PMCC PMCC

Search tips
Search criteria

Advanced
Results 1-9 (9)
 

Clipboard (0)
None
Journals
Year of Publication
Document Types
1.  Adjuvant therapy after resection of colorectal liver metastases: the predictive value of the MSKCC clinical risk score in the era of modern chemotherapy 
BMC Cancer  2014;14:174.
Background
Despite introduction of effective chemotherapy protocols, it has remained uncertain, if patients with colorectal cancer (CRC) liver metastases should receive adjuvant therapy. Clinical or molecular predictors may help to select patients at high risk for disease recurrence and death who obtain a survival advantage by adjuvant chemotherapy.
Methods
A total of 297 patients with potentially curative resection of CRC liver metastases were analyzed. These patients had no neoadjuvant therapy, no extrahepatic disease and negative resection margins. The primary endpoint was overall survival. Patients’ risk status was evaluated using the Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center clinical risk score (MSKCC-CRS). Multivariable analyses were performed using Cox proportional hazard models.
Results
A total of 137 (43%) patients had a MSKCC-CRS > 2. Adjuvant chemotherapy was administered to 116 (37%) patients. Patients who received adjuvant chemotherapy were of younger age (p = 0.03) with no significant difference in the presence of multiple metastases (p = 0.72) or bilobar metastases (p = 0.08). On multivariate analysis adjuvant chemotherapy was associated with improved survival in the entire cohort (Hazard ratio 0.69; 95% confidence interval 0.69–0.98). It improved survival markedly in high-risk patients with a MSKCC-CRS > 2 (HR 0.40; 95% CI 0.23–0.69), whereas it was of no benefit in patients with a MSKCC-CRS ≤ 2 (HR 0.90; 95% CI 0.57–1.43).
Conclusions
The MSKCC-CRS offers a tool to select patients for adjuvant therapy after resection of CRC liver metastases. Validation in independent patient cohorts is required.
doi:10.1186/1471-2407-14-174
PMCID: PMC4008001  PMID: 24612620
Colorectal cancer; FOLFOX; FOLFIRI; 5-FU; Leucovorin; Liver resection
2.  Double-blind, placebo-controlled first in human study to investigate an oral vaccine aimed to elicit an immune reaction against the VEGF-Receptor 2 in patients with stage IV and locally advanced pancreatic cancer 
BMC Cancer  2012;12:361.
Background
The investigational oral DNA vaccine VXM01 targets the vascular endothelial growth factor receptor 2 (VEGFR-2) and uses Salmonella typhi Ty21a as a vector. The immune reaction elicited by VXM01 is expected to disrupt the tumor neovasculature and, consequently, inhibit tumor growth. VXM01 potentially combines the advantages of anti-angiogenic therapy and active immunotherapy.
Methods/Design
This phase I trial examines the safety, tolerability, and immunological and clinical responses to VXM01. The randomized, placebo-controlled, double blind dose-escalation study includes up to 45 patients with locally advanced and stage IV pancreatic cancer. The patients will receive four doses of VXM01 or placebo in addition to gemcitabine as standard of care. Doses from 106 cfu up to 1010 cfu of VXM01 will be evaluated in the study. An independent data safety monitoring board (DSMB) will be involved in the dose-escalation decisions. In addition to safety as primary endpoint, the VXM01-specific immune reaction, as well as clinical response parameters will be evaluated.
Discussion
The results of this study shall provide the first data regarding the safety and immunogenicity of the oral anti-VEGFR-2 vaccine VXM01 in cancer patients. They will also define the recommended dose for phase II and provide the basis for further clinical evaluation, which may also include additional cancer indications.
Trial registration
EudraCT No.: 2011-000222-29, NCT01486329, ISRCTN68809279
doi:10.1186/1471-2407-12-361
PMCID: PMC3493262  PMID: 22906006
DNA vaccine; Oral vaccine; Pancreatic cancer; Cancer vaccine; VEGFR-2; Anti-angiogenesis
3.  AB0 blood group and prognosis in patients with pancreatic cancer 
BMC Cancer  2012;12:319.
Background
Although blood group 0 is associated with a reduced risk of pancreatic cancer, little is known about the role of AB0 blood group antigens in disease progression. We assessed the prognostic relevance of AB0 blood status in a large cohort of patients with resected pancreatic cancer.
Methods
A total of 627 patients, who underwent resection for pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma between October 2001 and December 2008 were enrolled. The relationship between AB0 blood group status and outcome was analyzed using univariate and multivariate Cox regression analyses.
Results
In patients with pancreatic cancer the incidence of blood group 0 (31%) was lower compared to 13.044 patients without pancreatic cancer (38%) (p = 0.0005). There were no significant differences in clinicopathologic characteristics among patients with different AB0 blood groups. The 3-year and 5-year overall survival rates were 29% and 14%. On univariate analysis AB0 blood group status did not correlate with survival (p = 0.39). Multivariate analysis, however, revealed a favorable and independent impact of blood group 0 on survival (Hazard ratio 0.78; 95% confidence interval 0.62 – 0.99; p = 0.037).
Conclusion
AB0 blood group status is associated independently with the prognosis of patients with resected pancreatic cancer.
doi:10.1186/1471-2407-12-319
PMCID: PMC3488322  PMID: 22838843
4.  A Clinical phase I/II trial to investigate preoperative dose-escalated intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) and intraoperative radiation therapy (IORT) in patients with retroperitoneal soft tissue sarcoma 
BMC Cancer  2012;12:287.
Background
Local control rates in patients with retroperitoneal soft tissue sarcoma (RSTS) remain disappointing even after gross total resection, mainly because wide margins are not achievable in the majority of patients. In contrast to extremity sarcoma, postoperative radiation therapy (RT) has shown limited efficacy due to its limitations in achievable dose and coverage. Although Intraoperative Radiation Therapy (IORT) has been introduced in some centers to overcome the dose limitations and resulted in increased outcome, local failure rates are still high even if considerable treatment related toxicity is accepted. As postoperative administration of RT has some general disadvantages, neoadjuvant approaches could offer benefits in terms of dose escalation, target coverage and reduction of toxicity, especially if highly conformal techniques like intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) are considered.
Methods/design
The trial is a prospective, one armed, single center phase I/II study investigating a combination of neoadjuvant dose-escalated IMRT (50–56 Gy) followed by surgery and IORT (10–12 Gy) in patients with at least marginally resectable RSTS. The primary objective is the local control rate after five years. Secondary endpoints are progression-free and overall survival, acute and late toxicity, surgical resectability and patterns of failure. The aim of accrual is 37 patients in the per-protocol population.
Discussion
The present study evaluates combined neoadjuvant dose-escalated IMRT followed by surgery and IORT concerning its value for improved local control without markedly increased toxicity.
Trial registration
NCT01566123
doi:10.1186/1471-2407-12-287
PMCID: PMC3495760  PMID: 22788989
5.  Resection of the primary tumour versus no resection prior to systemic therapy in patients with colon cancer and synchronous unresectable metastases (UICC stage IV): SYNCHRONOUS - a randomised controlled multicentre trial (ISRCTN30964555) 
BMC Cancer  2012;12:142.
Background
Currently, it remains unclear, if patients with colon cancer and synchronous unresectable metastases who present without severe symptoms should undergo resection of the primary tumour prior to systemic chemotherapy. Resection of the primary tumour may be associated with significant morbidity and delays the beginning of chemotherapy. However, it may prevent local symptoms and may, moreover, prolong survival as has been demonstrated in patients with metastatic renal cell carcinoma. It is the aim of the present randomised controlled trial to evaluate the efficacy of primary tumour resection prior to systemic chemotherapy to prolong survival in patients with newly diagnosed colon cancer who are not amenable to curative therapy.
Methods/design
The SYNCHRONOUS trial is a multicentre, randomised, controlled, superiority trial with a two-group parallel design. Colon cancer patients with synchronous unresectable metastases are eligible for inclusion. Exclusion criteria are primary tumour-related symptoms, inability to tolerate surgery and/or systemic chemotherapy and history of another primary cancer. Resection of the primary tumour as well as systemic chemotherapy is provided according to the standards of the participating institution. The primary endpoint is overall survival that is assessed with a minimum follow-up of 36 months. Furthermore, it is the objective of the trial to assess the safety of both treatment strategies as well as quality of life.
Discussion
The SYNCHRONOUS trial is a multicentre, randomised, controlled trial to assess the efficacy and safety of primary tumour resection before beginning of systemic chemotherapy in patients with metastatic colon cancer not amenable to curative therapy.
Trial registration
ISRCTN30964555
doi:10.1186/1471-2407-12-142
PMCID: PMC3348093  PMID: 22480173
6.  A randomized controlled trial to investigate the influence of low dose radiotherapy on immune stimulatory effects in liver metastases of colorectal cancer 
BMC Cancer  2011;11:419.
Background
Insufficient migration and activation of tumor specific effector T cells in the tumor is one of the main reasons for inadequate host anti-tumor immune response. External radiation seems to induce inflammation and activate the immune response. This phase I/II clinical trial aims to evaluate whether low dose single fraction radiotherapy can improve T cell associated antitumor immune response in patients with colorectal liver metastases.
Methods/Design
This is an investigator-initiated, prospective randomised, 4-armed, controlled Phase I/II trial. Patients undergoing elective hepatic resection due to colorectal cancer liver metastasis will be enrolled in the study. Patients will receive 0 Gy, 0.5 Gy, 2 Gy or 5 Gy radiation targeted to their liver metastasis. Radiation will be applied by external beam radiotherapy using a 6 MV linear accelerator (Linac) with intensity modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) technique two days prior to surgical resection. All patients admitted to the Department of General-, Visceral-, and Transplantion Surgery, University of Heidelberg for elective hepatic resection are consecutively screened for eligibility into this trial, and written informed consent is obtained before inclusion. The primary objective is to assess the effect of active local external beam radiation dose on, tumor infiltrating T cells as a surrogate parameter for antitumor activity. Secondary objectives include radiogenic treatment toxicity, postoperative morbidity and mortality, local tumor control and recurrence patterns, survival and quality of life. Furthermore, frequencies of systemic tumor reactive T cells in blood and bone marrow will be correlated with clinical outcome.
Discussion
This is a randomized controlled patient blinded trial to assess the safety and efficiency of low dose radiotherapy on metastasis infiltrating T cells and thus potentially enhance the antitumor immune response.
Trial registration
ClinicalTrials.gov: NCT01191632
doi:10.1186/1471-2407-11-419
PMCID: PMC3195202  PMID: 21961577
colorectal liver metastasis; low dose radiation; tumor specific T cells
7.  Expression and prognostic value of circulating angiogenic cytokines in pancreatic cancer 
BMC Cancer  2011;11:286.
Background
The utility of circulating angiogenic cytokines (CAC) as biomarkers in pancreatic cancer has not been clarified yet. We investigated the expression and prognostic associations of seven CAC in patients with pancreatic cancer.
Methods
Serum samples were collected preoperatively in patients undergoing surgery for localized pancreatic cancer (n = 74), metastatic pancreatic cancer (n = 24) or chronic pancreatitis (n = 20) and in healthy controls (n = 48). Quantitative enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays and multiplex protein arrays were used to determine circulating levels of VEGF, VEGFR-1, PlGF, PDGF-AA, PDGF-BB, Ang-1 and EGF. Multivariate analyses on cancer-specific survival were performed with a Cox proportional hazards model.
Results
VEGF (p < 0.0001), PDGF-AA (p < 0.0001), Ang-1 (p = 0.002) and EGF (p < 0.0001) were differentially expressed in patients with pancreatic cancer compared to healthy controls. The presence of lymph node metastases was associated with increased levels of all CAC except for PlGF, whereas there were only minor associations of CAC with other clinicopathologic variables. The multivariate model including the entire angiogenic panel revealed high levels of circulating PDGF-AA (hazard ratio 4.58; 95% confidence interval 1.43 - 14.69) as predictor of poor cancer-specific survival, whereas high levels of PDGF-BB (0.15; 0.15 - 0.88), Ang-1 (0.30; 0.10 - 0.93) and VEGF (0.24; 0.09 - 0.57) were associated with a favorable prognosis.
Conclusion
Circulating levels of certain angiogenic cytokines correlate with patients' prognosis after resection for pancreatic cancer, if a panel of several CAC is considered simultaneously. These data should be considered in future studies evaluating angiogenic factors as prognostic biomarkers and therapeutic targets in patients with pancreatic cancer.
doi:10.1186/1471-2407-11-286
PMCID: PMC3144458  PMID: 21729304
8.  Low expression of aldehyde deyhdrogenase 1A1 (ALDH1A1) is a prognostic marker for poor survival in pancreatic cancer 
BMC Cancer  2011;11:275.
Background
Aldehyde deyhdrogenase 1 (ALDH1) has been characterised as a cancer stem cell marker in different types of tumours. Additionally, it plays a pivotal role in gene regulation and endows tumour cells with augmented chemoresistance. Recently, ALDH1A1 has been described as a prognostic marker in a pancreatic cancer tissue microarray. The aim of this study was to reevaluate the expression of ALDH1A1 as a prognostic marker on whole-mount tissue sections.
Methods
Real-time-quantitative-PCR (qRT-PCR) and Western blotting were used to evaluate the expression profile of ALDH1A1 in seven pancreatic cancer cell lines and one non-malignant pancreatic cell line. Immunostaining against ALDH1A1 and Ki-67 was performed on paraffin-embedded samples from 97 patients with pancreatic cancer. The immunohistochemical results were correlated to histopathological and clinical data.
Results
qRT-PCR and Western blotting revealed a different expression pattern of ALDH1A1 in different malignant and non-malignant pancreatic cell lines. Immunohistochemical analysis demonstrated that ALDH1A1 was confined to the cellular cytoplasm and occurred in 72 cases (74%), whereas it was negative in 25 cases (26%). High expression of ALDH1A1 was significantly correlated to an increased proliferation rate (Spearman correlation, p = 0.01). Univariate and multivariate analyses showed that decreased expression of ALDH1A1 is an independent adverse prognostic factor for overall survival.
Conclusions
Immunonhistochemical analysis on whole-mount tissue slides revealed that ALDH1A1 is more abundantly expressed in pancreatic cancer than initially reported by a tissue microarray analysis. Moreover, high expression of ALDH1A1 correlated significantly with the proliferation of tumour cells. Intriguingly, this study is the first which identifies low expression of ALDH1A1 as an independent adverse prognostic marker for overall survival in pancreatic cancer.
doi:10.1186/1471-2407-11-275
PMCID: PMC3135572  PMID: 21708005
Pancreatic cancer; ALDH1A1; prognostic marker; proliferation rate
9.  Randomized controlled phase I/II study to investigate immune stimulatory effects by low dose radiotherapy in primarily operable pancreatic cancer 
BMC Cancer  2011;11:134.
Background
The efficiencies of T cell based immunotherapies are affected by insufficient migration and activation of tumor specific effector T cells in the tumor. Accumulating evidence exists on the ability of ionizing radiation to modify the tumor microenvironment and generate inflammation. The aim of this phase I/II clinical trial is to evaluate whether low dose single fraction radiotherapy can improve T cell associated antitumor immune response in patients with pancreatic cancer.
Methods/Design
This trial has been designed as an investigator initiated; prospective randomised, 4-armed, controlled Phase I/II trial. Patients who are candidates for resection of pancreatic cancer will be randomized into 4 arms. A total of 40 patients will be enrolled. The patients receive 0 Gy, 0.5 Gy, 2 Gy or 5 Gy radiation precisely targeted to their pancreatic carcinoma. Radiation will be delivered by external beam radiotherapy using a 6 MV Linac with IMRT technique 48 h prior to the surgical resection. The primary objective is the determination of an active local external beam radiation dose, leading to tumor infiltrating T cells as a surrogate parameter for antitumor activity. Secondary objectives include local tumor control and recurrence patterns, survival, radiogenic treatment toxicity and postoperative morbidity and mortality, as well as quality of life. Further, frequencies of tumor reactive T cells in blood and bone marrow as well as whole blood cell transcriptomics and plasma-proteomics will be correlated with clinical outcome. An interim analysis will be performed after the enrolment of 20 patients for safety reasons. The evaluation of the primary endpoint will start four weeks after the last patient's enrolment.
Discussion
This trial will answer the question whether a low dose radiotherapy localized to the pancreatic tumor only can increase the number of tumor infiltrating T cells and thus potentially enhance the antitumor immune response. The study will also investigate the prognostic and predictive value of radiation-induced T cell activity along with transcriptomic and proteomic data with respect to clinical outcome.
Trial registration
ClinicalTrials.gov - NCT01027221
doi:10.1186/1471-2407-11-134
PMCID: PMC3101175  PMID: 21489291
pancreatic cancer; immune therapy; low dose radiation; T-cells

Results 1-9 (9)