PMCC PMCC

Search tips
Search criteria

Advanced
Results 1-9 (9)
 

Clipboard (0)
None
Journals
Year of Publication
Document Types
1.  Quantitative threefold allele-specific PCR (QuanTAS-PCR) for highly sensitive JAK2 V617F mutant allele detection 
BMC Cancer  2013;13:206.
Background
The JAK2 V617F mutation is the most frequent somatic change in myeloproliferative neoplasms, making it an important tumour-specific marker for diagnostic purposes and for the detection of minimal residual disease. Sensitive quantitative assays are required for both applications, particularly for the monitoring of minimal residual disease, which requires not only high sensitivity but also very high specificity.
Methods
We developed a highly sensitive probe-free quantitative mutant-allele detection method, Quantitative Threefold Allele-Specific PCR (QuanTAS-PCR), that is performed in a closed-tube system, thus eliminating the manipulation of PCR products. QuantTAS-PCR uses a threefold approach to ensure allele-specific amplification of the mutant sequence: (i) a mutant allele-specific primer, (ii) a 3′dideoxy blocker to suppress false-positive amplification from the wild-type template and (iii) a PCR specificity enhancer, also to suppress false-positive amplification from the wild-type template. Mutant alleles were quantified relative to exon 9 of JAK2.
Results
We showed that the addition of the 3′dideoxy blocker suppressed but did not eliminate false-positive amplification from the wild-type template. However, the addition of the PCR specificity enhancer near eliminated false-positive amplification from the wild-type allele. Further discrimination between true and false positives was enabled by using the quantification cycle (Cq) value of a single mutant template as a cut-off point, thus enabling robust distinction between true and false positives. As 10,000 JAK2 templates were used per replicate, the assay had a sensitivity of 1/10-4 per replicate. Greater sensitivity could be reached by increasing the number of replicates analysed. Variation in replicates when low mutant-allele templates were present necessitated the use of a statistics-based approach to estimate the load of mutant JAK2 copies. QuanTAS-PCR showed comparable quantitative results when validated against a commercial assay.
Conclusions
QuanTAS-PCR is a simple, cost-efficient, closed-tube method for JAK2 V617F mutation quantification that can detect very low levels of the mutant allele, thus enabling analysis of minimal residual disease. The approach can be extended to the detection of other recurrent single nucleotide somatic changes in cancer.
doi:10.1186/1471-2407-13-206
PMCID: PMC3658971  PMID: 23617802
Mutation detection; Myeloproliferative neoplasms; Minimal residual disease; qPCR; Real time PCR; JAK2 V617F; BRAF V600E; EGFR T790M
2.  A high-throughput protocol for mutation scanning of the BRCA1 and BRCA2 genes 
BMC Cancer  2011;11:265.
Background
Detection of mutations by DNA sequencing can be facilitated by scanning methods to identify amplicons which may have mutations. Current scanning methods used for the detection of germline sequence variants are laborious as they require post-PCR manipulation. High resolution melting (HRM) is a cost-effective rapid screening strategy, which readily detects heterozygous variants by melting curve analysis of PCR products. It is well suited to screening genes such as BRCA1 and BRCA2 as germline pathogenic mutations in these genes are always heterozygous.
Methods
Assays for the analysis of all coding regions and intron-exon boundaries of BRCA1 and BRCA2 were designed, and optimised. A final set of 94 assays which ran under identical amplification conditions were chosen for BRCA1 (36) and BRCA2 (58). Significant attention was placed on primer design to enable reproducible detection of mutations within the amplicon while minimising unnecessary detection of polymorphisms. Deoxyinosine residues were incorporated into primers that overlay intronic polymorphisms. Multiple 384 well plates were used to facilitate high throughput.
Results
169 BRCA1 and 239 BRCA2 known sequence variants were used to test the amplicons. We also performed an extensive blinded validation of the protocol with 384 separate patient DNAs. All heterozygous variants were detected with the optimised assays.
Conclusions
This is the first HRM approach to screen the entire coding region of the BRCA1 and BRCA2 genes using one set of reaction conditions in a multi plate 384 well format using specifically designed primers. The parallel screening of a relatively large number of samples enables better detection of sequence variants. HRM has the advantages of decreasing the necessary sequencing by more than 90%. This markedly reduced cost of sequencing will result in BRCA1 and BRCA2 mutation testing becoming accessible to individuals who currently do not undergo mutation testing because of the significant costs involved.
doi:10.1186/1471-2407-11-265
PMCID: PMC3146935  PMID: 21702907
3.  Integrated mutation, copy number and expression profiling in resectable non-small cell lung cancer 
BMC Cancer  2011;11:93.
Background
The aim of this study was to identify critical genes involved in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) pathogenesis that may lead to a more complete understanding of this disease and identify novel molecular targets for use in the development of more effective therapies.
Methods
Both transcriptional and genomic profiling were performed on 69 resected NSCLC specimens and results correlated with mutational analyses and clinical data to identify genetic alterations associated with groups of interest.
Results
Combined analyses identified specific patterns of genetic alteration associated with adenocarcinoma vs. squamous differentiation; KRAS mutation; TP53 mutation, metastatic potential and disease recurrence and survival. Amplification of 3q was associated with mutations in TP53 in adenocarcinoma. A prognostic signature for disease recurrence, reflecting KRAS pathway activation, was validated in an independent test set.
Conclusions
These results may provide the first steps in identifying new predictive biomarkers and targets for novel therapies, thus improving outcomes for patients with this deadly disease.
doi:10.1186/1471-2407-11-93
PMCID: PMC3058106  PMID: 21385341
4.  High resolution melting analysis for rapid and sensitive EGFR and KRAS mutation detection in formalin fixed paraffin embedded biopsies 
BMC Cancer  2008;8:142.
Background
Epithelial growth factor receptor (EGFR) and KRAS mutation status have been reported as predictive markers of tumour response to EGFR inhibitors. High resolution melting (HRM) analysis is an attractive screening method for the detection of both known and unknown mutations as it is rapid to set up and inexpensive to operate. However, up to now it has not been fully validated for clinical samples when formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded (FFPE) sections are the only material available for analysis as is often the case.
Methods
We developed HRM assays, optimised for the analysis of FFPE tissues, to detect somatic mutations in EGFR exons 18 to 21. We performed HRM analysis for EGFR and KRAS on DNA isolated from a panel of 200 non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) samples derived from FFPE tissues.
Results
All 73 samples that harboured EGFR mutations previously identified by sequencing were correctly identified by HRM, giving 100% sensitivity with 90% specificity. Twenty five samples were positive by HRM for KRAS exon 2 mutations. Sequencing of these 25 samples confirmed the presence of codon 12 or 13 mutations. EGFR and KRAS mutations were mutually exclusive.
Conclusion
This is the first extensive validation of HRM on FFPE samples using the detection of EGFR exons 18 to 21 mutations and KRAS exon 2 mutations. Our results demonstrate the utility of HRM analysis for the detection of somatic EGFR and KRAS mutations in clinical samples and for screening of samples prior to sequencing. We estimate that by using HRM as a screening method, the number of sequencing reactions needed for EGFR and KRAS mutation detection can be reduced by up to 80% and thus result in substantial time and cost savings.
doi:10.1186/1471-2407-8-142
PMCID: PMC2408599  PMID: 18495026
5.  Rapid detection of carriers with BRCA1 and BRCA2 mutations using high resolution melting analysis 
BMC Cancer  2008;8:59.
Background
Germline inactivating mutations in BRCA1 and BRCA2 underlie a major proportion of the inherited predisposition to breast and ovarian cancer. These mutations are usually detected by DNA sequencing. Cost-effective and rapid methods to screen for these mutations would enable the extension of mutation testing to a broader population. High resolution melting (HRM) analysis is a rapid screening methodology with very low false negative rates. We therefore evaluated the use of HRM as a mutation scanning tool using, as a proof of principle, the three recurrent BRCA1 and BRCA2 founder mutations in the Ashkenazi Jewish population in addition to other mutations that occur in the same regions.
Methods
We designed PCR amplicons for HRM scanning of BRCA1 exons 2 and 20 (carrying the founder mutations185delAG and 5382insC respectively) and the part of the BRCA2 exon 11 carrying the 6174delT founder mutation. The analysis was performed on an HRM-enabled real time PCR machine.
Results
We tested DNA from the peripheral blood of 29 individuals heterozygous for known mutations. All the Ashkenazi founder mutations were readily identified. Other mutations in each region that were also readily detected included the recently identified Greek founder mutation 5331G>A in exon 20 of BRCA1. Each mutation had a reproducible melting profile.
Conclusion
HRM is a simple and rapid scanning method for known and unknown BRCA1 and BRCA2 germline mutations that can dramatically reduce the amount of sequencing required and reduce the turnaround time for mutation screening and testing. In some cases, such as tracking mutations through pedigrees, sequencing may only be necessary to confirm positive results. This methodology will allow for the economical screening of founder mutations not only in people of Ashkenazi Jewish ancestry but also in other populations with founder mutations such as Central and Eastern Europeans (BRCA1 5382insC) and Greek Europeans (BRCA1 5331G>A).
doi:10.1186/1471-2407-8-59
PMCID: PMC2266761  PMID: 18298804
6.  High resolution melting for mutation scanning of TP53 exons 5–8 
BMC Cancer  2007;7:168.
Background
p53 is commonly inactivated by mutations in the DNA-binding domain in a wide range of cancers. As mutant p53 often influences response to therapy, effective and rapid methods to scan for mutations in TP53 are likely to be of clinical value. We therefore evaluated the use of high resolution melting (HRM) as a rapid mutation scanning tool for TP53 in tumour samples.
Methods
We designed PCR amplicons for HRM mutation scanning of TP53 exons 5 to 8 and tested them with DNA from cell lines hemizygous or homozygous for known mutations. We assessed the sensitivity of each PCR amplicon using dilutions of cell line DNA in normal wild-type DNA. We then performed a blinded assessment on ovarian tumour DNA samples that had been previously sequenced for mutations in TP53 to assess the sensitivity and positive predictive value of the HRM technique. We also performed HRM analysis on breast tumour DNA samples with unknown TP53 mutation status.
Results
One cell line mutation was not readily observed when exon 5 was amplified. As exon 5 contained multiple melting domains, we divided the exon into two amplicons for further screening. Sequence changes were also introduced into some of the primers to improve the melting characteristics of the amplicon. Aberrant HRM curves indicative of TP53 mutations were observed for each of the samples in the ovarian tumour DNA panel. Comparison of the HRM results with the sequencing results revealed that each mutation was detected by HRM in the correct exon. For the breast tumour panel, we detected seven aberrant melt profiles by HRM and subsequent sequencing confirmed the presence of these and no other mutations in the predicted exons.
Conclusion
HRM is an effective technique for simple and rapid scanning of TP53 mutations that can markedly reduce the amount of sequencing required in mutational studies of TP53.
doi:10.1186/1471-2407-7-168
PMCID: PMC2025602  PMID: 17764544
7.  High resolution melting analysis for the rapid and sensitive detection of mutations in clinical samples: KRAS codon 12 and 13 mutations in non-small cell lung cancer 
BMC Cancer  2006;6:295.
Background
The development of targeted therapies has created a pressing clinical need for the rapid and robust molecular characterisation of cancers. We describe here the application of high-resolution melting analysis (HRM) to screen for KRAS mutations in clinical cancer samples. In non-small cell lung cancer, KRAS mutations have been shown to identify a group of patients that do not respond to EGFR targeted therapies and the identification of these mutations is thus clinically important.
Methods
We developed a high-resolution melting (HRM) assay to detect somatic mutations in exon 2, notably codons 12 and 13 of the KRAS gene using the intercalating dye SYTO 9. We tested 3 different cell lines with known KRAS mutations and then examined the sensitivity of mutation detection with the cell lines using 189 bp and 92 bp amplicons spanning codons 12 and 13. We then screened for KRAS mutations in 30 non-small cell lung cancer biopsies that had been previously sequenced for mutations in EGFR exons 18–21.
Results
Known KRAS mutations in cell lines (A549, HCT116 and RPMI8226) were readily detectable using HRM. The shorter 92 bp amplicon was more sensitive in detecting mutations than the 189 bp amplicon and was able to reliably detect as little as 5–6% of each cell line DNA diluted in normal DNA. Nine of the 30 non-small cell lung cancer biopsies had KRAS mutations detected by HRM analysis. The results were confirmed by standard sequencing. Mutations in KRAS and EGFR were mutually exclusive.
Conclusion
HRM is a sensitive in-tube methodology to screen for mutations in clinical samples. HRM will enable high-throughput screening of gene mutations to allow appropriate therapeutic choices for patients and accelerate research aimed at identifying novel mutations in human cancer.
doi:10.1186/1471-2407-6-295
PMCID: PMC1769510  PMID: 17184525
8.  A novel duplication polymorphism in the FANCA promoter and its association with breast and ovarian cancer 
BMC Cancer  2005;5:43.
The FANCA gene is one of the genes in which mutations lead to Fanconi anaemia, a rare autosomal recessive disorder characterised by congenital abnormalities, bone marrow failure, and predisposition to malignancy. FANCA is also a potential breast and ovarian cancer susceptibility gene. A novel allele was identified which has a tandem duplication of a 13 base pair sequence in the promoter region.
Methods
We screened germline DNA from 352 breast cancer patients, 390 ovarian cancer patients and 256 normal controls to determine if the presence of either of these two alleles was associated with an increased risk of breast or ovarian cancer.
Results
The duplication allele had a frequency of 0.34 in the normal controls. There was a non-significant decrease in the frequency of the duplication allele in breast cancer patients. The frequency of the duplication allele was significantly decreased in ovarian cancer patients. However, when malignant and benign tumours were considered separately, the decrease was only significant in benign tumours.
Conclusion
The allele with the tandem duplication does not appear to modify breast cancer risk but may act as a low penetrance protective allele for ovarian cancer.
doi:10.1186/1471-2407-5-43
PMCID: PMC1112586  PMID: 15860134
9.  Optimisation of the RT-PCR detection of immunomagnetically enriched carcinoma cells 
BMC Cancer  2002;2:14.
Background
Immunomagnetic enrichment followed by RT-PCR (immunobead RT-PCR) is an efficient methodology to identify disseminated carcinoma cells in the blood and bone marrow. The RT-PCR assays must be both specific for the tumor cells and sufficiently sensitive to enable detection of single tumor cells. We have developed a method to test RT-PCR assays for any cancer. This has been investigated using a panel of RT-PCR markers suitable for the detection of breast cancer cells.
Methods
In the assay, a single cell line-derived tumor cell is added to 100 peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMNCs) after which mRNA is isolated and reverse transcribed for RT-PCR analysis. PBMNCs without added tumor cells are used as specificity controls. The previously studied markers epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR), mammaglobin 1 (MGB1), epithelial cell adhesion molecule (EpCAM/TACSTD1), mucin 1 (MUC1), carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA) were tested. Two new epithelial-specific markers ELF3 and EphB4 were also tested.
Results
MUC1 was unsuitable as strong amplification was detected in 100 cell PBMNC controls. Expression of ELF3, EphB4, EpCAM, EGFR, CEA and MGB1 was found to be both specific for the tumor cell, as demonstrated by the absence of a signal in most 100 cell PBMNC controls, and sensitive enough to detect a single tumor cell in 100 PBMNCs using a single round of RT-PCR.
Conclusions
ELF3, EphB4, EpCAM, EGFR, CEA and MGB1 are appropriate RT-PCR markers for use in a marker panel to detect disseminated breast cancer cells after immunomagnetic enrichment.
doi:10.1186/1471-2407-2-14
PMCID: PMC115840  PMID: 12031094

Results 1-9 (9)