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1.  A novel human NatA Nα-terminal acetyltransferase complex: hNaa16p-hNaa10p (hNat2-hArd1) 
BMC Biochemistry  2009;10:15.
Background
Protein acetylation is among the most common protein modifications. The two major types are post-translational Nε-lysine acetylation catalyzed by KATs (Lysine acetyltransferases, previously named HATs (histone acetyltransferases) and co-translational Nα-terminal acetylation catalyzed by NATs (N-terminal acetyltransferases). The major NAT complex in yeast, NatA, is composed of the catalytic subunit Naa10p (N alpha acetyltransferase 10 protein) (Ard1p) and the auxiliary subunit Naa15p (Nat1p). The NatA complex potentially acetylates Ser-, Ala-, Thr-, Gly-, Val- and Cys- N-termini after Met-cleavage. In humans, the homologues hNaa15p (hNat1) and hNaa10p (hArd1) were demonstrated to form a stable ribosome associated NAT complex acetylating NatA type N-termini in vitro and in vivo.
Results
We here describe a novel human protein, hNaa16p (hNat2), with 70% sequence identity to hNaa15p (hNat1). The gene encoding hNaa16p originates from an early vertebrate duplication event from the common ancestor of hNAA15 and hNAA16. Immunoprecipitation coupled to mass spectrometry identified both endogenous hNaa15p and hNaa16p as distinct interaction partners of hNaa10p in HEK293 cells, thus demonstrating the presence of both hNaa15p-hNaa10p and hNaa16p-hNaa10p complexes. The hNaa16p-hNaa10p complex acetylates NatA type N-termini in vitro. hNaa16p is ribosome associated, supporting its potential role in cotranslational Nα-terminal acetylation. hNAA16 is expressed in a variety of human cell lines, but is generally less abundant as compared to hNAA15. Specific knockdown of hNAA16 induces cell death, suggesting an essential role for hNaa16p in human cells.
Conclusion
At least two distinct NatA protein Nα-terminal acetyltransferases coexist in human cells potentially creating a more complex and flexible system for Nα-terminal acetylation as compared to lower eukaryotes.
doi:10.1186/1471-2091-10-15
PMCID: PMC2695478  PMID: 19480662
2.  Characterization of hARD2, a processed hARD1 gene duplicate, encoding a human protein N-α-acetyltransferase 
BMC Biochemistry  2006;7:13.
Background
Protein acetylation is increasingly recognized as an important mechanism regulating a variety of cellular functions. Several human protein acetyltransferases have been characterized, most of them catalyzing ε-acetylation of histones and transcription factors. We recently described the human protein acetyltransferase hARD1 (human Arrest Defective 1). hARD1 interacts with NATH (N-Acetyl Transferase Human) forming a complex expressing protein N-terminal α-acetylation activity.
Results
We here describe a human protein, hARD2, with 81 % sequence identity to hARD1. The gene encoding hARD2 most likely originates from a eutherian mammal specific retrotransposition event. hARD2 mRNA and protein are expressed in several human cell lines. Immunoprecipitation experiments show that hARD2 protein potentially interacts with NATH, suggesting that hARD2-NATH complexes may be responsible for protein N-α-acetylation in human cells. In NB4 cells undergoing retinoic acid mediated differentiation, the level of endogenous hARD1 and NATH protein decreases while the level of hARD2 protein is stable.
Conclusion
A human protein N-α-acetyltransferase is herein described. ARD2 potentially complements the functions of ARD1, adding more flexibility and complexity to protein N-α-acetylation in human cells as compared to lower organisms which only have one ARD.
doi:10.1186/1471-2091-7-13
PMCID: PMC1475586  PMID: 16638120

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