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1.  Components of the ubiquitin-proteasome pathway compete for surfaces on Rad23 family proteins 
BMC Biochemistry  2008;9:4.
Background
The delivery of ubiquitinated proteins to the proteasome for degradation is a key step in the regulation of the ubiquitin-proteasome pathway, yet the mechanisms underlying this step are not understood in detail. The Rad23 family of proteins is known to bind ubiquitinated proteins through its two ubiquitin-associated (UBA) domains, and may participate in the delivery of ubiquitinated proteins to the proteasome through docking via the Rad23 ubiquitin-like (UBL) domain.
Results
In this study, we investigate how the interaction between the UBL and UBA domains may modulate ubiquitin recognition and the delivery of ubiquitinated proteins to the proteasome by autoinhibition. We have explored a competitive binding model using specific mutations in the UBL domain. Disrupting the intramolecular UBL-UBA domain interactions in HHR23A indeed potentiates ubiquitin-binding. Additionally, the analogous surface on the Rad23 UBL domain overlaps with that required for interaction with both proteasomes and the ubiquitin ligase Ufd2. We have found that mutation of residues on this surface affects the ability of Rad23 to deliver ubiquitinated proteins to the proteasome.
Conclusion
We conclude that the competition of ubiquitin-proteasome pathway components for surfaces on Rad23 is important for the role of the Rad23 family proteins in proteasomal targeting.
doi:10.1186/1471-2091-9-4
PMCID: PMC2267792  PMID: 18234089
2.  Targeted silencing of Jab1/Csn5 in human cells downregulates SCF activity through reduction of F-box protein levels 
BMC Biochemistry  2006;7:1.
Background
SCF ubiquitin ligases target numerous proteins for ubiquitin dependent proteolysis, including p27 and cyclin E. SCF and other cullin-RING ligases (CRLs) are regulated by the ubiquitin-like protein Nedd8 that covalently modifies the cullin subunit. The removal of Nedd8 is catalyzed by the Jab1/MPN domain metalloenzyme (JAMM) motif within the Csn5 subunit of the Cop9 Signalosome.
Results
Here, we conditionally knock down Csn5 expression in HEK293 human cells using a doxycycline-inducible shRNA system. Cullin levels were not altered in CSN-deficient human cells, but the levels of multiple F-box proteins were decreased. Molecular analysis indicates that this decrease was due to increased Cul1- and proteasome-dependent turnover. Diminished F-box levels resulted in reduced SCF activity, as evidenced by accumulation of two substrates of the F-box protein Fbw7, cyclin E and c-myc, in Csn5-depleted cells.
Conclusion
We propose that deneddylation of Cul1 is required to sustain optimal activity of SCF ubiquitin ligases by repressing 'autoubiquitination' of F-box proteins within SCF complexes, thereby rescuing them from premature degradation.
doi:10.1186/1471-2091-7-1
PMCID: PMC1360668  PMID: 16401342
3.  Substrate specificity analysis of protein kinase complex Dbf2-Mob1 by peptide library and proteome array screening 
BMC Biochemistry  2005;6:22.
Background
The mitotic exit network (MEN) is a group of proteins that form a signaling cascade that is essential for cells to exit mitosis in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. The MEN has also been implicated in playing a role in cytokinesis. Two components of this signaling pathway are the protein kinase Dbf2 and its binding partner essential for its kinase activity, Mob1. The components of MEN that act upstream of Dbf2-Mob1 have been characterized, but physiological substrates for Dbf2-Mob1 have yet to be identified.
Results
Using a combination of peptide library selection, phosphorylation of opitmal peptide variants, and screening of a phosphosite array, we found that Dbf2-Mob1 preferentially phosphorylated serine over threonine and required an arginine three residues upstream of the phosphorylated serine in its substrate. This requirement for arginine in peptide substrates could not be substituted with the similarly charged lysine. This specificity determined for peptide substrates was also evident in many of the proteins phosphorylated by Dbf2-Mob1 in a proteome chip analysis.
Conclusion
We have determined by peptide library selection and phosphosite array screening that the protein kinase Dbf2-Mob1 preferentially phosphorylated substrates that contain an RXXS motif. A subsequent proteome microarray screen revealed proteins that can be phosphorylated by Dbf2-Mob1 in vitro. These proteins are enriched for RXXS motifs, and may include substrates that mediate the function of Dbf2-Mob1 in mitotic exit and cytokinesis. The relatively low degree of sequence restriction at the site of phosphorylation suggests that Dbf2 achieves specificity by docking its substrates at a site that is distinct from the phosphorylation site
doi:10.1186/1471-2091-6-22
PMCID: PMC1277818  PMID: 16242037
4.  The fission yeast COP9/signalosome is involved in cullin modification by ubiquitin-related Ned8p 
BMC Biochemistry  2001;2:7.
Background
The function of the fission yeast cullins Pcu1p and Pcu4p requires modification by the ubiquitin-related peptide Ned8p. A recent report by Lyapina et al. shows that the COP9/signalosome (CSN), a multifunctional eight subunit complex, regulates Ned8p modification of Pcu1p. Disruption of caa1/csn1, which encodes subunit 1 of the putative S. pombe CSN, results in accumulation of Pcu1p exclusively in the modified form. However, it remained unclear whether this reflects global control of all cullins by the entire CSN complex.
Results
We demonstrate that multiple CSN subunits control Ned8p modification of Pcu3p, another fission yeast cullin, which, in complex with the RING domain protein Pip1p, forms a ubiquitin ligase that functions in cellular stress response. Pcu3p is modified by Ned8p on Lys 729 and accumulates exclusively in the neddylated form in cells lacking the CSN subunits 1, 3, 4, and 5. These CSN subunits co-elute with Pcu3p in gel filtration fractions corresponding to ∼ 550 kDa and specifically bind both native and Ned8p-modified Pcu3p in vivo. While CSN does not influence the subcellular localization of Pcu3p, Pcu3p-associated in vitro ubiquitin ligase activity is stimulated in the absence of CSN.
Conclusions
Taken together, our data suggest that CSN is a global regulator of Ned8p modification of multiple cullins and potentially other proteins involved in cellular regulation.
doi:10.1186/1471-2091-2-7
PMCID: PMC37391  PMID: 11504566

Results 1-4 (4)