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1.  Acyl-CoA-binding and self-associating properties of a recombinant 13.3 kDa N-terminal fragment of diacylglycerol acyltransferase-1 from oilseed rape 
BMC Biochemistry  2006;7:24.
Background
Diacylglycerol acyltransferase (DGAT, EC 2.3.1.20) catalyzes the acyl-CoA-dependent acylation of sn-1, 2-diacylglycerol to generate triacylglycerol and CoA. The deduced amino acid sequence of cDNAs encoding DGAT1 from plants and mammals exhibit a hydrophilic N-terminal region followed by a number of potential membrane-spanning segments, which is consistent with the membrane-bound nature of this enzyme family. In order to gain insight into the structure/function properties of DGAT1 from Brassica napus (BnDGAT1), we produced and partially characterized a recombinant polyHis-tagged N-terminal fragment of the enzyme, BnDGAT1(1–116)His6, with calculated molecular mass of 13,278 Da.
Results
BnDGAT1(1–116)His6 was highly purified from bacterial lysate and plate-like monoclinic crystals were grown using this preparation. Lipidex-1000 binding assays and gel electrophoresis indicated that BnDGAT1(1–116)His6 interacts with long chain acyl-CoA. The enzyme fragment displayed enhanced affinity for erucoyl (22:1cisΔ13)-CoA over oleoyl (18:1cisΔ9)-CoA, and the binding process displayed positive cooperativity. Gel filtration chromatography and cross-linking studies indicated that BnDGAT1(1–116)His6 self-associated to form a tetramer. Polyclonal antibodies raised against a peptide of 15 amino acid residues representing a segment of BnDGAT1(1–116)His6 failed to react with protein in microsomal vesicles following treatment with proteinase K, suggesting that the N-terminal fragment of BnDGAT1 was localized to the cytosolic side of the ER.
Conclusion
Collectively, these results suggest that BnDGAT1 may be allosterically modulated by acyl-CoA through the N-terminal region and that the enzyme self-associates via interactions on the cytosolic side of the ER.
doi:10.1186/1471-2091-7-24
PMCID: PMC1764880  PMID: 17192193
2.  Characterization of a β-glucanase produced by Rhizopus microsporus var. microsporus, and its potential for application in the brewing industry 
BMC Biochemistry  2006;7:23.
Background
In the barley malting process, partial hydrolysis of β-glucans begins with seed germination. However, the endogenous 1,3-1,4-β-glucanases are heat inactivated, and the remaining high molecular weight β-glucans may cause severe problems such as increased brewer mash viscosity and turbidity. Increased viscosity impairs pumping and filtration, resulting in lower efficiency, reduced yields of extracts, and lower filtration rates, as well as the appearance of gelatinous precipitates in the finished beer. Therefore, the use of exogenous β-glucanases to reduce the β-glucans already present in the malt barley is highly desirable.
Results
The zygomycete microfungus Rhizopus microsporus var. microsporus secreted substantial amounts of β-glucanase in liquid culture medium containing 0.5% chitin. An active protein was isolated by gel filtration and ion exchange chromatographies of the β-glucanase activity-containing culture supernatant. This isolated protein hydrolyzed 1,3-1,4-β-glucan (barley β-glucan), but showed only residual activity against 1,3-β-glucan (laminarin), or no activity at all against 1,4-β-glucan (cellulose), indicating that the R. microsporus var. microsporus enzyme is a member of the EC 3.2.1.73 category. The purified protein had a molecular mass of 33.7 kDa, as determined by mass spectrometry. The optimal pH and temperature for hydrolysis of 1,3-1,4-β-glucan were in the ranges of 4–5, and 50–60°C, respectively. The Km and Vmax values for hydrolysis of β-glucan at pH 5.0 and 50°C were 22.39 mg.mL-1 and 16.46 mg.min-1, respectively. The purified enzyme was highly sensitive to Cu+2, but showed less or no sensitivity to other divalent ions, and was able to reduce both the viscosity and the filtration time of a sample of brewer mash. In comparison to the values determined for the mash treated with two commercial glucanases, the relative viscosity value for the mash treated with the 1,3-1,4-β-glucanase produced by R. microsporus var. microsporus. was determined to be consistently lower.
Conclusion
The zygomycete microfungus R. microsporus var. microsporus produced a 1,3-1,4-β-D-glucan 4-glucanhydrolase (EC 3.2.1.73) which is able to hydrolyze β-D-glucan that contains both the 1,3- and 1,4-bonds (barley β-glucans). Its molecular mass was 33.7 kDa. Maximum activity was detected at pH values in the range of 4–5, and temperatures in the range of 50–60°C. The enzyme was able to reduce both the viscosity of the brewer mash and the filtration time, indicating its potential value for the brewing industry.
doi:10.1186/1471-2091-7-23
PMCID: PMC1712339  PMID: 17147821
3.  Limited proteolysis of human histone deacetylase 1 
BMC Biochemistry  2006;7:22.
Background
Histone deacetylase (HDAC) proteins are associated with cell proliferation, differentiation, apoptosis, and cancer. Specifically, HDAC1 is linked with cell growth, a hallmark of cancer formation. HDAC1 is a phosphoprotein and phosphorylation at S421 and S423 promotes HDAC1 enzymatic activity and protein association. While single and double point mutants of HDAC1 at S421 and S423 appear functionally similar, the evidence suggests that HDAC1 is phosphorylated simultaneously at both S421 and S423 in vivo. Additional experiments are necessary to probe the role of double phosphorylation of HDAC1 at S421 and S423.
Results
To characterize HDAC1 phosphorylation at S421 and S423, limited proteolysis of HDAC1 was performed for the first time. HDAC1 degraded without production of discrete fragments. By performing concentration-dependent proteolysis, HDAC1 double point mutants with disrupted phosphorylation at S421 and S423 displayed different trypsin sensitivities compared to wild type HDAC1. Unexpectedly, HDAC1 single point mutants with disrupted phosphorylation at either S421 or S423 demonstrated protease sensitivity similar to the wild type HDAC1.
Conclusion
Concentration-dependent proteolysis experiments provide evidence that phosphorylation of S421 and S423 individually contribute to HDAC1 function. In addition, the limited proteolysis experiments support a model where associated proteins promote HDAC1 enzymatic activity, reinforcing the importance of protein interactions in HDAC1 structure and function. Finally, because HDAC1 does not display distinct regions of protease sensitivity, the proteolysis studies suggest that HDAC1 comprises inter-related structural regions.
doi:10.1186/1471-2091-7-22
PMCID: PMC1613246  PMID: 17022812
4.  The DNA polymerase activity of Pol ε holoenzyme is required for rapid and efficient chromosomal DNA replication in Xenopus egg extracts 
BMC Biochemistry  2006;7:21.
Background
DNA polymerase ε (Pol ε) is involved in DNA replication, repair, and cell-cycle checkpoint control in eukaryotic cells. Although the roles of replicative Pol α and Pol δ in chromosomal DNA replication are relatively well understood and well documented, the precise role of Pol ε in chromosomal DNA replication is not well understood.
Results
This study uses a Xenopus egg extract DNA replication system to further elucidate the replicative role(s) played by Pol ε. Previous studies show that the initiation timing and elongation of chromosomal DNA replication are markedly impaired in Pol ε-depleted Xenopus egg extracts, with reduced accumulation of replicative intermediates and products. This study shows that normal replication is restored by addition of Pol ε holoenzyme to Pol ε-depleted extracts, but not by addition of polymerase-deficient forms of Pol ε, including polymerase point or deletion mutants or incomplete enzyme complexes. Evidence is also provided that Pol ε holoenzyme interacts directly with GINS, Cdc45p and Cut5p, each of which plays an important role in initiation of chromosomal DNA replication in eukaryotic cells.
Conclusion
These results indicate that the DNA polymerase activity of Pol ε holoenzyme plays an essential role in normal chromosomal DNA replication in Xenopus egg extracts. These are the first biochemical data to show the DNA polymerase activity of Pol ε holoenzyme is essential for chromosomal DNA replication in higher eukaryotes, unlike in yeasts.
doi:10.1186/1471-2091-7-21
PMCID: PMC1560149  PMID: 16925818
5.  Identification, cloning and characterization of a novel 47 kDa murine PKA C subunit homologous to human and bovine Cβ2 
BMC Biochemistry  2006;7:20.
Background
Two main genes encoding the catalytic subunits Cα and Cβ of cyclic AMP dependent protein kinase (PKA) have been identified in all vertebrates examined. The murine, bovine and human Cβ genes encode several splice variants, including the splice variant Cβ2. In mouse Cβ2 has a relative molecular mass of 38 kDa and is only expressed in the brain. In human and bovine Cβ2 has a relative molecular mass of 47 kDa and is mainly expressed in lymphoid tissues.
Results
We identified a novel 47 kDa splice variant encoded by the mouse Cβ gene that is highly expressed in lymphoid cells. Cloning, expression, and production of a sequence-specific antiserum and characterization of PKA catalytic subunit activities demonstrated the 47 kDa protein to be a catalytically active murine homologue of human and bovine Cβ2. Based on the present results and the existence of a human brain-specifically expressed Cβ splice variant designated Cβ4 that is identical to the former mouse Cβ2 splice variant, the mouse splice variant has now been renamed mouse Cβ4.
Conclusion
Murine lymphoid tissues express a protein that is a homologue of human and bovine Cβ2. The murine Cβ gene encodes the splice variants Cβ1, Cβ2, Cβ3 and Cβ4, as is the case with the human Cβ gene.
doi:10.1186/1471-2091-7-20
PMCID: PMC1557514  PMID: 16889664
6.  Influence of simulated microgravity on the activation of the small GTPase Rho involved in cytoskeletal formation – molecular cloning and sequencing of bovine leukemia-associated guanine nucleotide exchange factor 
BMC Biochemistry  2006;7:19.
Background
The irregular formation of cytoskeletal fibers in spaceflown experimental cells has been observed, but the disorganization process of fibers is still poorly understood. It is well known that the activation of the small GTPase Rho leads to actin stress fibers assembly. This study was performed to evaluate the effect of simulated microgravity on the activation of Rho that is involved in actin fiber remodeling in cells.
Results
Clinorotation influences actin fiber remodeling and its related signaling pathways that involve the small GTPase Rho. Actin stress fiber remodeling was significantly inhibited to a greater extent in cells cultured under clinorotation than in static cultured cells. From the gene and protein expression analyses, we found that the expression level of leukemia-associated Rho guanine nucleotide exchange factor (LARG), which activates Rho, was downregulated under clinorotation. Moreover, we identified the full-length LARG cDNA. The amount of GTP-bound RhoA, that is, the active form of RhoA, decreased under this condition.
Conclusion
The activation of the small GTPase Rho was influenced by simulated microgravity generated by a three-dimensional (3D) clinostat. Furthermore, the full-length cDNA of bovine LARG, a member of the Rho guanine nucleotide exchange factor (GEF) family, was identified, and its gene expression was observed to be downregulated under clinorotation. This downregulation subsequently resulted in the repression of RhoA activation. These results indicated that the disorganization of the actin fibers was caused by the inhibition of Rho activation by 3D clinorotation.
doi:10.1186/1471-2091-7-19
PMCID: PMC1524780  PMID: 16803636
7.  Benchmarking pKa prediction 
BMC Biochemistry  2006;7:18.
Background
pKa values are a measure of the protonation of ionizable groups in proteins. Ionizable groups are involved in intra-protein, protein-solvent and protein-ligand interactions as well as solubility, protein folding and catalytic activity. The pKa shift of a group from its intrinsic value is determined by the perturbation of the residue by the environment and can be calculated from three-dimensional structural data.
Results
Here we use a large dataset of experimentally-determined pKas to analyse the performance of different prediction techniques. Our work provides a benchmark of available software implementations: MCCE, MEAD, PROPKA and UHBD. Combinatorial and regression analysis is also used in an attempt to find a consensus approach towards pKa prediction. The tendency of individual programs to over- or underpredict the pKa value is related to the underlying methodology of the individual programs.
Conclusion
Overall, PROPKA is more accurate than the other three programs. Key to developing accurate predictive software will be a complete sampling of conformations accessible to protein structures.
doi:10.1186/1471-2091-7-18
PMCID: PMC1513386  PMID: 16749919
8.  Nitric oxide agents impair insulin-mediated signal transduction in rat skeletal muscle 
BMC Biochemistry  2006;7:17.
Background
Evidence demonstrates that exogenously administered nitric oxide (NO) can induce insulin resistance in skeletal muscle. We have investigated the modulatory effects of two NO donors, S-nitroso-N-acetyl-D, L-penicillamine (SNAP) and S-nitrosoglutathione (GSNO) on the early events in insulin signaling in rat skeletal myocytes.
Results
Skeletal muscle cells from 6–8 week old Sprague-Dawley rats were treated with SNAP or GSNO (25 ng/ml) in the presence or absence of glucose (25 mM) and insulin (100 nM). Cellular insulin receptor-β levels and tyrosine phosphorylation in IRS-1 were significantly reduced, while serine phosphorylation in IRS-1 was significantly increased in these cells, when compared to the insulin-stimulated control. Reversal to near normal levels was achieved using the NO scavenger, 2-(4-carboxyphenyl)-4, 4, 5, 5-tetramethylimidazoline-1-oxyl 3-oxide (carboxy-PTIO).
Conclusion
These data suggest that NO is a potent modulator of insulin-mediated signal transduction and may play a significant role in the pathogenesis of type 2 diabetes mellitus.
doi:10.1186/1471-2091-7-17
PMCID: PMC1524779  PMID: 16729893
9.  Identification of a Bacillus thuringiensis Cry11Ba toxin-binding aminopeptidase from the mosquito, Anopheles quadrimaculatus 
BMC Biochemistry  2006;7:16.
Background
Aminopeptidase N (APN) type proteins isolated from several species of lepidopteran insects have been implicated as Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) toxin-binding proteins (receptors) for Cry toxins. We examined brush border membrane vesicle (BBMV) proteins from the mosquito Anopheles quadrimaculatus to determine if APNs from this organism would bind mosquitocidal Cry toxins that are active to it.
Results
A 100-kDa protein with APN activity (APNAnq 100) was isolated from the brush border membrane of Anopheles quadrimaculatus. Native state binding analysis by surface plasmon resonance shows that APNAnq 100 forms tight binding to a mosquitocidal Bt toxin, Cry11Ba, but not to Cry2Aa, Cry4Ba or Cry11Aa.
Conclusion
An aminopeptidase from Anopheles quadrimaculatus mosquitoes is a specific binding protein for Bacillus thuringiensis Cry11Ba.
doi:10.1186/1471-2091-7-16
PMCID: PMC1533836  PMID: 16716213
10.  Calcium adsorption and displacement: characterization of lipid monolayers and their interaction with membrane-active peptides/proteins 
BMC Biochemistry  2006;7:15.
Background
The first target of antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) is the bacterial membrane. In the case of Gram-negative bacteria this is the outer membrane (OM), the lipid composition of which is extremely asymmetric: Whereas the inner leaflet is composed of a phospholipid mixture, the outer leaflet is made up solely from lipopolysaccharides (LPSs). LPS, therefore, represents the first target of AMPs. The binding and intercalation of polycationic AMPs is driven by the number and position of negatively charged groups of the LPS. Also, proteins other than cationic AMPs can interact with LPS, e.g. leading eventually to a neutralization of the endotoxic effects of LPS. We compared different biophysical techniques to gain insight into the properties of the electrical surface potentials of lipid monolayers and aggregates composed of LPSs and various phospholipids and their interaction with peptides and proteins.
Results
The net negative charge calculated from the chemical structure of the phospholipid and LPS molecules is linearly correlated with the adsorption of calcium to two-dimensional lipid monolayers composed of the respective lipids. However, the ζ-potentials determined by the electrophoretic mobility of LPS aggregates can only be interpreted by assuming a dependence of the plane of shear on the number of saccharides and charged groups. Various peptides and proteins were able to displace calcium adsorbed to monolayers.
Conclusion
To characterize the electrical properties of negatively charged phospholipids and LPSs and their electrostatic interaction with various polycationic peptides/proteins, the adsorption of calcium to and displacement from lipid monolayers is a suitable parameter. Using the calcium displacement method, the binding of peptides to monolayers can be determined even if they do not intercalate. The interpretation of ζ-potential data is difficulty for LPS aggregates, because of the complex three-dimensional structure of the LPS molecules. However, the influence of peptides/proteins on the ζ-potential can be used to characterize the underlying interaction mechanisms.
doi:10.1186/1471-2091-7-15
PMCID: PMC1488853  PMID: 16672047
11.  Aquaporin-11: A channel protein lacking apparent transport function expressed in brain 
BMC Biochemistry  2006;7:14.
Background
The aquaporins are a family of integral membrane proteins composed of two subfamilies: the orthodox aquaporins, which transport only water, and the aquaglyceroporins, which transport glycerol, urea, or other small solutes. Two recently described aquaporins, numbers 11 and 12, appear to be more distantly related to the other mammalian aquaporins and aquaglyceroporins.
Results
We report on the characterization of Aquaporin-11 (AQP11). AQP11 RNA and protein is found in multiple rat tissues, including kidney, liver, testes and brain. AQP11 has a unique distribution in brain, appearing in Purkinje cell dendrites, hippocampal neurons of CA1 and CA2, and cerebral cortical neurons. Immunofluorescent staining of Purkinje cells indicates that AQP11 is intracellular. Unlike other aquaporins, Xenopus oocytes expressing AQP11 in the plasma membrane failed to transport water, glycerol, urea, or ions.
Conclusion
AQP11 is functionally distinct from other proteins of the aquaporin superfamily and could represent a new aquaporin subfamily. Further studies are necessary to elucidate the role of AQP11 in the brain.
doi:10.1186/1471-2091-7-14
PMCID: PMC1475587  PMID: 16650285
12.  Characterization of hARD2, a processed hARD1 gene duplicate, encoding a human protein N-α-acetyltransferase 
BMC Biochemistry  2006;7:13.
Background
Protein acetylation is increasingly recognized as an important mechanism regulating a variety of cellular functions. Several human protein acetyltransferases have been characterized, most of them catalyzing ε-acetylation of histones and transcription factors. We recently described the human protein acetyltransferase hARD1 (human Arrest Defective 1). hARD1 interacts with NATH (N-Acetyl Transferase Human) forming a complex expressing protein N-terminal α-acetylation activity.
Results
We here describe a human protein, hARD2, with 81 % sequence identity to hARD1. The gene encoding hARD2 most likely originates from a eutherian mammal specific retrotransposition event. hARD2 mRNA and protein are expressed in several human cell lines. Immunoprecipitation experiments show that hARD2 protein potentially interacts with NATH, suggesting that hARD2-NATH complexes may be responsible for protein N-α-acetylation in human cells. In NB4 cells undergoing retinoic acid mediated differentiation, the level of endogenous hARD1 and NATH protein decreases while the level of hARD2 protein is stable.
Conclusion
A human protein N-α-acetyltransferase is herein described. ARD2 potentially complements the functions of ARD1, adding more flexibility and complexity to protein N-α-acetylation in human cells as compared to lower organisms which only have one ARD.
doi:10.1186/1471-2091-7-13
PMCID: PMC1475586  PMID: 16638120
13.  The effect of engineered disulfide bonds on the stability of Drosophila melanogaster acetylcholinesterase 
BMC Biochemistry  2006;7:12.
Background
Acetylcholinesterase is irreversibly inhibited by organophosphate and carbamate insecticides allowing its use in biosensors for detection of these insecticides. Drosophila acetylcholinesterase is the most sensitive enzyme known and has been improved by in vitro mutagenesis. However, its stability has to be improved for extensive utilization.
Results
To create a disulfide bond that could increase the stability of the Drosophila melanogaster acetylcholinesterase, we selected seven positions taking into account first the distance between Cβ of two residues, in which newly introduced cysteines will form the new disulfide bond and second the conservation of the residues in the cholinesterase family. Most disulfide bonds tested did not increase and even decreased the stability of the protein. However, one engineered disulfide bridge, I327C/D375C showed significant stability increase toward denaturation by temperature (170 fold at 50°C), urea, organic solvent and provided resistance to protease degradation. The new disulfide bridge links the N-terminal domain (first 356 aa) to the C-terminal domain. The quantities produced by this mutant were the same as in wild-type flies.
Conclusion
Addition of a disulfide bridge may either stabilize or unstabilize proteins. One bond out of the 7 tested provided significant stabilisation.
doi:10.1186/1471-2091-7-12
PMCID: PMC1481510  PMID: 16686937
14.  The PLAC1-homology region of the ZP domain is sufficient for protein polymerisation 
BMC Biochemistry  2006;7:11.
Background
Hundreds of extracellular proteins polymerise into filaments and matrices by using zona pellucida (ZP) domains. ZP domain proteins perform highly diverse functions, ranging from structural to receptorial, and mutations in their genes are responsible for a number of severe human diseases. Recently, PLAC1, Oosp1-3, Papillote and CG16798 proteins were identified that share sequence homology with the N-terminal half of the ZP domain (ZP-N), but not with its C-terminal half (ZP-C). The functional significance of this partial conservation is unknown.
Results
By exploiting a highly engineered bacterial strain, we expressed in soluble form the PLAC1-homology region of mammalian sperm receptor ZP3 as a fusion to maltose binding protein. Mass spectrometry showed that the 4 conserved Cys residues within the ZP-N moiety of the fusion protein adopt the same disulfide bond connectivity as in full-length native ZP3, indicating that it is correctly folded, and electron microscopy and biochemical analyses revealed that it assembles into filaments.
Conclusion
These findings provide a function for PLAC1-like proteins and, by showing that ZP-N is a biologically active folding unit, prompt a re-evaluation of the architecture of the ZP domain and its polymers. Furthermore, they suggest that ZP-C might play a regulatory role in the assembly of ZP domain protein complexes.
doi:10.1186/1471-2091-7-11
PMCID: PMC1479692  PMID: 16600035
15.  Identification and characterization of human polyserase-3, a novel protein with tandem serine-protease domains in the same polypeptide chain 
BMC Biochemistry  2006;7:9.
Background
We have previously described the identification and characterization of polyserase-1 and polyserase-2, two human serine proteases containing three different catalytic domains within the same polypeptide chain. Polyserase-1 shows a complex organization and it is synthesized as a membrane-bound protein which can generate three independent serine protease domains as a consequence of post-translational processing events. The two first domains are enzymatically active. By contrast, polyserase-2 is an extracellular glycosylated protein whose three protease domains remain embedded in the same chain, and only the first domain possesses catalytic activity.
Results
Following our interest in the study of the human degradome, we have cloned a human liver cDNA encoding polyserase-3, a new protease with tandem serine protease domains in the same polypeptide chain. Comparative analysis of polyserase-3 with the two human polyserases described to date, revealed that this novel polyprotein is more closely related to polyserase-2 than to polyserase-1. Thus, polyserase-3 is a secreted protein such as polyserase-2, but lacks additional domains like the type II transmembrane motif and the low-density lipoprotein receptor module present in the membrane-anchored polyserase-1. Moreover, analysis of post-translational mechanisms operating in polyserase-3 maturation showed that its two protease domains remain as integral parts of the same polypeptide chain. This situation is similar to that observed in polyserase-2, but distinct from polyserase-1 whose protease domains are proteolytically released from the original chain to generate independent units. Immunolocalization studies indicated that polyserase-3 is secreted as a non-glycosylated protein, thus being also distinct from polyserase-2, which is a heavily glycosylated protein. Enzymatic assays indicated that recombinant polyserase-3 degrades the α-chain of fibrinogen as well as pro-urokinase-type plasminogen activator (pro-uPA). Northern blot analysis showed that polyserase-3 exhibits a unique expression pattern among human polyserases, being predominantly detected in testis, liver, heart and ovary, as well as in several tumor cell lines.
Conclusion
These findings contribute to define the growing group of human polyserine proteases composed at present by three different proteins. All of them share a complex structural design with several catalytic units in a single polypeptide but also show specific features in terms of enzymatic properties, expression patterns and post-translational maturation mechanisms.
doi:10.1186/1471-2091-7-9
PMCID: PMC1435904  PMID: 16566820
16.  EAAC1 is expressed in rat and human prostate epithelial cells; functions as a high-affinity L-aspartate transporter; and is regulated by prolactin and testosterone 
BMC Biochemistry  2006;7:10.
Background
Prostate epithelial cells accumulate a high level of aspartate that is utilized as a substrate for their unique function of production and secretion of enormously high levels of citrate. In most mammalian cells aspartate is synthesized; and, therefore is a non-essential amino acid. In contrast, in citrate-producing prostate cells, aspartate is an essential amino acid that must be derived from circulation. The prostate intracellular/extracellular conditions present a 40:1 concentration gradient. Therefore, these cells must possess a plasma membrane-associated aspartate uptake transport process to achieve their functional activity. In earlier kinetic studies we identified the existence of a unique Na+-dependent high-affinity L-aspartate transport process in rat prostate secretory epithelial cells. The present report is concerned with the identification of this putative L-aspartate transporter in rat and human prostate cells.
Results
The studies show for the first time that EAAC1 is expressed in normal rat prostate epithelial cells, in normal and hyperplastic human prostate glands, and in human malignant prostate cell lines. EAAC1 expression and high-affinity L-aspartate transport are correspondingly down-regulated by EAAC1 siRNA knock down. Exposure of prostate cells to physiological levels of prolactin or testosterone results in an up-regulation of EAAC1 expression and a corresponding increase in the high-affinity transport of L-aspartate into the cells.
Conclusion
This study shows that EAAC1 functions as the high-affinity L-aspartate transporter that is responsible for the uptake and accumulation of aspartate in prostate cells. In other cells (predominantly excitable tissue cells), EAAC1 has been reported to function as a glutamate transporter rather than as an aspartate transporter. The regulation of EAAC1 expression and L-aspartate transport by testosterone and prolactin is consistent with their regulation of citrate production in prostate cells. The identification of EAAC1 as the high-affinity L-aspartate transporter now permits studies to elucidate the mechanism of hormonal regulation of EAAC1 gene expression, and to investigate the mechanism by which the cellular environment effects the functioning of EAAC1 as an aspartate transporter or as a glutamate transporter.
doi:10.1186/1471-2091-7-10
PMCID: PMC1456973  PMID: 16566829
17.  Identification of glycosylated marker proteins of epithelial polarity in MDCK cells by homology driven proteomics 
BMC Biochemistry  2006;7:8.
Background
MDCK cells derived from canine kidney are an important experimental model system for investigating epithelial polarity in mammalian cells. Monoclonal antibodies against apical gp114 and basolateral p58 have served as important tools in these studies. However, the molecular identity of these membrane glycoproteins has not been known.
Results
We have identified the sialoglycoprotein gp114 as a dog homologue of the carcinoembryonic antigen-related cell adhesion molecule (CEACAM) family. Gp114 was enriched from tissue culture cells by subcellular fractionation and immunoaffinity chromatography. The identification was based on tandem mass spectrometry and homology based proteomics. In addition, the p58 basolateral marker glycoprotein was found to be the β subunit of Na+K+-ATPase.
Conclusion
Gp114 has been characterized previously regarding glycosylation dependent trafficking and lipid raft association. The identification as a member of the canine CEACAM family will enable synergy between the fields of epithelial cell biology and other research areas. Our approach exemplifies how membrane proteins can be identified from species with unsequenced genomes by homology based proteomics. This approach is applicable to any model system.
doi:10.1186/1471-2091-7-8
PMCID: PMC1421407  PMID: 16533391
18.  The protein kinase DYRK1A phosphorylates the splicing factor SF3b1/SAP155 at Thr434, a novel in vivo phosphorylation site 
BMC Biochemistry  2006;7:7.
Background
The U2 small nuclear ribonucleoprotein particle (snRNP) component SF3b1/SAP155 is the only spliceosomal protein known to be phosphorylated concomitant with splicing catalysis. DYRK1A is a nuclear protein kinase that has been localized to the splicing factor compartment. Here we describe the identification of DYRK1A as a protein kinase that phosphorylates SF3b1 in vitro and in cultivated cells.
Results
Overexpression of DYRK1A caused a markedly increased phosphorylation of SF3b1 in COS-7 cells as assessed by Western blotting with an antibody specific for phosphorylated Thr-Pro dipeptide motifs. Phosphopeptide mapping of metabolically labelled SF3b1 showed that the majority of the in vivo-phosphopeptides corresponded to sites also phosphorylated by DYRK1A in vitro. Phosphorylation with cyclin E/CDK2, a kinase previously reported to phosphorylate SF3b1, generated a completely different pattern of phosphopeptides. By mass spectrometry and mutational analysis of SF3b1, Thr434 was identified as the major phosphorylation site for DYRK1A. Overexpression of DYRK1A or the related kinase, DYRK1B, resulted in an enhanced phosphorylation of Thr434 in endogenous SF3b1 in COS-7 cells. Downregulation of DYRK1A in HEK293 cells or in HepG2 cells by RNA interference reduced the phosphorylation of Thr434 in SF3b1.
Conclusion
The present data show that the splicing factor SF3b1 is a substrate of the protein kinase DYRK1A and suggest that DYRK1A may be involved in the regulation of pre mRNA-splicing.
doi:10.1186/1471-2091-7-7
PMCID: PMC1420302  PMID: 16512921
19.  Farnesylation or geranylgeranylation? Efficient assays for testing protein prenylation in vitro and in vivo 
BMC Biochemistry  2006;7:6.
Background
Available in vitro and in vivo methods for verifying protein substrates for posttranslational modifications via farnesylation or geranylgeranylation (for example, autoradiography with 3H-labeled anchor precursors) are time consuming (weeks/months), laborious and suffer from low sensitivity.
Results
We describe a new technique for detecting prenyl anchors in N-terminally glutathione S-transferase (GST)-labeled constructs of target proteins expressed in vitro in rabbit reticulocyte lysate and incubated with 3H-labeled anchor precursors. Alternatively, hemagglutinin (HA)-labeled constructs expressed in vivo (in cell culture) can be used. For registration of the radioactive marker, we propose to use a thin layer chromatography (TLC) analyzer. As a control, the protein yield is tested by Western blotting with anti-GST- (or anti-HA-) antibodies on the same membrane that has been previously used for TLC-scanning. These protocols have been tested with Rap2A, v-Ki-Ras2 and RhoA (variant RhoA63L) including the necessary controls. We show directly that RasD2 is a farnesylation target.
Conclusion
Savings in time for experimentation and the higher sensitivity for detecting 3H-labeled lipid anchors recommend the TLC-scanning method with purified GST- (or HA-) tagged target proteins as the method of choice for analyzing their prenylation capabilities in vitro and in vivo and, possibly, also for studying the myristoyl and palmitoyl posttranslational modifications.
doi:10.1186/1471-2091-7-6
PMCID: PMC1448197  PMID: 16507103
20.  Phosphorylation-facilitated sumoylation of MEF2C negatively regulates its transcriptional activity 
BMC Biochemistry  2006;7:5.
Background
Sumoylation has emerged as an important posttranslational regulatory mechanism for transcription factors and cofactors. Sumoylation of many transcription factors represses their transcriptional activities. The myocyte enhancer factor 2 (MEF2) family of transcription factors plays an important role in regulating gene expression during myogenesis and has been recently shown to be sumoylated.
Results
Consistent with earlier reports, we show that sumoylation of MEF2C at K391 inhibits its transcriptional activity. Sumoylation of MEF2C does not block its DNA-binding activity. A small C-terminal fragment of MEF2C containing K391, referred to as delta-N2-MEF2C, is efficiently sumoylated and, when targeted to DNA, represses transcription at neighbouring promoters. Because delta-N2-MEF2C lacks the binding site for class II histone deacetylases (HDACs), this result suggests that sumoylation of MEF2C may help to recruit transcriptional repressors other than these HDACs. Intriguingly, we show that phosphorylation of S396 in MEF2C, a residue in close proximity to the major sumoylation site (K391) and known to be phosphorylated in vivo, enhances sumoylation of delta- N2-MEF2C in vitro. The S396A mutation reduces sumoylation of MEF2C in vivo and enhances the transcription activity of MEF2C in reporter assays.
Conclusion
We propose that phosphorylation of MEF2C at S396 facilitates its sumoylation at K391, which in turn recruits yet unidentified co-repressors to inhibit transcription. Our studies further suggest that sumoylation motifs containing a phosphorylated serine or an acidic residue at the +5 position might be more efficiently sumoylated.
doi:10.1186/1471-2091-7-5
PMCID: PMC1386686  PMID: 16478538
21.  Release of Ca2+ and Mg2+ from yeast mitochondria is stimulated by increased ionic strength 
BMC Biochemistry  2006;7:4.
Background
Divalent cations are required for many essential functions of mitochondrial metabolism. Yet the transporters that mediate the flux of these molecules into and out of the mitochondrion remain largely unknown. Previous studies in yeast have led to the molecular identification of a component of the major mitochondrial electrophoretic Mg2+ uptake system in this organism as well as a functional mammalian homolog. Other yeast mitochondrial studies have led to the characterization of an equilibrative fatty acid-stimulated Ca2+ transport activity. To gain a deeper understanding of the regulation of mitochondrial divalent cation levels we further characterized the efflux of Ca2+ and Mg2+ from yeast mitochondria.
Results
When isolated mitochondria from the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae were suspended in a salt-based suspension medium, Ca2+ and Mg2+ were released from the matrix space. Release did not spontaneously occur in a non-ionic mannitol media. When energized mitochondria were suspended in a mannitol medium in the presence of Ca2+ they were able to accumulate Ca2+ by the addition of the electrogenic Ca2+ ionophore ETH-129. However, in a KCl or choline Cl medium under the same conditions, they were unable to retain the Ca2+ that was taken up due to the activation of the Ca2+ efflux pathway, although a substantial membrane potential driving Ca2+ uptake was maintained. This Ca2+ efflux was independent of fatty acids, which have previously been shown to activate Ca2+ transport. Endogenous mitochondrial Mg2+ was also released when mitochondria were suspended in an ionic medium, but was retained in mitochondria upon fatty acid addition. When suspended in a mannitol medium, metal chelators released mitochondrial Mg2+, supporting the existence of an external divalent cation-binding site regulating release. Matrix space Mg2+ was also slowly released from mitochondria by the addition of Ca2+, respiratory substrates, increasing pH, or the nucleotides ATP, ADP, GTP, and ATP-gamma-S.
Conclusion
In isolated yeast mitochondria Ca2+ and Mg2+ release was activated by increased ionic strength. Free nucleotides, metal ion chelators, and increased pH also stimulated release. In yeast cells this release is likely an important mechanism in the regulation of mitochondrial matrix space divalent cation concentrations.
doi:10.1186/1471-2091-7-4
PMCID: PMC1386685  PMID: 16460565
22.  Loss of NAD(H) from swollen yeast mitochondria 
BMC Biochemistry  2006;7:3.
Background
The mitochondrial electron transport chain oxidizes matrix space NADH as part of the process of oxidative phosphorylation. Mitochondria contain shuttles for the transport of cytoplasmic NADH reducing equivalents into the mitochondrial matrix. Therefore for a long time it was believed that NAD(H) itself was not transported into mitochondria. However evidence has been obtained for the transport of NAD(H) into and out of plant and mammalian mitochondria. Since Saccharomyces cerevisiae mitochondria can directly oxidize cytoplasmic NADH, it remained questionable if mitochondrial NAD(H) transport occurs in this organism.
Results
NAD(H) was lost more extensively from the matrix space of swollen than normal, condensed isolated yeast mitochondria from Saccharomyces cerevisiae. The loss of NAD(H) in swollen organelles caused a greatly decreased respiratory rate when ethanol or other matrix space NAD-linked substrates were oxidized. Adding NAD back to the medium, even in the presence of a membrane-impermeant NADH dehydrogenase inhibitor, restored the respiratory rate of swollen mitochondria oxidizing ethanol, suggesting that NAD is transported into the matrix space. NAD addition did not restore the decreased respiratory rate of swollen mitochondria oxidizing the combination of malate, glutamate, and pyruvate. Therefore the loss of matrix space metabolites is not entirely specific for NAD(H). However, during NAD(H) loss the mitochondrial levels of most other nucleotides were maintained. Either hypotonic swelling or colloid-osmotic swelling due to opening of the yeast mitochondrial unspecific channel (YMUC) in a mannitol medium resulted in decreased NAD-linked respiration. However, the loss of NAD(H) from the matrix space was not mediated by the YMUC, because YMUC inhibitors did not prevent decreased NAD-linked respiration during swelling and YMUC opening without swelling did not cause decreased NAD-linked respiration.
Conclusion
Loss of endogenous NAD(H) from isolated yeast mitochondria is greatly stimulated by matrix space expansion. NAD(H) loss greatly limits NAD-linked respiration in swollen mitochondria without decreasing the NAD-linked respiratory rate in normal, condensed organelles. NAD addition can totally restore the decreased respiration in swollen mitochondria. In live yeast cells mitochondrial swelling has been observed prior to mitochondrial degradation and cell death. Therefore mitochondrial swelling may stimulate NAD(H) transport to regulate metabolism during these conditions.
doi:10.1186/1471-2091-7-3
PMCID: PMC1395316  PMID: 16433924
23.  HSulf-2, an extracellular endoglucosamine-6-sulfatase, selectively mobilizes heparin-bound growth factors and chemokines: effects on VEGF, FGF-1, and SDF-1 
BMC Biochemistry  2006;7:2.
Background
Heparin/heparan sulfate (HS) proteoglycans are found in the extracellular matrix (ECM) and on the cell surface. A considerable body of evidence has established that heparin and heparan sulfate proteoglycans (HSPGs) interact with numerous protein ligands including fibroblast growth factors, vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), cytokines, and chemokines. These interactions are highly dependent upon the pattern of sulfation modifications within the glycosaminoglycan chains. We previously cloned a cDNA encoding a novel human endosulfatase, HSulf-2, which removes 6-O-sulfate groups on glucosamine from subregions of intact heparin. Here, we have employed both recombinant HSulf-2 and the native enzyme from conditioned medium of the MCF-7-breast carcinoma cell line. To determine whether HSulf-2 modulates the interactions between heparin-binding factors and heparin, we developed an ELISA, in which soluble factors were allowed to bind to immobilized heparin.
Results
Our results show that the binding of VEGF, FGF-1, and certain chemokines (SDF-1 and SLC) to immobilized heparin was abolished or greatly diminished by pre-treating the heparin with HSulf-2. Furthermore, HSulf-2 released these soluble proteins from their association with heparin. Native Sulf-2 from MCF-7 cells reproduced all of these activities.
Conclusion
Our results validate Sulf-2 as a new tool for deciphering the sulfation requirements in the interaction of protein ligands with heparin/HSPGs and expand the range of potential biological activities of this enzyme.
doi:10.1186/1471-2091-7-2
PMCID: PMC1386684  PMID: 16417632
24.  Targeted silencing of Jab1/Csn5 in human cells downregulates SCF activity through reduction of F-box protein levels 
BMC Biochemistry  2006;7:1.
Background
SCF ubiquitin ligases target numerous proteins for ubiquitin dependent proteolysis, including p27 and cyclin E. SCF and other cullin-RING ligases (CRLs) are regulated by the ubiquitin-like protein Nedd8 that covalently modifies the cullin subunit. The removal of Nedd8 is catalyzed by the Jab1/MPN domain metalloenzyme (JAMM) motif within the Csn5 subunit of the Cop9 Signalosome.
Results
Here, we conditionally knock down Csn5 expression in HEK293 human cells using a doxycycline-inducible shRNA system. Cullin levels were not altered in CSN-deficient human cells, but the levels of multiple F-box proteins were decreased. Molecular analysis indicates that this decrease was due to increased Cul1- and proteasome-dependent turnover. Diminished F-box levels resulted in reduced SCF activity, as evidenced by accumulation of two substrates of the F-box protein Fbw7, cyclin E and c-myc, in Csn5-depleted cells.
Conclusion
We propose that deneddylation of Cul1 is required to sustain optimal activity of SCF ubiquitin ligases by repressing 'autoubiquitination' of F-box proteins within SCF complexes, thereby rescuing them from premature degradation.
doi:10.1186/1471-2091-7-1
PMCID: PMC1360668  PMID: 16401342

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