Charakasamhita is one of the most important life lines of Ayurvedic classical knowledge. This supreme text of “science of life” has been composed nearly about 3000 years ago and before the well-established era of documentation. It is composed in the then language, style, and method. The ancient scholars of Ayurveda have presented it in such a way that all three kinds of pupil can get the matter easily. Nearly two thirds of the compendium is shaped in verse form according to rules and regulations of Chhandashastra of classical Sanskrit literature to retain in memory for a long time. With the advent of time this classical practice of recitation has been gradually losing its popularity and as a result the proper Ayurvedic learning cannot be completely possible in the current era. This review consists of methods of rhythmic recitation of all verses of Charakasamhita with notations and classical analysis.
Charakasamhita; Chhandashastra; meter; recitation; rhythm
Ayurveda is a Sarvaparishada Shastra which means this system of medicine is related to all its scriptures, takes into account even the mutually divergent views expressed in various philosophical systems so far as they do not oppose the Ayurvedic concepts. The most nearest allied branch of Ayurveda is the Darshana Shastra (philosophical texts). There are similarities of some concepts of Ayurveda and Darshana Shastra, but as the Prayojana (aim) of both Shastra are different, they have been advocated in a different way. One such concept taken by Saankhya Darshana is “Satkaaryavaada,” which is mentioned in respect to Srishti (evolution of universe). This theory is taken as it is in Ayurveda but applied in different manner.
Ayurveda; Darshana; Saankhya; Sarvaparishada; Satkaaryavaada
Internal oleation (Snehana) is a major preparatory procedures performed before Bio-Purification (Shodhana). Oleation leads and decides the total outcome of the Bio-purification therapy; hence, standard guidelines are needed for performing the internal oleation in an effective manner and also for avoiding the inadequate and excess oleation. It is obligatory to start and increase the dose of lipids (Sneha) in appropriate and judicious way considering the bio-fire (Agni) and nature of bowel habit (Koshtha) of the subject. The outcome of Bio-Purification depends upon proper mobilization of Dosha from the periphery (Shakha) to gastrointestinal tract (Koshtha); which is achieved with the help of oleation therapy (Snehana Karma) and sudation therapy (Svedana Karma). This clinical study was carried out on 29 subjects to standardize the dose and duration of internal oleation and to develop the oleation grade for the assessment of internal oleation therapy. The selected subjects were randomly divided into two groups, in which group A was given fixed increase dose of ghee and in group B non-fixed increase dose was given. Results of this study show that the total percentage of oleation was 33.57% in group A and it was 45.28% in group B. Subjects of Group B (non-fixed dose schedule) have shown better oleation in all the aspects, i.e. duration, oleation grade, and purification grade.
Bio-purification; oleation; purgation; purification; Snehana; Shodhana
Sarvanga Swedana is a common procedure done in Ayurvedic Panchakarma units. Passive body heat therapy, which is akin to Sarvanga Swedana is known to cause systemic hemodynamic changes. Such studies would have been required to find the possible hemodynamic changes following the Sarvanga Swedana sessions also. An observational study was planned to observe hemodynamic changes among patients routinely receiving Sarvanga Swedana in a Panchakarma setting at an Ayurvedic hospital. Significant increase in blood pressure and pulse rate (PR) was observed in all patients immediately after the completion of Sarvanga Swedana therapy. Upon continuation of Sarvanga Swedana in a subgroup; however, a significant reduction in systolic blood pressure and PR was also observed.
Blood pressure; hemodynamic changes; Panchakarma; Swedana
Heart failure (HF) is the inability of the heart to fill with or pump out enough blood to meet the body's needs. It is not one single disease, but rather a group of signs and symptoms caused by many different disease processes that have weakened the heart over time and left it unable to pump blood efficiently. Hypertension, diabetes mellitus, cardiovascular disorders are few of such disease processes responsible for conditions in HF. Even though, the co-morbidities mentioned above are well-established in the present system of medicine, its association with respiratory risk on obese patients especially in HF, still needs to be explored. The aim of this study is to determine the presence of dyspnea on exertion (DOE) in patients of HF as a consequence of obesity. Strategies to prevent the risk of HF, which would complement the current approaches aimed at Ayurvedic perspective especially, the obesity, its related comorbidities and contributors in the form of information on life-style leading to obesity needs to be focused. An ethical clearance for the project from the same institute was obtained on 101 patients of HF. All patients with ejection fraction <50% having DOE, New York Heart Association category were selected. Those with restrictive cardiomyopathy valvular abnormalities and under psychiatry treatment were excluded. Patients were informed about the project and their written consent was obtained followed by filling the Case Report Form (CRF). Their recent reports of left ventricular ejection fraction were attached along with details of 6 min hall walk test. Analysis was performed using the Statistical Package for the Social Sciences software, IBM version-17.0. The significant outcomes on lifestyles of HF related to co-morbidities were found.
Dyspnea on exertion; heart failure; obesity
From ancient to modern times, the perspective to visualize the management of Madhumeha (DM) has shifted from holistic to drug oriented. Therefore, until a few years ago, the revival of the holistic approach, the Ayurvedic diet, and lifestyle were not being much focused. This research work was planned to evaluate the extra effects of Ayurvedic Ahara and Vihara in the management of Madhumeha and to project them socially. A total of 30 patients were selected and divided into two groups. Group A was treated with Ayurvedic Ahara and Vihara with Varadi Kwatha and group B was treated with only Varadi Kwatha for 8 weeks. The study showed highly significant results in most of the parameters in both the groups. However, further trials with increased number of patients are needed to support the current observations.
Ahara; Diabetes Mellitus; diet; lifestyle; Madhumeha; Varadi Kwatha; Vihara
Acne is a common skin problem that affects almost 85% of teenagers, mostly occurs on face and some time on chest and upper back too. This condition resembles with Yauvanapidika described in Ayurveda under the caption of Kshudraroga. In this study, 50 patients with symptoms of Yauvanapidika were treated in two groups. In Group A, patients were given local application of Shalmalyadilepa twice a day with milk, while in Group B patients were given 2 gm of Guduchyadivati thrice along with local application of Shalmalyadilepa. At the end of treatment, Group B showed better improvement in comparison to Group A.
Acne; Guduchyadivati; Shalmalyadilepa; Yauvanapidika
Stricture urethra, though a rare condition, still is a rational and troublesome problem in the international society. Major complications caused by this disease are obstructed urine flow, urine stasis leading to urinary tract infection, calculi formation, etc. This condition can be correlated with Mutramarga Sankocha in Ayurveda. Modern medical science suggests urethral dilatation, which may cause bleeding, false passage and fistula formation in few cases. Surgical procedures have their own complications and limitations. Uttarabasti, a para-surgical procedure is the most effective available treatment in Ayurveda for the diseases of Mutravaha Strotas. In the present study, total 60 patients of urethral stricture were divided into two groups and treated with Uttarabasti (Group A) and urethral dilatation (Group B). The symptoms like obstructed urine flow, straining, dribbling and prolongation of micturation were assessed before and after treatment. The results of the study were significant on all the parameters.
Mutramarga Sankocha; stricture urethra; urethral dilatation; Uttarabasti
Rakta is considered to be the cause of the origin, maintenance and the destruction of the body. It may be correlated with blood tissue of modern science on the basis of similarities described in both the sciences and so, Raktakshaya can be correlated with anemia. The statistical figure shows that more than 50% of Indian population is affected by anemia. Because of Jatharagnimandya, Rakta Dhatvagni gets disturbed and leads to Raktakshaya. Current study was carried out on 46 patients of Raktakshaya. Patients were divided into two groups with simple random sampling method. Group A was treated with the Panchakola tablet while Group B was considered as placebo group and was given rice powder tablet. Duration of the treatment was 6 weeks. Classical Ayurvedic signs and symptoms of Raktakshaya with hematological parameters like hemoglobin (Hb), serum total iron binding capacity (S.TIBC), serum iron, serum ferittin level and blood indices were studied before and after treatment. Group A showed statistically highly significant increase in Hb g% and significant increase in other subjective and objective parameters.
Raktakshaya; Panchakola tablet; Anemia
Adverse drug reactions (ADR) are an expression that describes harm associated with the use of medications at therapeutic dose. Traditional medicines also can develop ADRs due to their improper use. Shvitrahara Varti, one of such medicines holds Bakuchi as a component and is to be used judiciously. Furanocoumarins like psoralen present in Bakuchi makes skin hypersensitive and causes phytophotodermatitis in few cases. Hence, one should be careful while using medicines that contain Bakuchi. One such case is observed, where extensive reactions with application of Shvitrahara Varti were noticed and managed with Ayurvedic treatment.
Adverse drug reactions; Bakuchi; blisters; Shvitra; Shvitrahara Varti; vitiligo
Leaves of Cinnamomum tamala Nees & Eberm. (Lauraceae) commonly known as ‘Tamalapatra’ is a highly reputed commodity in drug and spice trade. Its adulteration with other leaf species belonging to genus Cinnamomum is found to be a common practice in India and other parts of the world. Thorough macroscopic and microscopic investigations are essential to differentiate them. Survey of South Indian crude drug markets revealed that in place of C. tamala some other leaves of Cinnamomum species are sold. Fresh leaves of various Cinnamomum species, including C. tamala, growing in south India were collected and studied to establish their correct identity. Leaves sold in markets of S. India under the name of Tamalapatra were subjected for detailed macro-microscopic evaluation including maceration and powder microscopy. Leaves of Cinnamomum malabatrum showed many distinguishing macro-microscopic characters, which will serve as markers to differentiate them from C. tamala the official source of Tamalapatra. Though macroscopy will serve the purpose of identification of the entire drug, microscopy had revealed the identity of the commercial substitute even in fragmented and powdered form. Macro-microscopic identity of C. malabatrum is established in comparison with the official drug, further chemical and biological studies may be confirmative in deciding the leaves as a substitute or adulterant.
Cinnamomum tamala; Cinnamomum malabatrum; maceration; micrometry; powder microscopy; quantitative microscopy
In Ayurveda, the roots of Eranda (Ricinus communis Linn.) are used in the treatment Amavata (rheumatism), Sotha (inflammation), Katisula (backache), Udararoga (disease of abdomen), Jwara (fever), etc, Due to high demand, root of the cultivated variety is mainly used in place of wild. But, a comparative phytochemical profile of both varieties is not available till date. Considering this, a preliminary study has been done to ensure basic phytochemical profile of both the varieties. Preliminary physicochemical parameters, phytochemical screening, quantitative estimation of alkaloid, high-performance thin layer chromatography (HPTLC), and heavy metal analysis were carried-out in the study. Analysis of physicochemical data reveals no significant difference in between both varieties of roots, while alkaloid was found to be more in cultivated variety (0.34%) than wild one (0.15%). Though, the analytical profiles are almost identical, except the quantity of alkaloid; inferences should be made through well designed pharmacological and clinical studies.
Alkaloid; Eranda; high-performance thin layer chromatography; Ricinus communis
Ayurveda, the Indian System of Medicine deals with a number of metals and minerals. Swarna Makshika (SM), a chalcopyrite one such minerals has iron (Fe), copper (Cu), and sulphur (S) as major ingredients along with other trace elements of therapeutic importance. Studies related with characterization of SM are very few. In the current study SM and SM Bhasma were analysed through Transmission Electron Microscope (TEM) and Energy Dispersive X-Ray Analysis (EDAX). Analysis reveals the presence of iron, copper, and sulphur in SM. In addition to these elements, SM Bhasma found to contain Potassium, Magnesium, Aluminum, and Silicon in trace amount. TEM study reveals that, grain size of the SM (5-10 microns) is significantly reduced in SM Bhasma to 50-200 nm.
Bhasma; chalcopyrite; energy dispersive X-ray analysis; standardization; Swarna Makshika; transmission electron microscope
The present study is aimed to investigate antioxidant activity of the extracts of Cassia fistula Linn. (Leguminosae) fruit pulp. Cassia fistula Linn., a Indian Laburnum, is widely cultivated in various countries and different continents including Asia, Mauritius, South Africa, Mexico, China, West Indies, East Africa and Brazil as an ornamental tree for its beautiful bunches of yellow flowers and also used in traditional medicine for several indications. The primary phytochemical study and in vitro antioxidant study was performed on hydro alcoholic extract of fruit pulp. Phytochemical screening of the plant has shown the presence of phenolic compounds, fatty acids, flavonoids, tannins and glycosides. Phenolic content was measured using Folin-Ciocalteu reagent and was calculated as gallic acid equivalents. Antiradical activity of hydro alcoholic extract was measured by DPPH (2,2-diphenyl-1- picrylhydrazyl) assay and was compared to ascorbic acid. Ferric reducing power of the extract was also evaluated by Oyaizu method. In the present study, three methods were used for evaluation of antioxidant activity. First two methods were for direct measurement of radical scavenging activity and third method to evaluate the reducing power. Results indicate that hydro alcoholic fruit pulp extracts have marked amount of total phenols which could be responsible for the antioxidant activity. These in vitro assays indicate that this plant extract is a significant source of natural antioxidant, Cassia fistula fruit pulp extract shows lower activity in DPPH and total phenol content as compared with standard which might be helpful in preventing the progress of various oxidative stresses.
Antioxidants; Aragwadha; Cassia fistula; free radical; phenols
Being an anti-mitotic and apoptosis inducing agent, Cyclophosphamide (CP) causes stunting in size and loss of body weight of the pups on intra-peritoneal injection (10 mg/kg) to pregnant mice on day 11 of gestation. Loss of body weight due to CP administration could be minimized by feeding Drakshavaleha (16 g/kg) orally to pregnant mice from day “0” to day “18” of their gestation. Recovery observed in terms of body weight of the pups was statistically significant (P < 0.001) in Drakshavaleha treated pups. Drakshavaleha also recovered the crown-rump length of the pups occurred due to CP administration. Growth retardation with decreased fetal weight was observed in all CP treated pups when compared with the controls.
Cyclophosphamide; Drakshavaleha; mice; Rasayana; vitamins; weight-loss
Lekhana Basti (medicated enema) is a Tikshna formulation which is basically aimed for Apatarpana of the body. The present study (medicated enema) was undertaken to evaluate its anti-hyperlipidemic activity in diet-induced hyperlipidemia animals. Parameters like changes in body weight, organ weight, serum total cholesterol, serum triglyceride, serum HDL cholesterol, and serum (LDL + VLDL) cholesterol were studied to assess the effect of therapy in comparison to the control groups. Lekhana Basti was found to be ineffective in producing anti-hyperlipidemic action potently, but still found to have cytoprotective activity against hyperlipidemia induced organ damage, which was also confirmed by attenuation of cell infiltration and microfatty changes on histopathological examination.
Apatarpana; cholesterol; cytoprotective; hyperlipidemia; Lekhana Basti
Present study was undertaken to evaluate analgesic activity of root of Nelsonia canescens (Lam.) Spreng, a folklore medicinal plant used as the one of the source plant of Rasna. Study was carried out at two dose levels (270 mg/kg and 540 mg/kg) in albino rats. Analgesic activity was evaluated in formalin induced paw licking, and tail flick methods whereas indomethacin and pentazocine were used as standard analgesic drugs, respectively. At both the dose levels, test drug non-significantly decreased paw licking response at both time intervals. In tail flick model, the administration of the test drug increased pain threshold response in a dose dependent manner. In therapeutically equivalent dose level, analgesic activity was observed only after 180 min while in TED ×2 treated group analgesia was observed at 30 min and lasted even up to 240 min. The results suggested that N.canescens root possess moderate analgesic activity.
Analgesic; folklore; gandhamardana hills; Nelsonia canescens; Rasna
Ayurveda, the science of life, deals with the drugs of animal, herbal, or mineral origin. Drugs of plant origin occupy more than 90% of the constituents of the Ayurvedic formulations used during treatment. Due to over exploitation and non-availability of medicinal plants, certain classical drugs are being substituted by locally available ethnomedicinal plants that are being claimed to possess similar activity by the tribal and local practitioners. The authentic source of Prishniparni is Uraria picta Desv. (Fabaceae) and is being substituted by Alysicarpus longifolius W. and A. Prodr. (Fabaceae) by some traditional healers of Gujarat (Saurashtra region). Both the plants are locally known by the names Samervo or Pithvan and both have similar characteristics with reference to leaves and flowers (inflorescence type). Pharmacognostical and Phytochemical evaluation of Alysicarpus longifolius W. and A. Prodr has been carried out and results are reported.
Alysicarpus longifolius; pharmacognosy; phytochemistry; Prishniparni; Samervo; Uraria picta
Shadbindu Taila (ST) is an Ayurvedic formulation used as a remedy for loosening of tooth, weakness of the eyesight, loss of hair, diseases of head, etc., Present study is an attempt to develop some newer approaches for the quality control and standardization of ST. Standardized operating procedure for the preparation of ST was developed in accordance with Ayurvedic Formulary of India. Preliminary phytochemical, physicochemical, and chromatographic evaluation of ST was carried out. Safety of ST was evaluated in terms of skin irritation test and presence of heavy metals. Chemical characterization of ST was done on the basis of kaempferol using validated -High Performance Thin Layer Chromatographic (HPTLC) method. ST did not show presence of any of the heavy metals analyzed and was found non-irritant on rabbit skin. The quality control parameters resulted after scientific evaluation of ST can be used as reference standard for quality control/assurance laboratory of a pharmaceutical firm in order to have a proper quality check over its preparation and processing.
High performance thin layer chromatography; kaempferol; safety; Shadbindu Taila; standardization
Trigonella foenum-graecum is one of the widely used herbs in food and medicine. The seeds of the plants are investigated for antidiabetic potential; however, no efforts have been done to explore the potential of leaves to modify carbohydrate metabolizing enzymes viz. α-amylase and α-glucosidase. The present work was designed to investigate the inhibitory potential of ethyl acetate and water extract of T. foenum-graecum on enzymes α-amylase and α-glucosidase. Different concentrations of extracts were used to study inhibition of enzymatic activity of α-amylase and α-glucosidase. A dose dependent inhibitory effect on enzymes was observed. The current study, for the first time, revealed α-amylase and α-glucosidase inhibitory potential of T. foenum-graecum and the study could be helpful to isolate and characterize compounds responsible for it.
α-Amylase; α-glucosidase; Methika; Trigonella foenum-graecum
Santarpanottha Vikaras (diseases due to excessive nutrition) are increasing during current times. Medodushti (disorders of fat metabolism) serves as one of the important etiological factor in most of these disorders including Ischemic Heart Disease (IHD). IHD is identified as one of the leading cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide in both developing and developed countries. Retention and deposition of serum lipids resulting in decreased flow of blood in coronary arteries being the underlying cause. Conventional and herbal drugs are being used to lower levels of serum cholesterol to prevent this menace. In this regard, an attempt has been made to critically review the Medohara and Lekhaniya (Anti-obesity and Hypolipidemic) drugs mentioned in Ganas (group of drugs) of Ayurvedic classical texts which may abet our understanding of prevention and management of conditions like Dyslipidemia and its complications. Administration of drugs possessing Tikta Rasa (bitter taste), Ushna Veerya (hot in potency), Laghu and Ruksha Guna (light and dry qualities), Katu Vipaka and Vata Kaphahara actions were noted during the analysis.
Dyslipidemia; Lekhana; Medohara; obesity; herbs
Depression is a psychiatric condition in which there is loss of interest in all pleasurable outlets, viz. food, sex, work, friends, hobbies and entertainment. The prevalence rate of the disease is 6-8% in women and 3-5% in men. Ayurveda, the science of life, provides systematic management principles for depression. Mamsyadi Kwatha is one such formulation stated by Yadavji Trikamji Acharya in Siddha Yoga Sangraha and Bheshaja Samhita, which is said to be effective in psychiatric conditions. The ingredients are Jatamansi (Nardostachys jatamansi), Ashwagandh (Withania somnifera) and Parasika Yavani (Hyocymus niger) in an 8:4:1 ratio, respectively. The test drug was subjected for antidepressant activity in experimental models. The models selected for anti depressant activity were behavioral despair test, anti-reserpine test and Chronic Fatigue Syndrome (CFS) test in albino mice. The test formulation showed significant inhibition of behavioural despair (P < 0.05), weak to moderate anti-reserpine activity - ptosis (P < 0.001), catatonia (P < 0.01), sedation (P < 0.01) and moderate effect in CFS test (P < 0.050). These effects clearly show that Mamsyadi Kwatha has an anti-depressant activity.
Ashwagandha; catatonia; immobility time; Jatamansi; Mamsyadi Kwatha
Trivanga Bhasma, a metallic preparation containing Bhasmas of Naga (lead), Vanga (tin) and Yashada (zinc), was studied for repeated dose toxicity in Swiss albino mice to estimate No Observed Effect Level (NOEL) or No Observed Adverse Effect Level (NOAEL). A total of 80 Swiss albino mice of either sex with an average body weight of 28-30 g were equally divided into four groups (Group I, II, III, and IV). Group I served as control and was given vehicle (honey: water in 2:3 ratio) Group II, III, and IV received Trivanga Bhasma @ 7.8, 39.5,and 78 mg/kg body weight for 90 consecutive days. The effect of drug was assessed on body weight, feed and water consumption changes, hematological, and histopathological parameters. At the end of the study, all animals were sacrificed and examined for gross pathological changes. Histopathological evaluation was performed for control and high dose group. Trivanga Bhasma was found to be safe. No significant clinical signs were noted in all groups studied. No major alterations were observed during histopathological evaluation. Hence, dose rate of 78 mg/kg body weight was established as NOAEL. It is suggested to carry out a toxicity study at possible higher doses and in a different species so as to establish target organ of toxicity.
Mice; Naga; toxicity study; Trivanga Bhasma; Vanga; Yashada