Lekhana Basti (medicated enema) is a Tikshna formulation which is basically aimed for Apatarpana of the body. The present study (medicated enema) was undertaken to evaluate its anti-hyperlipidemic activity in diet-induced hyperlipidemia animals. Parameters like changes in body weight, organ weight, serum total cholesterol, serum triglyceride, serum HDL cholesterol, and serum (LDL + VLDL) cholesterol were studied to assess the effect of therapy in comparison to the control groups. Lekhana Basti was found to be ineffective in producing anti-hyperlipidemic action potently, but still found to have cytoprotective activity against hyperlipidemia induced organ damage, which was also confirmed by attenuation of cell infiltration and microfatty changes on histopathological examination.
Apatarpana; cholesterol; cytoprotective; hyperlipidemia; Lekhana Basti
Depression is a psychiatric condition in which there is loss of interest in all pleasurable outlets, viz. food, sex, work, friends, hobbies and entertainment. The prevalence rate of the disease is 6-8% in women and 3-5% in men. Ayurveda, the science of life, provides systematic management principles for depression. Mamsyadi Kwatha is one such formulation stated by Yadavji Trikamji Acharya in Siddha Yoga Sangraha and Bheshaja Samhita, which is said to be effective in psychiatric conditions. The ingredients are Jatamansi (Nardostachys jatamansi), Ashwagandh (Withania somnifera) and Parasika Yavani (Hyocymus niger) in an 8:4:1 ratio, respectively. The test drug was subjected for antidepressant activity in experimental models. The models selected for anti depressant activity were behavioral despair test, anti-reserpine test and Chronic Fatigue Syndrome (CFS) test in albino mice. The test formulation showed significant inhibition of behavioural despair (P < 0.05), weak to moderate anti-reserpine activity - ptosis (P < 0.001), catatonia (P < 0.01), sedation (P < 0.01) and moderate effect in CFS test (P < 0.050). These effects clearly show that Mamsyadi Kwatha has an anti-depressant activity.
Ashwagandha; catatonia; immobility time; Jatamansi; Mamsyadi Kwatha
Hypertension is the most common psychosomatic disorder affecting 972 million people worldwide being more prevalent in old age. The present survey of hypertensive patients fulfilling the standard diagnostic criteria of WHO/ISH (2004) is carried out in geriatric age group from the Saurashtra region of Gujarat in India to observe the dietary pattern and provocative factors. Total 120 patients of 50 to 80 years of age having systolic blood pressure >140 mm Hg and ≤180 mm Hg and diastolic blood pressure >90 mm Hg and ≤110 mm Hg irrespective of gender and religion were selected for the present study. They were interviewed for list of provocative factors enlisted in Ayurveda. As observed, the study supported the facts described in Ayurveda that dietary etiological factors, such as excess intake of Lavana (salty), Amla (sour), Katu (pungent), Tikshna, Ushna (hot), Vidahi (producing burning sensation), Viruddha (incompatible), Snigdha (unctuous), Abhishyandi (leading to obstruction), Madhura (sweet), Guru (heavy to digest) dietary articles, Ajirnashana (taking diet before complete digestion of previous meal), Adhyashana (repeated eating at short intervals), will vitiate Rakta dhatu as well as Pitta dosha in the body leading to disorders like hypertension. Hypertension in old age is found to be a disease of Vata-Pitta dominant vitiation with the involvement of Rasa, Rakta, Meda as main Dushya (vitiated factors) and dietary factors can contribute to worsening of the disease. The etiological factors having role in the pathogenesis can also be applied for preventive guidelines for the management of hypertension.
Ayurveda; dietary factors; geriatric age group; hypertension
Jivanti (Leptadenia reticulata (Retz.) Wt. et Arn) is a well known climber used for its innumerable therapeutic properties like antioxidant, antibacterial, vasodilator, galactogogue, Jivaniya, etc., Its use in veterinary practice is tremendous due to its lactogenic effect. The Ghana (dried aqueous extract) of the whole plant was prepared and evaluated phyto-chemically by subjecting it to various tests like physico-chemical, qualitative analysis; TLC and HPTLC. Qualitative tests revealed the presence of flavonoids and TLC also inferred positive Rf value (0.30), indicating the presence of quercetin in the Ghana.
Dried extract; Ghana; Jivanti; Leptadenia reticulata; quercetin
In the present era of stress, when lifestyle disorders are high on rise, premature ageing is also one of the most prevalent disorders. It is needed to study the external environmental psychological causative factors in premature ageing and stress. An observational study was carried out to evaluate the relationship of lifestyle, occupational and social factors and mental makeup in individuals diagnosed with premature ageing. A total of 108 patients of premature ageing and stress fulfilling the criteria of inclusion as per ageing scale were selected from outpatient Department of Panchakarma and Manasa Roga, Institute for Post Graduate Teaching and Research in Ayurveda, Gujarat Ayurved University, Jamnagar. The diagnosed patients of premature ageing were subjected to specialized proforma enlisting all the factors as well as ageing scale, Manasa Bhava Pariksha, and Manasa Vibhrama Pariksha. The method of survey was by a questionnaire about the points regarding the lifestyle causative factors. Maximum patients had shown signs of premature ageing with Mana-Buddhi-Smriti-Bhakti Vibhrama (100% each) and involvement of negative Manasa Bhava. The 78.70% patients in this study felt of having excess responsibility on them in family. The 52.77% patients had average good relationship with their family members, while remaining 47.22% narrated history of disturbed relationship. The center of stress was found to be at personal level in all patients; at family level in 73.14%; at professional or work level in 64.81%. Various external, occupational, social and familial factors play significant role in the pathology of premature ageing by disturbing the overall psychological status. This proves the link of Manasa affecting Sharira and vice versa with reference to modern contemporary concept of psycho-neuro endocrinology.
Akalaja Jara; external social factors; Manasa Bhava; premature ageing; stress; Vibhrama
Population in an industrialized world is afflicted by urinary stone disease. Kidney stones are common in all kinds of urolithiasis. One distinguished formulation mentioned by Sushruta for management of Ashmari (urolithiasis) is Pashanabhedadi Ghrita (PBG), which is in clinical practice since centuries. Validation of drug is the requirement of time through the experimental study. In this study, trial of PBG has been made against ammonium oxalate rich diet and gentamicin injection induced renal calculi in albino rats. The calculi were induced by gentamicin injection and ammonium oxalate rich diet. Test drug was administered concomitantly in the dose of 900 mg/kg for 15 consecutive days. Rats were sacrificed on the 16th day. Parameters like kidney weight, serum biochemical, kidney tissue and histopathology of kidney were studied. Concomitant treatment of PBG attenuates blood biochemical parameters non-significantly, where as it significantly attenuated lipid peroxidation and enhanced glutathione and glutathione peroxidase activities. It also decreased crystal deposition markedly into the renal tubules in number as well as size and prevented damage to the renal tubules. The findings showed that PBG is having significant anti-urolithiatic activities against ammonium oxalate rich diet plus gentamicine injection induced urolithiasis in rats.
Ammonium oxalate; Ashmari; gentamicin; Pashanabhedadi Ghrita; urolithiasis
Type-2 diabetes mellitus is a persistent health problem that requires innovative strategies to improve health and needs a multifactorial approach for the treatment. Saptarangyadi Ghanavati, a new formulated Ayurvedic compound consists of herbs with anti-diabetic potential, in addition to a folklore herb Saptarangi (Salacia chinensis) has been evaluated. In a total of 67 patients, 36 patients were of newly detected type-2 diabetes mellitus and 31 patients were of chronic type-2 diabetes mellitus and they were divided into group A and group B, respectively. Group A consisted newly detected subjects of type-2 diabetes and were not taking any regular medication and group B consisted of chronic cases of type-2 diabetes mellitus, who were taking modern ant-diabetic medication, but their blood-glucose level was not controlled to desired level. Patients in group A were administered Saptarangyadi Ghanavati each of 200 mg, 5 Vatis, 3-times a day-after breakfast, lunch, and dinner. Patients in group B were administered Saptarangyadi Ghanavati, in the same dose in addition to the concomitant anti-diabetic (Allopathic) medication. Serum insulin investigation, both fasting and post-prandial levels were evaluated in six patients of group B, showed a highly significant increase in first-phase insulin response. Glycosylated hemoglobin (serum HbA1c) evaluated in six patients of group A showed statistically significant reduction. There was also statistically significant reduction in the fasting blood sugar (FBS) and post prandial blood sugar (PPBS) parameters, both in newly detected cases as well as chronic cases of type-2 diabetes mellitus.
Anti-diabetic; insulin response; glycosylated hemoglobin; Saptarangyadi Ghanavati; type-2 diabetes mellitus
Ghrita (ghee) is the foremost substance of Indian cuisine from centuries. Ayurvedic classics described eight kinds of ghee from eight different animal milk, among them ghee made from cow milk is said to be the superior and ghee of ewe milk is said to be the inferior and also detrimental to heart. The present study was undertaken to evaluate chronic administration of cow ghee (Go Ghrita) and ghee of ewe milk (Avika Ghrita) to experimental animals. Experiment was carried out on Wistar strain albino rats and study was done at two dose levels. The test drugs were administered orally for 45 consecutive days. Parameters, such as gross behavior, body weight, weight of important organs, total fecal fat content, electrocardiogram, serum biochemical parameters, and histopathology of different organs were studied. Both the test drugs did not alter the gross behavior, body weight, weight of organs, and cytoarchitecture of different organs to significant extent. Avika Ghrita at a low dose significantly decreased triglyceride content, significantly prolonged QTc and at both dose levels it significantly shortened the PR interval. This study shows chronic administration of Avika Ghrita and Go Ghrita has no marked differences between them except the QTc prolongation in Avika Ghrita. This may be the basis for the classics to categorize Avika Ghrita as Ahridya.
Ahridya; albino rats; Avika Ghrita; cholesterol; ghee; Go Ghrita
Makaradhwaja is a herbo-minaral drug prepared by Kupipakwa method. In the present study Makaradhwaja was prepared by Triguna and Shadguna Balijarana using Ashtasamskarita Parada. Total five batches of Triguna
Makaradhwaja (TM) were prepared by taking 330 g of Kajjali in each batch, average product obtained was 29.12 g. In the preparation of Shadguna Makaradhwaja (SM) too, five batches were prepared, taking 250 g of Kajjali, average product obtained was 16.8 g. The average time taken for flame in TM was 3.01 h and that in SM was 4.58 h. Kupipaka was carried out for 18 and 36 h in TM and SM, respectively. Inductive Coupled Plasma - Optical Emission Spectrometry (ICPOES) revealed the presence of 7.2976 ppm gold in TM, whereas 663.14 ppm in SM.
Ashtasamskarita Parada; Parada; Balijarana; Makaradhwaja; Murcchana
Extremely diminutive published information is available on the mutagenic activity of Ayurvedic Bhasmas. Genotoxicity of few Bhasmas were reported on single maximum dose, but no reference is available on the sub-chronic level. Hence the present study was carried to generate and evaluate genotoxic potentials of Swarna Makshika Bhasma (mineral preparation) administered at therapeutic dose for 14 days. Chromosomal aberrations and abnormal sperm assay parameters were taken in this study. Cyclophosphamide (CP) was taken as positive group and results were compared. The results revealed a lack of generation of structural deformity in above parameters by tested drugs compared to CP treated group. Observed data indicate that the Bhasmas tested were non-genotoxic under the experimental conditions.
Abnormal sperm assay; chromosomal aberrations; cyclophosphamide; genotoxicity; Swarna Makshika Bhasma
The present study has beenundertaken to evaluate the anti-inflammatory activity of two varieties of Pippali in acute and sub-acute experimental models of inflammation in albino rats. Four different market samples of each variety of Pippali were procured from different regions of India. The samples collected from South India which have given more extractive values were selected for screening of anti-inflammatory activity. Randomly selected animals were divided into four groups of six animals each. The test drugs were administered orally at a dose of 200 mg/kg and the activity was compared with standard anti-inflammatory drugs in both models. Among the two different test samples studied, it was found that Chhoti variety of Pippali suppressed inflammation of both acute and sub acute phase, while Badi variety of Pippali only of acute phase. Thus for the therapeutic utility, Chhoti variety of Pippali may be considered over the Badi variety.
Anti-inflammatory; carrageenan; Chhoti Pippali; Pippali; plethysmograph
The rhizome of Vacha (Acorus calamus) has been used in Ayurvedic medicine for the treatment of various ailments, such as epilepsy, headache, eye disorders, insomnia, loss of memory, etc. Previous studies demonstrated that Vacha rhizome is having significant anticonvulsant activity against various induced seizures models in experimental animals. Ayurvedic pharmacopoeia of India has advocated Shodhana (purificatory procedures) to be done prior to its use. In the present study a comparative anticonvulsant activity of raw and Shodhita (classically processed) Vacha rhizomes were screened against Maximal Electro Shock (MES) seizure model to assess the effect of classical purificatory procedure on pharmacological action of Vacha. Phenytoin was used as standard antiepileptic drug for comparison. Pretreatment with both raw and classically processed Vacha samples exhibited significant anticonvulsant activity by decreasing the duration of tonic extensor phase. Further classically processed Vacha statistically decreased the duration of convulsion and stupor phases of MES-induced seizures. The results obtained from the present study clearly confirmed the anticonvulsant activity of raw Vacha and subjecting to classical Shodhana procedure did not alter the efficacy of Vacha rhizomes instead it enhanced the activity profile of the Vacha.
Acorus calamus; anticonvulsant; epilepsy; phenytoin; shodhana; vacha
Sandhigata vata is described under Vatavyadhi in all Ayurvedic texts. Charaka was the first to describe separately “Sandhigata anila”, but it was not included under 80 types of nanatmaja vatavyadhi. Osteoarthritis is the most common degenerative joint disease that begins asymptomatically in middle age with progressive symptoms in advancing age. Majority of people by the age 40 years may develop osteoarthritis, especially in weight bearing joints. Females are prone with 25% prevalence, whereas males have a prevalence of 16%. In the present study, 56 patients fulfilling the diagnostic criteria of Sandhigata vata, divided into two groups. Patients of first group were administered with 500 mg capsule of Shallaki, 6 g per day (in three divided doses) with lukewarm water (n=29) and the second group) capsule Shallaki as above along with local application of Shallaki ointment on the affected joints (n=23). After a course of therapy for 2 months, symptomatic improvement was observed in both the groups at various levels with promising results in the patients of first group.
Boswellia serrata; degenerative diseases; osteoarthritis; Sandhigata vata; Shallaki
The disease Amlapitta has been selected for the clinical trials because it presents two type of manifestations depending upon the involvement of Agni (Ushnagunadhikya) and Jala (Dravagunadhikya) Mahabhuta. The present research work was focused at Drava Guna, with an aim to assess the efficacy of a drug with quality of Ruksha and Ushna predominance like Bhringaraja in treating Amlapitta with Pitta Drava Guna Vriddhi. Randomized open clinical trials were conducted on 22 patients of Amlapitta who were screened on the basis of clinical findings and allocated in to two groups. The criteria for selection were the signs and symptoms of Dravagunadhikya Amlapitta, irrespective of sex, religion, etc. Group A consisting of 15 cases received the trial drug Bhringaraja tablet (4 Tab. two times, 1 tablet=500 mg) and 7 cases in Group B received rice powder tablet as a placebo (4 Tab. two times, 1 tablet=500 mg) for 4 weeks. Special scoring pattern was adopted for the assessment of Amlapitta. Routine pathological tests such as blood, urine, stool, etc. were also carried out. In Group A, 55.33% patients showed marked improvement, whereas moderate improvement was observed in 26.67% patients. Complete cure was found in 06.67% of the patients and mild improvement in the chief complaints was observed in 13.33% patients. All the selected symptoms showed statistically significant results (P<0.01) except the Vidbheda in treated Group A, while in Group B, all symptoms showed statistically insignificant results except the Utklesha and Amlodgara. Total effect of the therapy showed statistically significant effect of the test drug. These results support the hypothesis
Amlapitta; Bhringaraja; Drava; Ruksha; Ushna Guna
The present study was undertaken to evaluate the anxiolytic and anti-depressant activity of Sarasvata choorna. The anxiolytic activity was evaluated in elevated plus maze (EPM) and the anti-depressant activity was evaluated in forced swimming test (FST). The efficacy of Sarasvata choorna was compared with the standard anti-anxiety (diazepam 2 mg/kg) and anti-depressant (imipramine – 5 mg/kg) drugs. It was observed that Sarasvata choorna at the dose of 390 mg/kg is as effective as standard drugs used in anti-anxiety and anti-depressant activities in mice by increasing time spent in open arm and entries to open arm in EPM model and increasing immobility time in FST model respectively. Hence it can be concluded that Sarasvata choorna may be used as a potent therapeutic agent in treating anxiety and depressive disorders.
Anxiolytic; anti-depressant; elevated plus maze; imipramine; Sarasvata choorna
Aging is unavoidable and natural phenomenon of life. Modern gerontologists are realizing the fact that aging is a disease, which Ayurveda had accepted as natural disease since long. Rate of aging is determined by one's biological, social, lifestyle, and psychological conditions and adversity of which leads to accelerated form of aging (Akalaja jara or premature aging). The aim of this study is to identify potential factors that may accelerate aging in the context of dietry factors, lifestyle and mental makeup. The 120 diagnosed subjects of premature-ageing of 30-60 years were randomly selected in the survey study. Premature ageing was common among females (75.83%), in 30-40 age group (70%), 86.67% were married, had secondary level of education (36.66%), house-views (61.67%), belongs top middle class (58.33%) and engaged in occupations that dominating physical labour (88.33%). The maximum patients are constipated (60%), had mandagni (80%), vata-kapha prakriti (48.33%), rajasika prakriti (58.33%), madhyama vyayama shakti (73.33%), and madhyama jarana shakti (85.83%). Collectively, 43.33% patients were above normal BMI. The more patients had anushna (38.33%) and vishamasana dietary pattern (25.83%), consumed Lavana (88.33%) and Amla rasa (78.33%) in excess on regular basis. Some patients had addicted to tobacco (11.67%) and beetle chewing (5.83%). The maximum patients had no any exercise (79.17%) and specific hobby (79.17%) in their leisure times. Analyzing Hamilton Anxiety and Depression Rating Scales revealed that 39.80%, 37.86%, 33.98%, 24.27% and 18.44% patients had insomnia, depression, tension, GIT symptoms and anxious mood respectively. These data suggest that certain social, dietary and lifestyle factors contribute towards accelerated ageing among young individuals.
Aging; Akalaja-jara; lifestyle; Manasabhava; premature-aging
In recent years, many Ayurvedic formulations are being researched to provide an effective antidepressant and anxiolytic drug in the field of psycho-pharmacology. The present study was planned to evaluate the anti-depressant and anxiolytic activity of Rasayana Ghana Tablet comprising three herbs Guduchi (Tinospora cordifolia Miers), Aamalaki (Emblica officinalis Garten) (RGT) and Gokshura (Tribulus terrestris Linn). Swiss albino mice were divided into four groups of six animals each, comprising of both male and female in each group. Group I received water served as normal control (WC), group II received vehicle and served as vehicle control (VC), group III received Rasayana Ghana tablet and group IV received standard drug diazepam (2 mg/kg) for anxiolytic study in elevated plus maze and standard antidepressant imipramine (5 mg/kg) for anti-depressant activity in behavior despair test. Rasayana Ghana tablet along with ghee and honey as vehicle is found to be having antidepressant and anxiolytic activity in experimental animals. Thus, this formulation can be used in prevention and treatment of depression and anxiety.
Aamalaki (Emblica officinalis Garten); Anti-depressant; anxiolytic; Gokshura (Tribulus terrestris Linn); Guduchi (Tinospora cordifolia Miers); Rasayana Ghana
The present study was undertaken to evaluate diuretic activity of Euphorbia fusiformis root powder in Wistar strain albino rats. Randomly selected animals were divided into three groups of six animals each. The root powder was suspended in distilled water and administered orally at a dose of 90 mg/kg therapeutically equivalent dose (TED) and 180 mg/kg (TED × 02) to overnight fasted rats. The diuretic activity was evaluated by determination of urine volume and urinary electrolyte concentrations. Test drug showed significant increase in urine volume and urinary electrolyte excretion in a dose-dependant manner. Thus, from this study, it can be concluded that roots of E. fusiformis possess diuretic activity.
Albino rats; diuretic activity; Euphorbia fusiformis; urine volume
The purpose of the present study was to evaluate the diuretic activity of Veerataru [Dichrostachys cinerea (Linn.)] Kwatha in experimental animals by following the standard procedure. Randomly selected animals were divided into three groups of six animals each. The root of Veerataru was administered orally in the form of Kwatha at a dose of 5.4 and 10.8 ml/kg. Parameters like volume of urine, pH of urine and urinary electrolyte concentrations like sodium, potassium and chloride were studied. Veerataru Kwatha increased the urine output in a dose-dependent manner. However, it did not affect the urinary electrolyte concentrations. From the present study, it can be concluded that the root of Veerataru has diuretic property.
Dichrostachys cinerea; diuretic activity; Veerataru Kwatha
Mind and body are inseparable entities and influences each other until death. Many factors such as stress, anxiety, depression, negative thoughts, unhealthy life style, unwholesome diet etc., disturb mental and physical wellbeing. Senile dementia is the mental deterioration, i.e, loss of intellectual ability associated with old age. It causes progressive deterioration of mental faculties, e.g., memory, intellect, attention, thinking, comprehension and personality, with preservation of normal level of consciousness. Two major types of senile dementia have been identified, namely that due to generalized atrophy in the cortical area of the brain (Alzheimer's type) and that due to vascular disorders mainly due to stroke. According to DSM-IV (diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders), the essential feature of dementia is the development of multiple cognitive deficits that include memory impairment and at least one of the following cognitive disturbances such as aphasia, apraxia, agnosia, or a disturbance in executive function. For the present study, a standardized questionnaire in the form of proforma incorporating types of foods (madhura, amla and lavana rasayukta ahara etc.) and life style (divaswapna, ratrijagarana and manasika bhavas etc) is prepared. To assess manasika bhava, Hamilton Anxiety Rating Scale, Hamilton Depression Rating Scale, Brief Psychiatry Rating Scale, and standardized gradations of anumana pariksha of manasika bhavas mentioned by Charaka at Vimana Sthana 4/8 were adopted. In this study, most of the patients had disturbed sleep, tendency to indulge in defective dietary habits and kapha vitiating diets and life style. On Hamilton Anxiety Rating Scale, patients had anxiety, tension, depression, difficulty in concentration, and memory. On Hamilton Depression Rating Scale, these patients had anxiety, depression, and hypochondriasis. On Brief Psychiatry Rating Scale, psychological factors affected include: anxiety, depression, somatic concern and tension, etc. The data reflects that unwholesome diet and disturbed mental health plays an important role in etiopathogenesis of senile dementia.
Alzheimer's disease; psychological factors; senile dementia; vascular dementia
The present study is carried out to evaluate the immuno-modulatory activity of Vacha Dhatryadi Avaleha in albino rats. Vacha Dhatryadi Avaleha was prepared by classical method and evaluated for humoral antibody formation and cell-medicated immunity in established experimental models. Test formulation was administered at the dose of 900 mg/kg and parameters like hemagglutination titer, ponderal changes, histopathology of immunological organs and immunological paw edema were recorded. Vacha Dhatryadi Avaleha significantly enhanced antibody formation and moderately suppressed the immunological edema. The present study concludes that Vachadhatryadi Avaleha has immunopotentiating activity.
Cell mediated immunity; hemagglutination titer; Vachadhatryadi
Makaradhwaja is an important Kupipakwa Rasayana. It is prepared by using Swarna (gold), Parada (mercury) and Gandhaka (sulfur) in different ratios, i.e. 1:8:16, 1:8:24 and 1:2:4, respectively. The amount of Gandhaka in the Jarana process is directly proportional to the increase in therapeutic efficacy and reduces the toxicity of the product. Specific temperature pattern for the preparation of Makaradhwaja has been followed. In the present study Swarna, Parada and Gandhaka were taken in the ratio 1:8:24, respectively, and 12 h of heating for a specified amount of Kajjali (i.e., 400 g) in a Kacha Kupi 1/3rd of its capacity. There are some controversies regarding the form of Swarna (i.e., Swarna Patra Swarna Varkha or Swarna Bhasma) used in the preparation of Makaradhwaja. Therefore, in the present study, the samples of Makaradhwaja were prepared by Swarna Patra, Varkha and Bhasma in different batches. It was found that the use of Varkha produced a good-quality product along with the maximum amount of gold, i.e. 268 ppm, in comparison with Patra, i.e. 131 ppm, and Bhasma, i.e. 19 ppm, respectively.
Bhavana; Hingulottha Parada; Kupipaka; Standard manufacturing process; Shodhana
In the present study, toxic effects of powder of seeds of Butea monosperma (Linn.) Kuntze were evaluated for a period of 3 months in albino rats. Control group received distilled water. The powder suspension was orally given to the treated group at a dose of 800 mg/kg/day for 90 days. Parameters like body weight, weight of important organs, biochemical, hematological parameters, bone marrow cytology and histopathology of vital organs were studied. Test drug administration did not affect the body weight, organ weight and bone marrow cytology to a significant extent. Among the 18 hematological parameters studied, significant changes were observed in three parameters, namely, significant decrease in hemoglobin content, red blood cell count and hematocrit. Of 16 biochemical parameters studied, significant changes were observed in 5 parameters, namely, decrease in total protein, albumin, bilirubin and significant increase in very low density lipoprotein and triglyceride. The histopathology of 18 organs revealed changes such as fatty changes, glomerular congestion and tubular hemorrhage in the kidneys, decrease in the cellularity of the spleen, epithelial disruption in jejunum, decrease in spermatogenesis in the testis, epithelial proliferation in ventral prostate and decrease in epithelial proliferation in the uterus. Thus, toxicity profile obtained from the present study shows that B. monosperma seeds are likely to produce toxic effect when administered in a powder form.
Albino rats; Butea monosperma (Linn.); Kuntze; chronic toxicity; seeds
Hypertension is the most common psychosomatic disorder affecting 972 million people worldwide. The present clinical study deals with the effect of Makandi (Coleus forskohlii (Willd.) Briq.) Ghana vati and tablets of its powder in hypertension found in the geriatric age group (50-80 years). A total of 49 hypertensive patients fulfilling the diagnostic criteria were registered in two groups-Group I (Ghana vati) and Group II (Churna tablet). Out of 27 enrolled patients of group I, 21 patients completed the treatment. In Group II, out of 22 registered patients, a total of 20 patients completed the treatment. The effect of the therapy was assessed on the basis of changes in the systolic and diastolic blood pressures, in both sitting and supine positions; with Manasa Bhava Pariksha, Manasa Vibhrama Pariksha, symptomatology, geriatric signs and symptoms, and a brief psychiatric rating scale. Analysis of the results showed that the treatment in both the groups had been found to be good. It can be stated that Makandi, either in Ghana vati form or in churna tablet form, is an effective remedy for the treatment of hypertension. On analyzing the overall effect, 76.19% patients in Group I and 75.00% patients in Group II were mildly improved. Comparatively the overall treatment with group I was found to be better.
Makandi; Coleus forskohlii; forskolin; Ghana vati; geriatric hypertension
Guduchi (Tinospora cordifolia wild miers) is a well-known medicinal plant, which is abundantly used in different ayurvedic formulations utilizing varieties of media. The drug has properties like Rasayana (rejuvenating property), Krimighna (anthelmintics), and Kushtghna (used in skin disorders), as described in ayurvedic literature. Taila (oil) and Ghrita (ghee) are used as media in Ayurvedic Sneha (oleaginous) formulations. Both the test drugs, Guduchi Taila and Ghrita, are prescribed in Vatrakta (gout) and also indicated for Kushtha (skin disorder). With all these details, the Guduchi Taila and Guduchi Ghrita samples, prepared by using Taila and Ghrita as media, have been subjected to comparative pharmacological investigations, to assess the impact of the media on the expression of pharmacological activity. The formulations have been evaluated for immunomodulation, anti-inflammatory, and anti-stress activities. Both the formulations have been found to be active in most of the experiments, however, with the change of media, their results vary at different levels. Taila prepared from Guduchi was found to have an immunostimulating activity. The formulation prepared with Ghrita exhibited an anti-stress effect with an immunosuppressing activity.
Guduchi (Tinospora cordifolia wild miers); Guduchi Taila; Guduchi Ghrita; Immunomodulation; Anti-inflammatory; Anti-stress