Dementia (Smritibuddhihrass) is a chronic organic mental disorder, characterized by progressive usually irreversible, global cognitive deficit. Presently no reliable treatment is available to check the progression of the disease in the conventional medicine. Although this condition is not described as a disease moiety in a separate chapter among Ayurvedic classics but the signs and symptoms along with pathogenesis of dementia can be understood in terms of Ayurvedic concepts. As a large part of pathogenesis of dementia involves neurodegeneration, Rasayana and Panchkarma therapy play an a very important role in the management of dementia. These therapeutic techniques have the potential to check the progression of disease as well as can improve the deficit in cognitive functions of these patients. In the present paper the possible pathogenesis of Dementia in the terms of Ayurvedic concepts has been discussed and suggested the management profiles from Ayurvedic perspectives which can be beneficially utilized for this important class of geriatric disorders.
Dementia; Smritibuddhihrass; Ayurvedic management
All skin diseases can be included under the umbrella of Kushta Roga. Ekkakushta is a variety of Kshudra Kushtha with dominancy of Vata and Kapha Doshas. It is characterized by symptoms like- Aswedanam, Mahavastum, Matsyashakalopamam, etc., these characteristic features has a striking similarity with Psoriasis. It is a papulosqaumous disorder of the skin, characterized by sharply defined erythmatosqaumous lesion. Due to its chronic and recurrent nature, it has a great impact on the quality of life of the patients. The present study was aimed to compare the effect of Navayasa Rasayana Leha and Medhya Rasayana tablet along with Dhatryadhyo Lepa in patients of Ekkakushta (psoriasis). For this study, the selected patients were randomly divided into two groups. Koshtha Shuddhi was done by Eranda Bruhstha Haritaki (6 g-at night with Ushnodaka) in patients of both the groups for 3 days before starting the treatment. Total 111 patients were selected for present study. Patients of group A (45 patients) were given “Navayasa Rasayana Leha” and “Dhatryadhyo Lepa” for external application. Stress is a very well known precipitating factor of Psoriasis. Hence, to study the efficacy of Medhya Rasayana drugs, patients of group B (49 patients) were given Medhya Rasayana tablet along with the external application of Dhatryadhyo Lepa. The duration of the study was 3 months with follow up for one month. Both the groups showed highly significant results in all signs, symptoms and other parameters. Navayasa Rasayana Leha and Medhya Rasayana tablet along with Dhatryadhyo Lepa can be used effectively for the treatment of Ekkakushta.
Ekkakushta; Psoriasis; Navayasa Rasayana Leha; Dhatryadhyo Lepa; Medhya Rasayana tablet
Veerataru is quoted to be effective in various conditions of Mootravaha Srotodushti such as Mootrakruchchhra (Dysuria), Mootraghata (Anuria), Ashmari (Urinary calculi), Sharkara (Concretions) etc., by various Acharyas. Mootrakruchchhra (Dysuria) is a disease of Basti (Bladder). It comes under Mootraapravruttijanyavyadhi, where Kruchchhrata (Shoola –Pain and Daha-Burning) during mootra pravrutti is the chief symptom. As per modern view, dysuria is a leading feature of lower or mid urinary tract infection. Antibiotics have their own limitations due to re-infections and recurrence even after long-term therapy, due to development of resistance of the microorganisms to the drugs. By considering all the above facts and to fulfill the lacuna about the absence of scientific data of Veerataru, the present research work had been taken up especially to evaluate its efficacy on Mootrakruchchhra (Dysuria). Patients suffering from Mootrakruchchhra (Dysuria) were selected and divided into two groups, i.e. Group A received Kwatha (decoction) of Veerataru-Dichrostachys cinerea Linn. (Trial drug) and Group B received Kwatha of Punarnava-Boerhaavia diffusa Linn. (Standard control) respectively. The effects of therapy were assessed by a specially prepared clinical research proforma. The result showed better symptomatic relief in Group A, i.e. trial drug as compared to Group B, i.e. standard control group.
Mootrakruchchhra; Veerataru (Dichrostachys cinerea Linn.); Mootravaha Srotodushti
Pavetta indica Linn. (Family: Rubiaceae; Sanskrit name: Papata) is 2-5 m tall, shrub or small tree with opposite branches and grows in the Asia - Pacific region including Sri Lanka. Purishaja Krimi is one of the worm infestations described in Ayurveda. Enterobius vermicularis is among the most common of worms affecting children and adults. E. vermicularis is considered as one type of Purishaja Krimi. Sri Lankan traditional and ayurvedic physicians use P. indica to treat different ailments including Purishaja Krimi (E. vermicularis) infestations successfully. Since no scientific studies have been undertaken to study these effects so far, the present clinical study was carried out to evaluate the effect of P. indica in treatment of E. vermicularis infestation. Fifty patients between age of 5 and 12 years (Group A and B) and 50 patients between 13 and 65 years (Group C and D) with symptoms of E. vermicularis infestations such as itching in the anal region, impaired appetite, abdominal pain, eructation, diarrhea or constipation and presence of ova in stools were selected. Two decoction of the trail drug with different concentration was prepared. Group A and Group B were treated with 60 ml of decoction 1 and 60 ml of placebo respectively, twice daily for 14 days. Group C and Group D were treated with 120 ml of decoction 2 and 120 ml of placebo respectively, twice daily for 14 days. Groups A and C showed complete or partial reduction of symptoms, that is; itching in the anal region, impaired appetite, abdominal pain, eructation, diarrhea and also ova of E. vermicularis were absent in stools after treatment with P. indica. Decoction of P. indica can be recommended as an effective treatment for Purishaja Krimi (E. vermicularis infestation).
Enterobius vermicularis; Pavetta indica; Purishaja Krimi; thread worm
The study aims to observe the effects of Amrutapatolaksheeravasti Dravya (medicated milk enema) in values of biophysical-chemical parameters. The classical Vasti (enema) can be analyzed with the help of biophysical parameters like pH, temperature, and specific gravity (Sp.gr.). Three hundred samples of classically prepared Amrutapatolaksheeravasti were analyzed for pH, temp., Sp.gr. with the calibrated instruments before each Vastikarma. The clinical symptoms based on proper Vastikarma and its complication were recorded and assessed. The parameters - pH, temperature, Sp.gr., and viscosity have shown a significant to highly significant value of correlation coefficient “r” and ‘t’ in relation to successful Vastikarma and retention time of Vasti Dravya respectively. pH <5.8 and temperature >39°C led to anal irritation in Ksheera Vasti. Similarly, pH >6.1 and temperature <32°C resulted in flatulence. The effects of pH and Sp.gr. are due to temperature as both are temperature-based variables.
Biophysical parameters; standardization; Vastikarma
Diabetes mellitus (DM) with its devastating consequences is a global health problem of this era. Presently India is having the largest diabetic population of 50.8 million. The characteristic features of DM have close resemblance with Prameha (obstinate urinary disorders including diabetes) in Ayurveda. Madhumeha is a Vatika subtype of Prameha that is most close to DM. One variety of this Madhumeha (DM) is Aavaranjanya (due to occlusion) in which Vayu aggravates due to occlusion by Pitta or Kapha. This type of Madhumeha (DM) can be managed if Samshodhana (bio-cleansing) is used in early stages of disease followed by palliative treatment. Vamana (emetic therapy) and Virechana (purgation therapy) are the Samsodhana Karma (bio-cleansing therapies) that are compatible to overcome this Aavarana (occlusion). A comparative study was planned to compare their efficacy in controlling blood sugar levels in patients with DM. Although none of them were completely able to control blood sugar in the long-term but the study yields some very interesting results in reducing the blood sugar levels which could be useful in the future studies related to DM.
Blood sugar control; Prameha; Vamana; Virechana
Sustained attention (SA) is a vital function mediated by the right frontal - parietal cortex. The digit vigilance test (DVT) measures SA. Assessment of SA in students for their academic excellence is considered to be an essential part of a neuropsychological evaluation. The objective of this study is to determine SA in students undergoing training of integrated Yoga module (IYM). A total of 66 university students aged between 18-37 years participated in this study with a single group pre-post design. The DVT data was collected before and after the IYM. Statistical Package for Social Sciences version 19 was used for data analysis. The Kolmogorov-Smirnov test showed that the data were not normally distributed. The Wilcoxon's signed ranks test was used to compare means of data. The data analysis showed 11.66% decrease (P < 0.001) in total time taken for DVT and 31.90% decrease (P < 0.001) in error scores for DVT. The present study suggests that IYM can result in improvement of SA among students, thus paving the way for their academic excellence. Additional well-designed studies are needed before a strong recommendation can be made.
Academic excellence; integrated Yoga module; sustained attention; university students
Shweta Musali (Chlorophytum borivilianum (CB)) is a traditionally used herb for its benefits in male sexual and general health. In the recent past, the herb has attained much commercial significance, both in domestic and international markets. However, limited clinical data is available to establish its traditional claims. The present study was aimed at evaluating the effect of the water soluble extract of CB root tubers on semen and testosterone in healthy adult males. The research was designed as a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, trial upon the volunteers registered from the outpatient department (OPD) with age ranging from 20 to 40 years. Water extracts of CB and placebo was administered in the patients of groups A and B, for 12 weeks, in two divided doses of 500 mg. Assessment was done based upon Semen (Volume, Liquefaction Time, Sperm Count, Sperm motility) and Serum Testosterone levels parameters. Highly significant improvement was noted in the above parameters after administration of CB extract in comparison to Placebo. Hence it was concluded that the trial drug was effective in improving male sexual health.
Chlorophytum borivilianum; Shweta Musali; semen; testosterone
The desire to have a healthy progeny is innate and very intense in every livingbeing. The hectic life and tremendous stress in daily life has made the conception and continuation of pregnancy till term very difficult. Anemia is one of the common disease conditions, which affects a pregnant woman. In Ayurvedic classics anemia in pregnancy is taken under the Rasa Pradoshajavikara. It is clear that Garbhavasthajanyapandu occurs due to the fetal demands and improper functioning of the Rasadhatu leading to malnourishment of the body. A total of 26 patients were registered from out-patient department of Streeroga and Prasutitantra, out of which four patients discontinued. The remaining 22 patients were randomly divided into two groups; Group A (n-12) Pandughnivati two tablets of 500 mg tds and Group B (n-10) Dhatrilauhavati one tablet of 500 mg tds. Dhatrilauhavati was selected for the present study due to its Pandughna, Prinana, Raktaprasadana properties. In the present study, Pandughnivati a compound formulation developed by AYUSH department was administered for patients of group A. The results revealed that the over all clinical improvement was better in patients of Group B when compared to Group A. Hence it was concluded that Dhatrilauhavati was effective in treating anemia during pregnancy.
Anemia in pregnancy (iron deficiency anemia); Dhatrilauhavati; Garbhinipandu; Pandughnivati
The present single-centered randomized control trial (RCT) was carried out with the prime aim of assessing the effect of Kasahara Dashemani Vati (trial drug) on Kasa and Vyadhikshamatva in the children suffering from recurrent respiratory tract infections and comparing it with the efficacy of Indukanta Vati. The clinical trial included 40 patients belonging to age group of 3-12 years. The drugs were administered in a daily dose fixed as per “Clark's Rule” along with honey for duration of 60 days. The effect of treatment on the signs and symptoms of Kasa was assessed on the 15th day, whereas the effect on Vyadhikshamatva was assessed on the 60th day. The patients were under follow-up for a period of 60 days after completing the treatment course for evaluation of any recurrence. Effect of the therapy on the individual signs and symptoms of Kasa, laboratory parameters, immunoglobulin (Ig) biomarkers, status of Atura Bala, and prevention of recurrence during follow-up period were the parameters used to assess the overall effect of therapy. The observed data were subjected to appropriate statistical analysis for testing the statistical significance. Kasahara Dashemani provided relief in all symptoms of Kasa irrespective of Doshic involvement and on the parameters of Atura Bala. All the changes were statistically highly significant. The control group also showed similar effects which were statistically highly significant. The trial group was found to have a direct influence on serum Ig status. No patient has reported any adverse drug reactions during the treatment and follow-up periods.
Immunoglobulin; Indukanta Vati; Kasahara Dashemani Vati; Recurrent respiratory tract infection; Vyadhikshamatva
Triphaladi Kwatha, a polyherbal Ayurvedic formulation, is recommended by Chakradatta and Yogaratnakara in the management of Prameha which has resemblance with type 2 diabetes mellitus. The present study deals with development of pharmacognostical and preliminary pharmaceutical profile of Triphaladi granules. The pH (5% aqueous extract) was 6.0, water-soluble extract 48.66% w/w, alcohol-soluble extract 33.91% w/w, ash value 5.97% w/w, and loss on drying at 105°C was 6.53% w/w. High performance thin layer chromatography were carried out after organizing appropriate solvent system in which maximum nine spots were distinguished and few of the Rf values were identical in the alcoholic extract.
High performance thin layer chromatography; Pharmacognosy; Prameha; Triphaladi granules
Brahmi Ghrita was processed as per the process of Snehapaka procedure described in classics. It contained Brahmi (Bacopa monneri), Vacha (Acorus calamus), Kushtha (Sassurea lappa), Shankhapushpi (Convolvulos pluricalis), and Purana Ghrita. In the preparation of Brahmi Ghrita, Brahmi Swarasa, Kalka Dravya of Brahmi, Vacha, Kushtha, and Shankhapushpi were mixed in Purana Ghrita and heated for three hours at 110°C every day for three days. On the third day Ghrita was filtered to obtain the finished product. In this manner, three samples of Brahmi Ghrita were prepared. To understand the changes that occurred during the preparation, Brahmi Ghrita and Purana Ghrita were analyzed by using modern parameters such as Acid value, Saponification value, and so on. After the analysis, it was found that the Acid values of Sample A, B, and C of Brahmi Ghrita were 4.26, 4.03, and 4.03; the Saponification values of Samples A, B, and C of Brahmi Ghrita were 227.2, 230.01, and 230.01, and the Iodine values of Samples A, B, and C were 34.75, 35.88, and 35.88, respectively, and the Acid value, Saponification value, and Iodine value of Purana Ghrita were 1.57, 199.15, and 31.04, respectively. The present study revealed that, there was no significant variation in the analytical values among all three samples of Brahmi Ghrita.
Brahmi Ghrita; acid value; saponification value; iodine value
Changing life style and over-nutrition causes low-grade inflammation (LGI), with obesity and hyper-lipidemia as basic factors. The physiological state polarizes macrophages to classical type (M1), which is pro-inflammatory and promotes ectopic fat deposition in the body. Both factors induce inflammatory cascade, where free radicals (FRs) play an important role. Thus, pharmacological and non-pharmacological interventions would be effective in the management of LGI and plant products would be used as food supplement or as a drug. Previously, a study has reported the anti-oxidant potential of methanolic extract of tubers of Pueraria tuberosa (PTME) and inhibitory role of tuberosin on lipopolysaccharides-induced expression of inducible nitric oxide synthase in macrophages in an in vitro study model. Here, the effect of PTME has been explored on carrageenan-induced inflammatory changes in rats. The activity of antioxidant enzymes in red blood cell hemolysate has been assessed. PTME was orally given to rats for 9 days and periodical changes (every 3rd day) in the activity/concentration of superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase, reduced glutathione (GSH), lipid peroxides (LPO), and C-reactive proteins (CRP) were monitored. The PTME significantly prevented carrageenan-induced decline in GSH content, lowering of catalase and SOD activity, and rise in LPO and CRP in rats in a time-dependent, sequential manner. Thus, it could be suggested that the anti-inflammatory role of PTME is primarily mediated through its FR scavenging potential.
Anti-inflammatory; anti-oxidant; Pueraria tuberosa
Lepidium sativum Linn. (Chandrashura) of Family Cruciferae (Brassicaceae) is being used by the people of Gujarat for treating inflammatory condition like arthritis. To evaluate its anti-inflammatory activity, Charles Foster albino rats were selected and experiments were carried out in three groups, therapeutic dose group, twice of therapeutic dose group and control group. In Carrageenan-induced paw oedema, the test drug produced moderate anti-inflammatory activity; however, the effect did not show statistically significant activity due to variation in the data of the control group. In formaldehyde-induced paw oedema in rats, the test drug produced moderate to significant suppression. This indicates that Chandrashura has a strong inhibitory effect on proliferation of fibroblasts and also probably has connective tissue modulation effect.
Anti-Inflammatory; carrageenan and formaldehyde-induced paw oedema; Chandrashura (Lepidium sativum Linn.)
Hepatoprotective activity of methanolic extract of Syzygium jambos (Alston) (Linn.) leaves against Paracetamol-induced hepatic damage in Wistar albino rats was observed at two different doses, 100 and 200 mg/kg body weight. The healthy control, disease control, and standard drug Silymarin-treated groups were also maintained for the comparison. The liver marker enzymes SGOT, SGPT, ALKP, Serum Bilirubin and other metabolic parameters like total cholesterol, HDL-cholesterol were evaluated in all the experimental groups. The changes in liver function parameters were significant in comparison to disease control group and the observed efficacy was comparable to standard drug. The efficacy of the extract was found to be dose dependent. The histopathology study of liver also supports the presence of hepatoprotective activity in S. jambos by showing improved cytoarchitecture of liver cells in the treated groups. The results obtained in this study indicate necessity for further research on isolation and characterization of functional molecules from the extract.
Hepatoprotection; liver marker enzymes; paracetamol; Syzygium jambos
Rasamanikya a familiar drug, frequently used by Ayurvedic physicians. It also has a high demand in current pharmaceutical industry. Rasamanikya possesses different pharmaceutical methods with many a proved clinical studies. But it is of utmost importance to understand the safety profile of drug based on assurance which could be done by carrying out animal experimentation. In the present study, Rasamanikya was prepared with three methods. The toxicological study was carried out on acute and sub-acute toxicity of the drug. The three samples when compared together showed that Rasamanikya prepared out of classical Abhraka Patra method and modified Sharava Samputa method showed minimal histopathological changes proving its non-toxicity, whereas Rasamanikya prepared out of electric bulb method showed mild toxicity, but with chances of recovery. Acute toxicity study showed no immediate and evident toxic signs and mortality in histopathology reports and liver function test. However, sub-acute toxicity study showed mild to moderate fatty changes in liver.
Histopathology; liver function test; Rasamanikya; toxicity study
Tragia plukenetii R.Smith. (Euphorbiaceae) is an erect, prostate herb with sparsely hispid stinging hairs. In the present study, ethanolic extract and its fractions of T. plukenetii aerial parts were evaluated for antinociceptive and central nervous system (CNS) depressant effects. Among all the extracts, chloroform extract has produced significant analgesic activity at a test dose of 250 mg/kg in acetic acid induced writhing test and Eddy's hotplate test. The analgesic effect of chloroform extract (68.83% inhibition) is comparable with aspirin (72.09% inhibition) in acetic acid induced writhing test. Chloroform extract significantly increased the latency time in hotplate test. In the study of CNS depressant effect, the chloroform extract was found to produce a significant (P < 0.01) reduction of the exploratory capacity and depressant effect in locomotor activity. From the point of CNS depressant and good protective effect on chemical and thermal pain stimuli, indicates that T. plukenetii chloroform extract may have morphinomimetic properties. The naloxone is not able to alter the T. plukenetii induced antinociceptive effect in writhing and hotplate test. Thus, the observed antinociceptive activity of T. plukenetii might have resulted from the activation of peripheral receptors.
Antinociceptive activity; aspirin; central nervous system depressant activity; morphine; naloxone; Tragia plukenetii
Immunomodulators are substances that helps to regulate the immune system. The basic mechanisms by which the herbs defend the body against infection have two probable ways- one by destroying pathogens and other by enhancing the body immunity. Shirishadi compound is a polyherbal drug used in Ayurvedic system of medicine for the management of allergic disorders such as allergic rhinitis, allergic asthma etc., The present study was carried out to evaluate the immunomodulatory activity of ethanolic extract of polyherbal compound “Shirishadi” on Swiss albino mice. Cyclophosphamide (CP) induced immunosuppression model was used to assess the activity of drug. CP was given in the dose of 30 mg/kg body weight through i.p route. 500 mg/kg body weight of Shirishadi polyherbal drug was given through oral route. The extent of protection against immunosuppression caused by CP was evaluated after 14 days of drug administration, by estimating hematological parameters and neutrophil adhesion test. Ethanolic extracts of Shirishadi compound showed pronounced immunoprotective activity by increasing the depleted levels of total WBC count and RBC, % Hb, and % neutrophils adhesion. The extract was found to be an effective immunomodulatory agent.
Shirishadi compound; cyclophosphamide; immunomodulatory activity
Vasaguduchyadi Kwatha is a compound Ayurvedic formulation, indicated for the treatment of liver diseases, especially for Kamala (jaundice) and Panduroga (anemia). However, till date, no safety profile of this formulation has been reported; hence, in the present study, freshly prepared and market samples of Vasaguduchyadi Kwatha were evaluated for acute toxicity. Acute toxicity test was evaluated as per OECD 425 guidelines with 5 000 mg/kg as limit test in Wistar strain albino rats. Test formulations were administered to overnight fasted animals and parameters like body weight, behavioral changes, and mortality were assessed for 14 days. Hematological and biochemical parameters were assessed on 14th day. Results showed no significant changes in terms of behavioral changes, mortality, and body weight. Both the samples did not affect any of the hematological parameters. However, increase in blood urea level was observed. This study shows that both the samples of Vasaguduchyadi Kwatha are relatively safe up to the dose of 5 g/kg. However, further chronic toxicity evaluation is necessary to establish its safety profile on chronic administration.
Acute toxicity; hepatoprotective; Kamala; Vasaguduchyadi Kwatha
Haritaki (Terminalia chebula Retz., Family: Combretaceae) possesses a great therapeutic value and is widely distributed in India, up to an altitude of 1500 m. Though Terminalia chebula Retz is the only botanical source of Haritaki, the uses of its varieties along with their sources, identifying features and therapeutic uses are described in Ayurvedic classics and other medical literature. In the present study, a detailed review has been carried out on different varieties of Haritaki.
Chebulic myrobalan; Haritaki; Terminalia chebula
Charakasamhita is one of the most important life lines of Ayurvedic classical knowledge. This supreme text of “science of life” has been composed nearly about 3000 years ago and before the well-established era of documentation. It is composed in the then language, style, and method. The ancient scholars of Ayurveda have presented it in such a way that all three kinds of pupil can get the matter easily. Nearly two thirds of the compendium is shaped in verse form according to rules and regulations of Chhandashastra of classical Sanskrit literature to retain in memory for a long time. With the advent of time this classical practice of recitation has been gradually losing its popularity and as a result the proper Ayurvedic learning cannot be completely possible in the current era. This review consists of methods of rhythmic recitation of all verses of Charakasamhita with notations and classical analysis.
Charakasamhita; Chhandashastra; meter; recitation; rhythm
Ayurveda is a Sarvaparishada Shastra which means this system of medicine is related to all its scriptures, takes into account even the mutually divergent views expressed in various philosophical systems so far as they do not oppose the Ayurvedic concepts. The most nearest allied branch of Ayurveda is the Darshana Shastra (philosophical texts). There are similarities of some concepts of Ayurveda and Darshana Shastra, but as the Prayojana (aim) of both Shastra are different, they have been advocated in a different way. One such concept taken by Saankhya Darshana is “Satkaaryavaada,” which is mentioned in respect to Srishti (evolution of universe). This theory is taken as it is in Ayurveda but applied in different manner.
Ayurveda; Darshana; Saankhya; Sarvaparishada; Satkaaryavaada