2848187  PMID: 20113485
5.  A retrospective analysis of second-line chemotherapy in patients with advanced gastric cancer 
BMC Cancer  2009;9:110.
Background
Because treatment of advanced gastric cancer (AGC) patients after failure with first-line chemotherapy remains controversial, we performed this retrospective analysis based on the data obtained from 1455 patients registered in a first-line treatment cohort with respect to receiving or not receiving subsequent chemotherapy.
Methods
The decision for administering second-line chemotherapy was, in most cases, at the discretion of the physician. Seven-hundred twenty-five (50%) received second-line chemotherapy after first-line failure. Univariate and multivariate analyses were performed on the recognized baseline parameters for survival.
Results
At the time of initiating second-line chemotherapy, the patients' median age was 56 years (range, 22 to 86) and 139 (19%) had an Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group (ECOG) performance status of 2 or more. Seven (1%) complete and 108 (15%) partial responses to second-line chemotherapy were observed for an overall response rate of 16% (95% confidence interval [CI], 13 to 19%). The median progression-free and overall survivals, calculated from the start of second-line chemotherapy, were 2.9 months (95% CI, 2.6 to 3.3) and 6.7 months (95% CI, 5.8 to 7.5), respectively. Multivariate analysis revealed that low baseline hemoglobin level (hazard ratio [HR], 0.74; 95% CI 0.61–0.90) and a poor performance status (HR, 0.66; 95% CI, 0.52–0.83) were independent negative prognostic factors for overall survival.
Conclusion
Performance status, along with baseline hemoglobin level, could be used to identify the subgroup of patients most likely to benefit from second-line chemotherapy for AGC.
doi:10.1186/1471-2407-9-110
PMCID: PMC2671521  PMID: 19358705
6.  Systemic chemotherapy with doxorubicin, cisplatin and capecitabine for metastatic hepatocellular carcinoma 
Background
Although numerous chemotherapeutic agents have been tested, the role of systemic chemotherapy for hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) has not been clarified. New therapeutic strategies are thus needed to improve outcomes, and we designed this study with new effective drug combination.
Methods
Twenty-nine patients with histologically-confirmed, metastatic HCC received a combination chemotherapy with doxorubicin 60 mg/m2 and cisplatin 60 mg/m2 on day 1, plus capecitabine 2000 mg/m2/day as an intermittent regimen of 2 weeks of treatment followed by a 1-week rest.
Results
The median age was 49 years (range, 32–64) and 19 patients were hepatitis B virus seropositive. Child-Pugh class was A in all patients and 4 had Zubrod performance status of 2. The objective response rate was 24% (95% CI 9–40) with 6 stable diseases. The chemotherapy was generally well tolerated despite one treatment-related death.
Conclusion
Combination chemotherapy with doxorubicin, cisplatin and capecitabine produced modest antitumor activity with tolerable adverse effects in patients with metastatic HCC.
doi:10.1186/1471-2407-6-3
PMCID: PMC1352374  PMID: 16396674
7.  Phase I dose-escalating study of docetaxel in combination with 5-day continuous infusion of 5-fluorouracil in patients with advanced gastric cancer 
BMC Cancer  2005;5:87.
Background
Published data suggests that docetaxel combined with 5-fluorouracil (5-FU) may have synergistic activity in treating advanced gastric cancer. We performed a phase I study of docetaxel and 5-FU to determine the maximum tolerated dose (MTD), the recommended dose for phase II studies, and the safety of this combination.
Methods
Eligible patients had recurrent and/or metastatic advanced gastric cancer with normal cardiac, renal and hepatic function. Traditional phase I methodology was employed in assessing dose-limiting toxicity (DLT) and MTD. On day 1 every 3 weeks, docetaxel 75 mg/m2 (fixed dose) was infused over 1-h, followed immediately by 5-FU as a 5-day continuous infusion.
Results
Dose escalation schema was as follows: dose level (DL) 1 (5-FU 250 mg/m2/day), 2 (500), 3 (750), and 4 (1000). Three patients were enrolled on DL1, without DLT. On DL2, 1 DLT (grade 3 stomatitis) was developed in first 3 patients, and this cohort was expanded to 6 patients. Three patients had been enrolled on DL3. Because two out of 3 patients had DLTs, the MTD was reached at DL3.
Conclusion
The recommended phase II dose of this combination is 75 mg/m2 docetaxel on day 1 immediately followed by a 5-day continuous infusion of 5-FU 500 mg/m2/day.
doi:10.1186/1471-2407-5-87
PMCID: PMC1183196  PMID: 16042786
8.  Docetaxel plus cisplatin is effective for patients with metastatic breast cancer resistant to previous anthracycline treatment: a phase II clinical trial 
BMC Cancer  2005;5:21.
Background
Patients with metastatic breast cancer (MBC) are frequently exposed to high cumulative doses of anthracyclines and are at risk of resistance and cardiotoxicity. This phase II trial evaluated the efficacy and toxicity of docetaxel plus cisplatin, as salvage chemotherapy in patients with MBC resistant to prior anthracyclines.
Methods
Patients with MBC that had progressed after at least one prior chemotherapy regimen containing anthracyclines received docetaxel 75 mg/m2 followed by cisplatin 60 mg/m2 every 3 weeks for a maximum of 6 cycles or until disease progression.
Results
Between Jan 2000 and May 2002, 24 patients with tumors primary resistant and 15 with secondary resistant disease were accrued. All 39 patients were evaluable for safety and 36 for efficacy. The objective response rate was 31% (95% CI, 16–45%) with 3 complete responses. The median time to disease progression was 7 months, and the median overall survival was 23 months (median follow-up of 41 months). Neutropenia was the most frequently observed severe hematologic toxicity (39% of patients), whereas asthenia and nausea were the most common non-hematologic toxicities. No treatment-related death was observed.
Conclusion
In conclusion, we found docetaxel plus cisplatin to be an active and safe chemotherapy regimen for patients with MBC resistant to anthracyclines.
doi:10.1186/1471-2407-5-21
PMCID: PMC553982  PMID: 15723709

Results 1-8 (8)