The DNA-dependent RNA polymerase from T7 bacteriophage (T7 RNAP) has been extensively characterized, and like other phage RNA polymerases it is highly specific for its promoter. A combined in vitro / in vivo selection method has been developed for the evolution of T7 RNA polymerases with altered promoter specificities. Large (103 – 106) polymerase libraries were made and cloned downstream of variant promoters. Those polymerase variants that can recognize variant promoters self-amplify both themselves and their attendent mRNAs in vivo. Following RT / PCR amplification in vitro, the most numerous polymerase genes are preferentially cloned and carried into subsequent rounds of selection.
Results and Conclusions
A T7 RNA polymerase library that was randomized at three positions was cloned adjacent to a T3-like promoter sequence, and a 'specialist' T7 RNA polymerase was identified. A library that was randomized at a different set of positions was cloned adjacent to a promoter library in which four positions had been randomized, and 'generalist' polymerases that could utilize a variety of T7 promoters were identified, including at least one polymerase with an apparently novel promoter specificity. This method may have applications for evolving other polymerase variants with novel phenotypes, such as the ability to incorporate modified nucleotides.
Rapid, robust and reversible induction of transgene expression would significantly facilitate cancer gene therapy as well as allow the in vivo functional study of newly discovered genes in tumor formation and progression. The popularity of the ecdysone inducible gene switch system has led us to investigate whether such a system can successfully regulate gene expression in a syngeneic tumor system in vivo.
MBT-2 and Panc02 carcinoma cells were transfected with components of a modification of the ecdysone switch system driving firefly luciferase (F-Luc). In vitro luciferase expression ± ecdysone analog GS-E indicated a robust induction with minimal baseline activity and complete decay after 24 hours without drug. In vitro selection of MBT-2 transfected cell clones which had complete absence of F-Luc expression in the absence of stimulation but which expressed this gene at high levels in response to GS-E were chosen for in vivo evaluation. Tumors from engineered MBT-2 cells were grown to 5 mm in diameter prior to GS-E administration, animals euthanized and tumors removed at 6, 12 and 24 hours after GS-E administration and assayed for F-Luc activity. GS-E resulted in a maximal induction of F-Luc activity at 6 hours in tumor tissue with almost complete reversion to control levels by 12 hours.
This study is the first demonstration that robust and reversible transgene expression in tumors is feasible using the ecdysone system, allowing future rapid in vivo functional characterization of gene function or gene therapy applications.
Ecdysone; Gene Expression Regulation. Ligands; Mice; Transcription Factors; Tumor Cells
Transgenic mice have been used extensively to analyze gene function. Unfortunately, traditional transgenic procedures have only limited use in analyzing alleles that cause lethality because lines of founder mice cannot be established. This is frustrating given that such alleles often reveal crucial aspects of gene function. For this reason techniques that facilitate the generation of embryos expressing such alleles would be of enormous benefit. Although the transient generation of transgenic embryos has allowed limited analysis of lethal alleles, it is expensive, time consuming and technically challenging. Moreover a fundamental limitation with this approach is that each embryo generated is unique and transgene expression is highly variable due to the integration of different transgene copy numbers at random genomic sites.
Here we describe an alternative method that allows the generation of clonal mouse embryos harboring a single-copy transgene at a defined genomic location. This was facilitated through the production of Hprt negative embryonic stem cells that allow the derivation of embryos by tetraploid embryo complementation. We show that targeting transgenes to the hprt locus in these ES cells by homologous recombination can be efficiently selected by growth in HAT medium. Moreover, embryos derived solely from targeted ES cells containing a single copy LacZ transgene under the control of the α-myosin heavy chain promoter exhibited the expected cardiac specific expression pattern.
Our results demonstrate that tetraploid embryo complementation by F3 hprt negative ES cells facilitates the generation of transgenic mouse embryos containing a single copy gene at a defined genomic locus. This approach is simple, extremely efficient and bypasses any requirement to generate chimeric mice. Moreover embryos generated by this procedure are clonal in that they are all derived from a single ES cell lines. This facilitates the comparative analysis of lethal alleles and thereby advances our ability to analyze gene function in mammals.
To maintain populations of microbial cells under controlled conditions of growth and environment for an indefinite duration is a prerequisite for experimentally evolving natural isolates of wild-type species or recombinant strains. This goal is beyond the scope of current continuous culture apparatus because these devices positively select mutants that evade dilution, primarily through attachment to vessel surfaces, resulting in persistent sub-populations of uncontrollable size and growth rate.
To overcome this drawback, a device with two growth chambers periodically undergoing transient phases of sterilization was designed. The robustness of this device was assessed by propagating an E. coli strain under permanent thymine starvation for over 880 days, i.e. metabolic conditions notoriously known to lead to cell death and clogging of cultivation vessels. Ten thousand generations were required to obtain a descendant lineage that could resist thymine starvation and had recovered wild-type growth rate.
This approach provides a technological framework for the diversification and improvement of microbial strains by long-term adaptation to inescapable metabolic constraints. An E. coli strain that is totally resistant to thymineless death was selected.
A non-pathogenic species of coryneform bacteria, Corynebacterium glutamicum, was originally isolated as an L-glutamate producing bacterium and is now used for fermentative production of various amino acids. A mutation in the C. glutamicum ltsA gene caused susceptibility to lysozyme, temperature-sensitive growth, and L-glutamate production.
The characteristics of eight lysozyme-sensitive mutants which had been isolated after N-methyl-N'-nitro-N-nitrosoguanidine mutagenesis were examined. Complementation analysis with the cloned wild-type ltsA gene and DNA sequencing of the ItsA region revealed that four mutants had a mutation in the ltsA gene. Among them, two mutants showed temperature-sensitive growth and overproduced L-glutamate at higher temperatures, as well as the previously reported ltsA mutant. Other two showed temperature-resistant growth: one missense mutant produced L-glutamate to some extent but the other nonsense mutant did not. These two mutants remained temperature-resistant in spite of introduction of ltsA::kan mutation that causes temperature-sensitive growth in the wild-type background.
These results indicate that a defect caused by the ltsA mutations is responsible for temperature-sensitive growth and L-glutamate overproduction by C. glutamicum. The two temperature-resistant mutants seem to carry suppressor mutations that rendered cells temperature-resistance and abolished L-glutamate overproduction.
Microarray experiments offer a potent solution to the problem of making and comparing large numbers of gene expression measurements either in different cell types or in the same cell type under different conditions. Inferences about the biological relevance of observed changes in expression depend on the statistical significance of the changes. In lieu of many replicates with which to determine accurate intensity means and variances, reliable estimates of statistical significance remain problematic. Without such estimates, overly conservative choices for significance must be enforced.
A simple statistical method for estimating variances from microarray control data which does not require multiple replicates is presented. Comparison of datasets from two commercial entities using this difference-averaging method demonstrates that the standard deviation of the signal scales at a level intermediate between the signal intensity and its square root. Application of the method to a dataset related to the β-catenin pathway yields a larger number of biologically reasonable genes whose expression is altered than the ratio method.
The difference-averaging method enables determination of variances as a function of signal intensities by averaging over the entire dataset. The method also provides a platform-independent view of important statistical properties of microarray data.
Gene disruption by targeted integration of transfected constructs becomes increasingly popular for studies of gene function. The chicken B cell line DT40 has been widely used as a model for gene knock-outs due to its high targeted integration activity. Disruption of multiple genes and complementation of the phenotypes is, however, restricted by the number of available selectable marker genes. It is therefore highly desirable to recycle the selectable markers using a site-specific recombination system like Cre/loxP.
We constructed three plasmid vectors (neoR, puroR and bsr), which carry selectable marker genes flanked by two different mutant loxP sites. After stable transfection, the marker genes can be excised from the genome by transient induction of Cre recombinase expression. This excision converts the two mutant loxP sites to an inactive double-mutant loxP. Furthermore we constructed a versatile expression vector to clone cDNA expression cassettes between mutant loxP sites. This vector can also be used to design knock-out constructs in which the floxed marker gene is combined with a cDNA expression cassette. This construct enables gene knock-out and complementation in a single step. Gene expression can subsequently be terminated by the Cre mediated deletion of the cDNA expression cassette. This strategy is powerful for analyzing essential genes, whose disruption brings lethality to the mutant cell.
Mutant loxP vectors have been developed for the recycle of selectable markers and conditional gene knock-out approaches. As the marker and the cDNA expression cassettes are driven by the universally active and evolutionary conserved β-actin promoter, they can be used for the selection of stable transfectants in a wide range of cell lines.
Modern drug discovery is concerned with identification and validation of novel protein targets from among the 30,000 genes or more postulated to be present in the human genome. While protein-protein interactions may be central to many disease indications, it has been difficult to identify new chemical entities capable of regulating these interactions as either agonists or antagonists.
In this paper, we show that peptide complements (or surrogates) derived from highly diverse random phage display libraries can be used for the identification of the expected natural biological partners for protein and non-protein targets. Our examples include surrogates isolated against both an extracellular secreted protein (TNFβ) and intracellular disease related mRNAs. In each case, surrogates binding to these targets were obtained and found to contain partner information embedded in their amino acid sequences. Furthermore, this information was able to identify the correct biological partners from large human genome databases by rapid and integrated computer based searches.
Modified versions of these surrogates should provide agents capable of modifying the activity of these targets and enable one to study their involvement in specific biological processes as a means of target validation for downstream drug discovery.
There have been many attempts to develop new materials with stability and high affinity towards immunoglobulins. Some of glycolipids such as gangliosides exhibit a high affinity toward immunoglobulins. However, it is considerably difficult to develop these glycolipids into the practical separation ligand due to their limited amounts. We thus focused our attention on the feasible use of "mannosylerythritol lipid A", a yeast glycolipid biosurfactant, as an alternative ligand for immunoglobulins, and undertook the investigation on the binding between mannosylerythritol lipid A (MEL-A) and human immunoglobulin G (HIgG).
In ELISA assay, MEL-A showed nearly the same binding affinity towards HIgG as that of bovine ganglioside GM1. Fab of human IgG was considered to play a more important role than Fc in the binding of HIgG by MEL-A. The bound amount of HIgG increased depending on the attached amount of MEL-A onto poly (2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate) (polyHEMA) beads, whereas the amount of human serum albumin slightly decreased. Binding-amount and -selectivity of HIgG towards MEL-A were influenced by salt species, salt concentration and pH in the buffer solution. The composite of MEL-A and polyHEMA, exhibited a significant binding constant of 1.43 × 106 (M-1) for HIgG, which is approximately 4-fold greater than that of protein A reported.
MEL-A shows high binding-affinity towards HIgG, and this is considered to be due to "multivalent effect" based on the binding molar ratio. This is the first report on the binding of a natural human antibody towards a yeast glycolipid.
Hydrophobic polystyrene is the most common material for solid phase immunoassay. Proteins are immobilized on polystyrene by passive adsorption, which often causes considerable denaturation. Biological macromolecules were found to better retain their functional activity when immobilized on hydrophilic materials. Polyacrylamide is a common material for solid-phase carriers of biological macromolecules, including immunoreagents used in affinity chromatography. New macroformats for immunoassay modified with activated polyacrylamide derivatives seem to be promising.
New polymeric matrices for immunoassay in the form of 0.63-cm balls which contain hydrazide functional groups on hydrophilic polymer spacer arms at their surface shell are synthesized by modification of aldehyde-containing polystyrene balls with hydrazide derivatives of poly(meth)acrylic acid. The beads contain up to 0.31 μmol/cm2 active hydrazide groups accessible for covalent reaction with periodate-oxidized antibodies. The matrices obtained allow carrying out the oriented antibody immobilization, which increases the functional activity of immunosorbents.
An efficient site-directed antibody immobilization on a macrosupport is realized. The polymer hydrophilic spacer arms are the most convenient and effective tools for oriented antibody coupling with molded materials. The suggested scheme can be used for the modification of any other solid supports containing electrophilic groups reacting with hydrazides.
The Gavac™ vaccine against the cattle tick Boophilus microplus has proven its efficacy in a large number of controlled and field experiments. However, this vaccine could be further improved by searching for new alternative adjuvants that would induce a stronger long-lasting immune response. We conducted several experiments to assay the adjuvant effect of fractions of the recombinant yeast Pichia pastoris in mouse and cattle models. In previous experiments, the combination of the yeast membrane with saponin was the most effective formulation in stimulating the humoral immune response in mice, eliciting a response higher than Montanide 888. The response was predominantly of the IgG1 isotype. Here, we evaluated the response in cattle and compared the results with that obtained in mice.
Bm86 on the membrane of P. pastoris plus saponin produced high antibody titers in cattle, though the protection level against tick infestations was lower when compared to Gavac™, probably due to a decrease in the IgG1/IgG2 ratio. The predictive value of the mouse model was studied through correlation analysis between the isotype levels in mice and the efficacy of formulations in cattle. Good correlation was established between the level of antibodies in mice and cattle, and between the amount of anti -Bm86 IgG1 in mice and the degree of protection in cattle.
Mouse model have the potential to predict immunogenicity and efficacy of formulations in cattle. These results also support the use of the yeast expression system for recombinant vaccine formulations, enabling the prediction of more cost - effective formulations.
Infections of bacterial cultures by bacteriophages are serious problems in biotechnological laboratories. Apart from such infections, prophage induction in the host cells may also be dangerous. Escherichia coli is a commonly used host in biotechnological production, and many laboratory strains of this bacterium harbour lambdoid prophages. These prophages may be induced under certain conditions leading to phage lytic development. This is fatal for further cultivations as relatively low, though still significant, numbers of phages may be overlooked. Thus, subsequent cultures of non-lysogenic strains may be infected and destroyed by such phage.
Here we report that slow growth of bacteria decreases deleterious effects of spontaneous lambdoid prophage induction. Moreover, replacement of glucose with glycerol in a medium stimulates lysogenic development of the phage after infection of E. coli cells. A plasmid was constructed overexpressing the phage 434 cI gene, coding for the repressor of phage promoters which are necessary for lytic development. Overproduction of the cI repressor abolished spontaneous induction of the λimm434 prophage.
Simple procedures that alleviate problems with spontaneous induction of lambdoid prophage and subsequent infection of E. coli strains by these phages are described. Low bacterial growth rate, replacement of glucose with glycerol in a medium and overproduction of the cI repressor minimise the risk of prophage induction during cultivation of lysogenic bacteria and subsequent infection of other bacterial strains.