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1.  Functional and biochemical characterization of the 20S proteasome in a yeast temperature-sensitive mutant, rpt6-1 
BMC Biochemistry  2008;9:20.
Background
Rpt6-1 is a thermosensitive yeast mutant with a deletion of a gene encoding a regulatory subunit of the 26S proteasome, RPT6, which is able to grow at 25°C but not at 37°C. In this study, peptidase activities, activation profiles, and the subunit composition of the 20S proteasome purified from the rpt6-1 mutant was characterized.
Results
The 20S proteasome purified from rpt6-1 exhibited low levels of peptidase activities in the absence of activators, but nearly same activated activities in the presence of activators, suggesting a gating defect in the proteasome channel. Detailed analyses of the composition of the 20S proteasome through separation of all subunits by two-dimensional gel electrophoresis followed by identification of each subunit using MALDI-TOF-MS revealed that two subunits, α1 and α7, differed from those of wild-type cells in both electrophoretic mobility and pI values. The changes in these two α-subunits were apparent at the permissive temperature, but disappeared during stress response at the restrictive temperature. Interestingly, upon disappearance of these changes, the levels of peptidase activity of the 20S proteasome in the rpt6-1 mutant were restored as the wild-type. These results suggest that two different forms of the α-subunits, α1 and α7, block the proteasome channel in the rpt6-1 mutant.
Conclusion
Two α-subunits (α1 and α7) of the 20S proteasome in the rpt6-1 mutant differed from their wild-type counterparts and peptidase activities were found to be lower in the mutant than in the wild-type strain.
doi:10.1186/1471-2091-9-20
PMCID: PMC2515314  PMID: 18644121
2.  Identification of α-type subunits of the Xenopus 20S proteasome and analysis of their changes during the meiotic cell cycle 
BMC Biochemistry  2004;5:18.
Background
The 26S proteasome is the proteolytic machinery of the ubiquitin-dependent proteolytic system responsible for most of the regulated intracellular protein degradation in eukaryotic cells. Previously, we demonstrated meiotic cell cycle dependent phosphorylation of α4 subunit of the 26S proteasome. In this study, we analyzed the changes in the spotting pattern separated by 2-D gel electrophoresis of α subunits during Xenopus oocyte maturation.
Results
We identified cDNA for three α-type subunits (α1, α5 and α6) of Xenopus, then prepared antibodies specific for five subunits (α1, α3, α5, α6, and α7). With these antibodies and previously described monoclonal antibodies for subunits α2 and α4, modifications to all α-type subunits of the 26S proteasome during Xenopus meiotic maturation were examined by 2D-PAGE. More than one spot for all subunits except α7 was identified. Immunoblot analysis of 26S proteasomes purified from immature and mature oocytes showed a difference in the blots of α2 and α4, with an additional spot detected in the 26S proteasome from immature oocytes (in G2-phase).
Conclusions
Six of α-type subunits of the Xenopus 26S proteasome are modified in Xenopus immature oocytes and two subunits (α2 and α4) are modified meiotic cell cycle-dependently.
doi:10.1186/1471-2091-5-18
PMCID: PMC544557  PMID: 15603592
3.  Regulated interaction between polypeptide chain elongation factor-1 complex with the 26S proteasome during Xenopus oocyte maturation 
BMC Biochemistry  2003;4:6.
Background
During Xenopus oocyte maturation, the amount of a 48 kDa protein detected in the 26S proteasome fraction (p48) decreased markedly during oocyte maturation to the low levels seen in unfertilized eggs. The results indicate that the interaction of at least one protein with the 26S proteasome changes during oocyte maturation and early development. An alteration in proteasome function may be important for the regulation of developmental events, such as the rapid cell cycle, in the early embryo. In this study, we identified p48.
Results
p48 was purified by conventional column chromatography. The resulting purified fraction contained two other proteins with molecular masses of 30 (p30) and 37 (p37) kDa. cDNAs encode elongation factor-1γ and δ were obtained by an immuno-screening method using polyclonal antibodies against purified p48 complex, which recognized p48 and p37. N-terminal amino acid sequence analysis of p30 revealed that it was identical to EF-1β. To identify the p48 complex bound to the 26S proteasome as EF-1βγδ, antibodies were raised against the components of purified p48 complex. Recombinant EF-1 β,γ and δ were expressed in Escherichia coli, and an antibody was raised against purified recombinant EF-1γ. Cross-reactivity of the antibodies toward the p48 complex and recombinant proteins showed it to be specific for each component. These results indicate that the p48 complex bound to the 26S proteasome is the EF-1 complex. MPF phosphorylated EF-1γ was shown to bind to the 26S proteasome. When EF-1γ is phosphorylated by MPF, the association is stabilized.
Conclusion
p48 bound to the 26S proteasome is identified as the EF-1γ. EF-1 complex is associated with the 26S proteasome in Xenopus oocytes and the interaction is stabilized by MPF-mediated phosphorylation.
doi:10.1186/1471-2091-4-6
PMCID: PMC179889  PMID: 12864926

Results 1-3 (3)