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1.  Management of rheumatoid arthritis (Aamavata) using symbiohealth healthcare system 
Ayu  2012;33(4):466-474.
Rheumatoid Arthritis (RA), according to modern medicine, and Aamavata according to Ayurveda, has an etiological and clinical relationship. Aamavata is a disease complex of which RA is a part. A comparative study of the pathophysiology of this disease by both systems reveals that modern medicine has investigated the mechanism of inflammation and has developed an offense strategy to control it. Ayurveda follows a defense strategy and it focuses its search on the etiological process, where disequilibrium at a higher level of physiology affects the gastrointestinal tract, causing an immune response that results in inflammation. Understanding the pathophysiology of both systems will help the treating physician to institute a dual treatment plan of modern medicine's offense strategy and Ayurvedic medicine's defense strategy at appropriate stages of the disease. Studying the pathophsiology of the two systems also gives insight into the genetic and epigenetic phenomenon in the treatment of disease and opens the doors for groundbreaking research.
doi:10.4103/0974-8520.110513
PMCID: PMC3665188  PMID: 23723661
Aama; Aamavata; defense; epigenetics; genetics; offense; symbiohealth
2.  A comparative pharmacognostical profile of Desmodium gangeticum DC. and Desmodium laxiflorum DC. 
Ayu  2012;33(4):552-556.
Shaliparni is one of the Laghupanchamoola ingredients. Desmodium gangeticum DC. is an accepted source of Shaliparni as per Ayurvedic Pharmacopoea of India (API). Desmodium laxiflorum DC. is the drug commonly used instead of D. gangeticum in the Saurashtra region. The study is an attempt to compare the above said two species on the basis of their pharmacognostical profiles. The macroscopy and microscopy of roots of both plants were studied as per standard procedures. Root powders of both Desmodium species used in the experimental study to ascertain its Rasa by dilution method. Both the species show the same Rasa and Anurasa i.e., Madhura and Kashaya and almost same morphological and microscopical characters like prismatic crystals, starch grains etc. Hence it is concluded that D. laxiflorum may be considered as a substitute for D. gangeticum on the basis of present pharmacognostical study.
doi:10.4103/0974-8520.110522
PMCID: PMC3665189  PMID: 23723675
Desmodium gangeticum DC.; Desmodium laxiflorum DC.; pharmacognosy
3.  sushruta-samhitA: A critical review Part - 2: Few new additions 
Ayu  2012;33(4):491-498.
In this part importace and specialize of sushruta are specified. In Part – 1 all the translation works in all the available languages is narrated. After studying all those books and keeping in to mind about a comprehensive work of sushruta it is necessary to elaborate in this present text. This part is divided into 5 sections. (A) All available commentaries taken in to consideration for this part is written, (B) Specialities of sushruta are most important as he has narrated all eight sections of Ayurveda elabroted widely where as caraka has only narrated mainly selected part of kAya-cikitsA and left other sections for other authors e.g., “atra dhAnavantareyaNAM adhikArah” etc., Specifying a list of all sections and chapters with the numbers of prose + poetery, (C) None of the translator or commentator touched the importance of sushruta in the literature of samskRta, where as sushruta was a great poet. Giving similar resemblance of common use by mass, he tried to explain the tough subject in simpler mode of knowledge for proper understanding to all public. He has specifically selected the prosody for the specified subject. Examples are given in this section. (D) sushruta has written prosody in14 metres and long sentences too in samskRta that shows his ability and wast knowledge in the literature. All references of each and every metre is noted from all sections of sushruta with complete reference numbers. And no where this subject is published till now- (E) A challenging word regarding the work of sushruta “shArIre sushruto naSTah” is turned back while quoting various references of shArIra-sthAnam and placing its world wide importance by various writers.
doi:10.4103/0974-8520.110523
PMCID: PMC3665190  PMID: 23723665
Ayurveda; caraka; sushruta; sushruta samhitA
4.  Alternative medicine and anesthesia: Implications and considerations in daily practice 
Ayu  2012;33(4):475-480.
Nowadays, herbal medicines are widely used by most of the people, including the pre-surgical population. These medicines may pose numerous challenges during perioperative care. The objective of the current literature review is to dwell upon the impact of the use of herbal medicines during the perioperative period, and to review the strategies for managing their perioperative use. The data was generated from various articles of different journals, text books, web source, including, Entrez Pubmed, Medscape, WebMD, and so on. Selected only those herbal medicines for which information on, safety, usage, and precautions during the perioperative period was available. Thereafter, the information about safety, pharmacokinetics, and pharmacodynamics from selected literature was gathered and analyzed. The whole review focused on the fact that these commonly used alternative medicines could sometimes pose as a concern during the perioperative period, in various ways. These complications could be due to their direct action, pharmacodynamic effect, or pharmacokinetic effect. In view of the serious impacts of herbal medicine usage in perioperative care, the anesthesiologist should take a detailed history, especially stressing on the use of herbal medicine during the preoperative anesthetic assessment. The anesthesiologist should also be aware of the potential perioperative effects of those drugs. Accordingly, steps should to be taken to prevent, recognize, and treat the complications that may arise due to their use or discontinuation.
doi:10.4103/0974-8520.110515
PMCID: PMC3665191  PMID: 23723662
Anesthesia; Ayurveda; Echinacea; ephedra; garlic; ginger; herbal medicines
5.  Evidence for safety of Ayurvedic herbal, herbo-metallic and Bhasma preparations on neurobehavioral activity and oxidative stress in rats 
Ayu  2012;33(4):569-575.
Heavy metals in Ayurvedic formulations have been used for centuries with claimed efficacy and safety. However, concerns are often raised about the toxicity due to heavy metals used in Ayurvedic formulations. The aim of present study is to explore the effect of Calcury tablet, Energic-31 capsule and Basanta Kusumakara Rasa (BKR) on neurobehavioral activity and oxidative stress in rats. Male wistar rats weighing 200-250 g were used and divided into normal control, positive control (mercury chloride, lead acetate, cadmium chloride, sodium arsenite, each 10 mg/kg, p.o for 28 days) and treated group (Calcury tablets at doses of 130, 650, 1300 mg/kg, Energic-31 capsule at doses of 150, 750, 1500 mg/kg and BKR at doses of 26, 130, 260 mg/kg, p.o. for 28 days). After performing the behavioural parameters on the 29th day, homogenate of rat's brain was used to determine malondialdehyde (MDA) and glutathione (GSH) levels and heavy metal level in brain. Results showed that there were no significant change in cognitive function, motor coordination, MDA and GSH levels as compared to normal control group at all doses of Calcury tablet, Energic-31 capsule and Basant Kusumkar Rasa. However, heavy metals level in rat's brain was higher as compared to normal control group at all doses of Calcury tablet, Energic-31 capsule and BKR. In conclusion, Calcury tablet, Energic-31 capsule and BKR in doses equivalent to the human dose does not have appreciable adverse effects on brain which demonstrates the non-toxic nature of metal based Ayurvedic formulations.
doi:10.4103/0974-8520.110514
PMCID: PMC3665192  PMID: 23723678
Ayurvedic formulations; neurobehavioral activity; oxidative stress; heavy metals
6.  Clinical evaluation of Ashokarishta, Ashwagandha Churna and Praval Pishti in the management of menopausal syndrome 
Ayu  2012;33(4):511-516.
Menopause is a gradual and natural transitional phase of adjustment between the active and inactive ovarian function and occupies several years of a women's life and involves biological and psychological changes adjustments. The present clinical trial was designed as per Ayurveda clinical trials protocol to evaluate the efficacy of Ashokarishta, Ashwagandha Churna and Praval Pishti in the management of menopausal syndrome. It was directed by Central Council for Research in Ayurvedic Sciences as randomized open clinical trial. Total 52 patients were registered in the study, out of which 51 patients completed the study. Specialized rating scales like Kupperman Index Score as well as Menopause Rating Scale (MRS) and Menopause Specific Quality of Life (MENQOL) questionnaires were adopted for diagnostic as well as assessment criteria. The effects were examined based on MRS and MENQOL. Results were analyzed statistically using Wilcoxon matched paired test and ‘t’ test. Highly significant (P < 0.01) reduction was found in the symptoms of MRS as well as MENQOL. Finally, it can be stated that combined treatment of above drugs gives better result in both somatic as well as psychological complaints in women with mild to moderate symptoms of menopausal syndrome.
doi:10.4103/0974-8520.110529
PMCID: PMC3665193  PMID: 23723668
Ashokarishta; Ashwagandha Churna; menopausal syndrome; Praval Pishti
7.  Role of Virechana Karma in cure and prevention of recurrence of Vicharchika (Eczema) 
Ayu  2012;33(4):505-510.
Mandip and Chandola reported that administration of Rasayana (Guduchi and Bhringaraja) after Koshtha Shuddhi with Aragvadha Hima and simultaneous giving of Shirishadi decoction orally and applying of Snuhyadi Lepa externally provided complete remission to 22.6% patients of Vicharchika (Eczema) and checked the recurrences of the disease in the 89.5% patients. As in this group, cure rate was not up to the expectation; therefore, it was thought desirable to see whether performing of Virechana Karma instead of Koshtha Shuddhi prior to the administration of the above drugs enhances the cure rate for the Vicharchika (Eczema) patients. For the present study, 39 patients of Vicharchika (Eczema) were registered, of which 32 patients completed the full course of the treatment. These patients were given Virechana after preparing with the proper internal Snehana, Abhyanga, and Svedana as per classical method. After the Samsarjana Krama, they were administered the Shirishadi decoction and Guduchi-Bhringraja Rasayana powder orally with simultaneous local application of Snuhyadi Lepa on the eczematous lesions. The results of this study showed that when Virechana Karma was performed prior to the administration of Guduchi-Bhringaraja Rasayana and Shirishadi decoction orally and SnuhyadiLepa externally, it not only increased the cure rate to 81.3% in the patients of Vicharchika (Eczema) but also checked the recurrences to great extent as only negligible number of the patients reported the recurrence.
doi:10.4103/0974-8520.110526
PMCID: PMC3665194  PMID: 23723667
Eczema; Koshtha Shuddhi; Rasayana; Vicharchika; Virechana Karma
8.  Clinical efficacy of Gokshura-Punarnava Basti in the management of microalbuminuria in diabetes mellitus 
Ayu  2012;33(4):537-541.
Microalbuminuria is the strong predictor of diabetic nephropathy, which is the main cause of morbidity and mortality in patients with diabetes mellitus (DM). Microalbuminuria is also characterized by increased prevalence of arterial hypertension, proliferative retinopathy, and peripheral neuropathy. The study was planned to evaluate the effect of Gokshura-Punarnava Basti in the management of microalbuminuria in DM (Madhumeha). Eligible diabetic patients with urine albumin excretion between 30 and 300 mg in 24 h were randomly divided into two groups. Asthapana Basti (decoction enema) of Gokshura and Punarnava Kwatha (decoction), Kalka (paste), Taila (medicated oil), Madhu (honey), and Saindhava (rock salt) for 6 consecutive days and Anuvasana (unctuous enema) of Gokshura-Punarnava Taila on 1st and 8th day by traditional Basti Putaka method was given in study group. Tablet Enalapril 5 mg, twice daily for 30 days was given to the patients in control group. The primary outcome measures were percentage change in the presenting complaints of diabetes, urine microalbumin, Blood Sugar Level (BSL), and Blood Pressure (BP). Enalapril showed 33.33% improvement, where as Gokshura-Punarnava Basti showed 79.59% improvement in the presenting complaints of diabetes, urine microalbumin, BSL and BP. Gokshura-Punarnava Basti has shown superior results in the management of microalbuminuria in DM as compared to control drug.
doi:10.4103/0974-8520.110535
PMCID: PMC3665195  PMID: 23723672
Basti; diabetes mellitus; Gokshura; Madhumeha; microalbuminuria; Punarnava1
9.  Provocative dietary factors in geriatric hypertension: A surveillance study 
Ayu  2012;33(4):530-536.
Hypertension is the most common psychosomatic disorder affecting 972 million people worldwide being more prevalent in old age. The present survey of hypertensive patients fulfilling the standard diagnostic criteria of WHO/ISH (2004) is carried out in geriatric age group from the Saurashtra region of Gujarat in India to observe the dietary pattern and provocative factors. Total 120 patients of 50 to 80 years of age having systolic blood pressure >140 mm Hg and ≤180 mm Hg and diastolic blood pressure >90 mm Hg and ≤110 mm Hg irrespective of gender and religion were selected for the present study. They were interviewed for list of provocative factors enlisted in Ayurveda. As observed, the study supported the facts described in Ayurveda that dietary etiological factors, such as excess intake of Lavana (salty), Amla (sour), Katu (pungent), Tikshna, Ushna (hot), Vidahi (producing burning sensation), Viruddha (incompatible), Snigdha (unctuous), Abhishyandi (leading to obstruction), Madhura (sweet), Guru (heavy to digest) dietary articles, Ajirnashana (taking diet before complete digestion of previous meal), Adhyashana (repeated eating at short intervals), will vitiate Rakta dhatu as well as Pitta dosha in the body leading to disorders like hypertension. Hypertension in old age is found to be a disease of Vata-Pitta dominant vitiation with the involvement of Rasa, Rakta, Meda as main Dushya (vitiated factors) and dietary factors can contribute to worsening of the disease. The etiological factors having role in the pathogenesis can also be applied for preventive guidelines for the management of hypertension.
doi:10.4103/0974-8520.110537
PMCID: PMC3665196  PMID: 23723671
Ayurveda; dietary factors; geriatric age group; hypertension
10.  Standard manufacturing procedure of Tamra Bhasma 
Ayu  2012;33(4):561-568.
Tamra Bhasma (incinerated copper) is one of the main weapons in the archery of Ayurvedic practitioners. Though several methods of preparation of Tamra Bhasma (TB) are found in Rasashastra classics, several difficulties occur during the preparation of a good-quality Bhasma. In this study, TB was prepared and analyzed to develop the standard manufacturing procedure. Each unit operative procedure was considered as an independent processing and an attempt was made to validate each procedure. Wire used for the purpose of electrical earthing was taken for the preparation of Bhasma. Procedures of Shodhana, Marana, and Amritikarana were followed as per the classical references. Specific temperature pattern was adopted for Puta in the electrical muffle furnace. From 500 g of Tamra, 483.4 g of black colored TB was obtained after subjecting to three Putas. Final product was detected to be cupric sulfide in X-ray diffraction. In particle size distribution analysis 10% of the material was below the size of 2 μm, while in inductive coupled plasma - atomic absorption spectrometry 58.56 wt% copper and 22.48 wt% of sulfur were found present in the final product along with the elements such as arsenic, lead, zinc, mercury, and manganese in traces.
doi:10.4103/0974-8520.110528
PMCID: PMC3665197  PMID: 23723677
Bhasma; Puta; standard manufacturing procedure; Tamra; X-ray diffraction
12.  Diuretic activity of Linaria ramosissima (wall.) Janch. leaves in albino rats 
Ayu  2012;33(4):576-578.
Linaria ramosissima (Wall.) Janch., Scrophulariaceae, a folklore plant, has been claimed for its diuretic activities by traditional practitioners. The present study was undertaken to investigate the diuretic activity of L. ramosissima leaves in albino rats. Suspension of leaf powder in 2% gum acacia was administered to experimental rats orally at doses of 450 mg/kg. The diuretic effect was evaluated by measuring the urine volume, pH of urine, and urinary electrolyte excretion. Administration of the test drug increased the urine volume in a non-significant manner, while it enhanced the urinary excretion of sodium, chloride, and potassium significantly, in comparison to the control group. From the present study it can be concluded that the leaves of L. ramosissima have a significant diuretic activity.
doi:10.4103/0974-8520.110517
PMCID: PMC3665199  PMID: 23723679
Diuretic activity; electrolyte excretion; folklore plant; Linaria ramosissima
13.  Effects of turmeric on Alzheimer's disease with behavioral and psychological symptoms of dementia 
Ayu  2012;33(4):499-504.
We describe here three patients with the Alzheimer's Disease (AD) whose behavioral symptoms were improved remarkably as a result of the turmeric treatment, which is the traditional Indian medicine. Their cognitive decline and Behavioral and Psychological Symptoms of Dementia (BPSD) were very severe. All three patients exhibited irritability, agitation, anxiety, and apathy, two patients suffer from urinary incontinence and wonderings. They were prescribed turmeric powder capsules and started recovering from these symptoms without any adverse reaction in the clinical symptom and laboratory data. After 12 weeks of the treatment, total score of the Neuro-Psychiatric Inventory-brief questionnaire decreased significantly in both acuity of symptoms and burden of caregivers. In one case, the Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE) score was up five points, from 12/30 to 17/30. In the other two cases, no significant change was seen in the MMSE; however, they came to recognize their family within 1 year treatment. All cases have been taking turmeric for more than 1 year, re-exacerbation of BPSD was not seen. The present cases suggest a significant improvement of the behavioral symptoms in the AD with the turmeric treatment, leading to probable benefit of the use of turmeric in individuals with the AD with BPSD.
doi:10.4103/0974-8520.110524
PMCID: PMC3665200  PMID: 23723666
Alzheimer's disease; behavioral and psychological symptoms of dementia; curcumin; mini-mental state examination; neuropsychiatric inventory-brief questionnaire; turmeric
14.  Phyto-chemical evaluation of dried aqueous extract of Jivanti [Leptadenia reticulata (Retz.) Wt. et Arn] 
Ayu  2012;33(4):557-560.
Jivanti (Leptadenia reticulata (Retz.) Wt. et Arn) is a well known climber used for its innumerable therapeutic properties like antioxidant, antibacterial, vasodilator, galactogogue, Jivaniya, etc., Its use in veterinary practice is tremendous due to its lactogenic effect. The Ghana (dried aqueous extract) of the whole plant was prepared and evaluated phyto-chemically by subjecting it to various tests like physico-chemical, qualitative analysis; TLC and HPTLC. Qualitative tests revealed the presence of flavonoids and TLC also inferred positive Rf value (0.30), indicating the presence of quercetin in the Ghana.
doi:10.4103/0974-8520.110525
PMCID: PMC3665201  PMID: 23723676
Dried extract; Ghana; Jivanti; Leptadenia reticulata; quercetin
15.  A comparative clinical study on standardization of Vamana Vidhi by classical and traditional methods 
Ayu  2012;33(4):517-522.
Vamana Karma (process of emesis) is considered as Pradhana Karma (prime procedure) meant for inducing therapeutic vomiting, indicated for the purification of Urdhwa Bhaga (upper part) of the body. It is the process by which contents of stomach, including Kapha and Pitta are expelled out of the body through oral route. Acharya Charak and Sushruta have advocated various procedures for Vamana Karma known as classical methods, whereas some traditional methods are also being followed. As very little works has been carried out in the direction of Vamana Karma and as not a single work has been carried out on standardization of Vamana Vidhi comparing to both classical and traditional methods, the present study had been selected. The clinical trial was conducted in a randomized sample of 50 individuals (Both patients and volunteers) resolved into two sub-groups, viz. individuals in Group A was performed Vamana with classical methods and Group B with traditional methods. From the observations and results obtained in the present clinical study, it can be concluded that the method mentioned in classics is very much beneficial from every point of view in comparison to the traditional method. It is very easy, safest, less time-consuming and clinically as well as statistically most effective method without producing any type of complications.
doi:10.4103/0974-8520.110531
PMCID: PMC3665202  PMID: 23723669
Pradhana Karma; Shodhana Karma; standardization; Vamana Karma; Vamana Vidhi
16.  Dyslexia: A solution through Ayurveda evidences from Ayurveda for the management of dyslexia in children: A review 
Ayu  2012;33(4):486-490.
Dyslexia is one of the commonest learning disability. It is defined as a disorder where a child, in spite of all the classroom teaching, is not able to attain the language skills of reading, writing and spelling according to their level of intelligence. Dyslexia individuals often have difficulty in relating to the association between sound and their respective letters. Reversing or transposing the letters while writing is characteristic with letters such as b and d, P and q, etc., The prevalence among school children is reported as 9.87% and in the selected families, it is 28.32%. Dyslexia significantly interferes with academic achievement or activities of daily life and are not primarily due to sensory, motor or mentally handicaps. About 40% of dyslexic children and adolescents dropout of schools. According to Ayurveda, learning is a result of successive and complex interaction of Indriyas (cognitive and motor organs), Indriyartha (sense organs), Mana (psyche), Atma and Buddhi (intellect). Above all, the functioning of these factors is governed by Tridosha (vata, pitta and kapha) and Triguna (Sattva, Raja and Tama) in a specific coordination and balance Any disturbance in these Tridosha and Triguna will cause disordered functioning of Indriya, Mana and Buddhi leading to impaired learning or Dyslexia Ayurvedic drugs can help in the management of dyslexia by making these Tridosha and Triguna in well-balanced state and also by providing Medhya (intellect promoting) drugs to improve the learning ability in these children.
doi:10.4103/0974-8520.110521
PMCID: PMC3665203  PMID: 23723664
Ayurveda; dyslexia; Medhya; Tridosha; Triguna
17.  Clinical efficacy of Bhringarajasava as Naimittika Rasayana in Rajayakshma with special reference to pulmonary tuberculosis 
Ayu  2012;33(4):523-529.
The clinical study was conducted at the Out Patient Department of State TB Training and Demonstration Centre, S.R. Nagar, Hyderabad, Andhra Pradesh, India, during June 2003 to December 2004. A group of 60 patients of PTB were included in the study and were divided into two equal groups. Both the groups were on the Directly Observed Treatment Short – course chemotherapy (DOTS) regime. The test group was given DOTS + Bhringarajasava (30 ml thrice a day) and the control group was only on DOTS. The study was to evaluate whether the addition of Bhringarajasava as Naimittika Rasayana (complementary drug) is beneficial in providing faster and better relief or not. Both subjective and objective parameters were considered for the assessment of results. Among the specific symptomatology, Amsaparsabitapah (pain in costal and scapular region), Kasa (cough), Jwara (pyrexia), Swasa (dyspnoea) and Bhaktadwesha (anorexia) were the symptoms manifested by all the patients. Results of the present study indicate that better, safer, and faster relief provided by the addition of Bhringarajasava to DOTS. This is an effort to utilize drugs from the vast Ayurvedic pharmacopoeia as safe adjuvant to DOTS regime so that toxicity and associated side effects of the DOTS can be ameliorated. This process of using therapies from two disparate systems of medicine could potentially lead to further enhancements in the field of complementary medicine and create a symbiosis between the different systems, which may lead to Rasayana DOTS (R-DOTS) in future.
doi:10.4103/0974-8520.110536
PMCID: PMC3665204  PMID: 23723670
Ayurveda; Bhringarajasava; pulmonary tuberculosis; Rajayakshma; Rasayana
18.  Reinvent the system of Education in Ayurveda 
Ayu  2012;33(4):459-460.
doi:10.4103/0974-8520.110502
PMCID: PMC3665205  PMID: 23723659
19.  An overview of the causes of current practices in Pratinidhi Dravyas (substitution of drugs) in Ayurveda including newer techniques for their evaluation 
Ayu  2012;33(4):481-485.
Many Pratinidhi Dravyas in Ayurvedic classics are mentioned and certainly are based on a methodical approach, which involves many aspects. These principles on which Pratinidhis were decided are quoted nowhere; so both to understand the established Pratinidhis and to find new ones a rational approach is the need of the hour. This article is an effort in the direction to study this concept meticulously in light of modern techniques for its better understanding and application. As there are very few established parameters, which help for selection and evaluation of Pratinidhi Dravyas. A rational technique like Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy may be incorporated to set a new dimension. As most of the routine analytical techniques are separation based, overall component load cannot be predicted. Thus, it is prime necessity to compare the drugs with a whole aspect, which goes in hand by hand with a holistic approach of Ayurveda “Treat the man as Whole – Take the drug as whole.”
doi:10.4103/0974-8520.110518
PMCID: PMC3665206  PMID: 23723663
Ayurveda; Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy; Pratinidhi Dravya
20.  Gokshuradi Vati and Dhanyaka-Gokshura Ghrita Matra Basti in the management of Benign Prostatic Hyperplasia 
Ayu  2012;33(4):547-551.
Benign Prostatic Hyperplasia (BPH) is a burning senile problem of elderly men and no definitive conservative cure is available. The present available surgical and minimal invasive methods have their own limitations. Hence, to find out a suitable Ayurvedic approach, an effort has been made towards the management of BPH, In this study, 32 selected patients of Mootraghata at par to BPH were divided into three groups randomly and treated accordingly. In group A, Gokshuradi compound (GC) Vati (GV) 500 mg was given three times a day with luke-warm water after food; while in group B, Dhanyaka-Gokshura Ghrita (DGG) as Matra Basti (MB) of 60 ml, once in a day, just after lunch and combined therapy of both formulations in group C was administered. Out of 32 patients, total 30 patients (10 in each group) were completed the treatment course of 21 days. In results, 54.09% improvement was seen in group C, 45.67% in group A and 47.99% in group B. The size of prostate gland was found reduced highly significant in group C. Hence, it is concluded that combined therapy of GV and DGG MB is beneficial without developing any adverse drug reactions and can be prescribed safely for Mootraghata (BPH).
doi:10.4103/0974-8520.110532
PMCID: PMC3665207  PMID: 23723674
Benign prostatic hyperplasia; Dhanyaka-Gokshura Ghrita; Gokshuradi Vati; Matra Basti; Mootraghata
21.  A clinical study to evaluate the efficacy of Trataka Yoga Kriya and eye exercises (non-pharmocological methods) in the management of Timira (Ammetropia and Presbyopia) 
Ayu  2012;33(4):543-546.
Timira is a disease that can be attributed to wide range of clinical conditions starting from mild blurring of vision and having potential risk of permanent vision loss. According to the involvement of Dhatus (body elements) the condition can be grouped into two stages. The initial stage or Uttana, where the involvement of Dhatus is limited to Rasa, Rakta (blood), and Mamsa Dhatu (muscle tissue). When the Doshas are localized in the first and second Patala refractive error do happen and in presbyopia more emphasis is given to Mamsa Dhatu. In this study only Uttana stage of Timira was considered. The clinical study was done on 66 patients of Timira in two groups of four sub groups each of myopia, hypermetropia, astigmatism, and presbyopia. Group A was subjected to eye exercises (Bates method) and Group B was subjected to Trataka Yoga Kriya. After the enrolment of patients for this study, signs and symptoms were assessed both subjectively and objectively before, during, and after treatment. The study indicates that subjectively there are significant results in both the groups but objectively there is not much improvement.
doi:10.4103/0974-8520.110534
PMCID: PMC3665208  PMID: 23723673
Eye exercises; refractive errors; Timira; Trataka Yoga Kriya
22.  Characterization of Tarakeshwara Rasa: An Ayurvedic herbomineral formulation 
Ayu  2012;33(3):406-411.
Tarakeshwara Rasa (TR) is an Ayurvedic herbomineral compound formulation used in the intervention of Prameha vis-à-vis diabetes mellitus. The present study was executed to establish a fingerprint for this unique formulation, which can be adopted by the Ayurvedic pharmacies for drug standardization. TR is a formulation prepared by the trituration of four ingredients Abhraka Bhasma (AB), Loha Bhasma (LB), Vanga Bhasma (VB) and Rasa Sindhura (RS) in equal quantities with honey for one day. Each of the ingredients were prepared according to the norms of Ayurvedic classical texts and by employing Electric Muffle Furnace as heating device for incineration. To ensure the proper preparation of Bhasmas, standard tests (Bhasma Pariksha) were employed. After Bhasma complies these tests, TR was prepared and subjected for qualitative analysis, X-Ray Diffraction (XRD) and Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) studies. LB, AB, VB, RS and TR were also studied for free metal presence by employing phosphomolybdic acid. Chemical analysis of TR reveals that it contains Fe, Sn, Hg, Al, Mn, Ca and Mg. XRD study indicates that TR contains Fe2O3 (maghamite) in major phase and SnO2 (cassiterite), HgS, SiO2, HgO in minor phases. SEM study revealed that the compound is an agglomeration of particles. The particle size was in between 0.5 and 2 μ. Free metal detection by phosphomolybdic acid revealed the absence of free metals in the final Bhasmas. This is the first study establishing the characterization of Tarakeshwara Rasa.
doi:10.4103/0974-8520.108854
PMCID: PMC3665084  PMID: 23723650
Bhasma; characterization; rasaushadhi; scanning electron microscopy; X-ray diffraction
23.  Observational study on external social and lifestyle related factors and their role in pathogenesis of premature ageing and stress 
Ayu  2012;33(3):378-386.
In the present era of stress, when lifestyle disorders are high on rise, premature ageing is also one of the most prevalent disorders. It is needed to study the external environmental psychological causative factors in premature ageing and stress. An observational study was carried out to evaluate the relationship of lifestyle, occupational and social factors and mental makeup in individuals diagnosed with premature ageing. A total of 108 patients of premature ageing and stress fulfilling the criteria of inclusion as per ageing scale were selected from outpatient Department of Panchakarma and Manasa Roga, Institute for Post Graduate Teaching and Research in Ayurveda, Gujarat Ayurved University, Jamnagar. The diagnosed patients of premature ageing were subjected to specialized proforma enlisting all the factors as well as ageing scale, Manasa Bhava Pariksha, and Manasa Vibhrama Pariksha. The method of survey was by a questionnaire about the points regarding the lifestyle causative factors. Maximum patients had shown signs of premature ageing with Mana-Buddhi-Smriti-Bhakti Vibhrama (100% each) and involvement of negative Manasa Bhava. The 78.70% patients in this study felt of having excess responsibility on them in family. The 52.77% patients had average good relationship with their family members, while remaining 47.22% narrated history of disturbed relationship. The center of stress was found to be at personal level in all patients; at family level in 73.14%; at professional or work level in 64.81%. Various external, occupational, social and familial factors play significant role in the pathology of premature ageing by disturbing the overall psychological status. This proves the link of Manasa affecting Sharira and vice versa with reference to modern contemporary concept of psycho-neuro endocrinology.
doi:10.4103/0974-8520.108828
PMCID: PMC3665085  PMID: 23723645
Akalaja Jara; external social factors; Manasa Bhava; premature ageing; stress; Vibhrama
24.  A comparative analytical study of Prasarani [Merremia tridentata Hallier. f. and Paederia foetida Linn.] 
Ayu  2012;33(3):444-446.
Prasarani is one of the drugs used in Vata Rogas such as Amavata, Avabahuka, etc. Among the different source plants of Prasarani, the plant Merremia tridentata Haller.f. is mostly used in South India and the plant Paderia foetida Linn. in North India, hence taken in the present work for comparative analytical study. It was observed that there is a common constituent (having 350 mm absorbance maxima) present in both the drug samples indicating that both works on a similar disease. It was also found that the whole plant powder sample of P. foetida has more number of constituents than that of M. tridentata which indicates P. foetida may have a better efficacy than M. tridentata.
doi:10.4103/0974-8520.108864
PMCID: PMC3665086  PMID: 23723657
HPLC; Merremia tridentata; Paederia foetida; phytochemistry; Prasarani
25.  A study on the method of Taila Bindu Pariksha (oil drop test) 
Ayu  2012;33(3):396-401.
Taila Bindu Pariksha, an ancient method of urine examination for ascertaining the prognosis of diseases, was very popular in the medieval period, the use of which became obsolete after 17th Century AD. Technique of this test is very crude and there are chances of variations in the observations. To revive this technique, it is necessary that the methodology of this test should be standardized so that the observations could be reproducible. To standardize the technique, apparently healthy volunteers were selected and various parameters were standardized for doing this test, i.e., shape and size of Patra (testing containers), volume of the urine, size of the oil drop, height of the oil drop from the surface of urine, variety of sesame oil, etc., Based on the literature, the parameters were changed one by one and observations were noted down. The whole method was recorded in the form of video clips for proper evaluation. The parameters standardized on the basis of observations can be considered as standard to be referred in future studies.
doi:10.4103/0974-8520.108851
PMCID: PMC3665087  PMID: 23723648
Oil; standardization; Taila Bindu Pariksha; urine

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