Adverse drug reactions (ADR) are an expression that describes harm associated with the use of medications at therapeutic dose. Traditional medicines also can develop ADRs due to their improper use. Shvitrahara Varti, one of such medicines holds Bakuchi as a component and is to be used judiciously. Furanocoumarins like psoralen present in Bakuchi makes skin hypersensitive and causes phytophotodermatitis in few cases. Hence, one should be careful while using medicines that contain Bakuchi. One such case is observed, where extensive reactions with application of Shvitrahara Varti were noticed and managed with Ayurvedic treatment.
Adverse drug reactions; Bakuchi; blisters; Shvitra; Shvitrahara Varti; vitiligo
Shukti is an important component of Sudha Varga, which is considered as the latest class in the field of Rasa Shastra. Two types of Shukti have been mentioned in Rasa Shastra texts i.e. Jala Shukti and Mukta Shukti according to the availability. In present study, an attempt has been made to develop a standard manufacturing procedure (SMP) of Jala Shukti Bhasma and Mukta Shukti Bhasma. Five batches of Jala Shukti Bhasma and Mukta Shukti Bhasma were prepared and standardization was attempted by maintaining batch manufacturing records of individual batches. During pharmaceutical procedures like Shodhana, Bhavana, Marana, etc. due care of temperature, its duration, percentage of weight gain or loss and the cost factor of the end product, etc. were considered. The average weight loss observed was 12.08 g i.e. 2.42% and 14.62 g i.e. 2.92% during Jala Shukti and Mukta Shukiti Shodhana respectively. Average weight loss found was 38.94 g i.e. 7.79% in Jala Shukti Bhasma while in Mukta Shukti Bhasma, it was 35.24 g i.e. 7.05%. At the end of the pharmaceutical procedure, it was found that Mukta Shukti Bhasma is 2.8 times costlier than Jala Shukti Bhasma.
Bhasma; Jala Shukti; Marana; Mukta Shukti; Shodhana
Ten batches of Shirishavaleha were prepared by using Twak (Bark) and Sara (Heartwood) of Shirisha [Albizzia lebbeck Benth]. The adopted formulation was based on Shirisharishta of Bhaishajya Ratnavali. Though Shirisharishta has significant therapeutic effect in cases of Tamaka swasa, etc.; it has few difficulties during the pharmaceutical procedure like consuming long time, climatic influences etc. Considering these inconveniencies, the formulation composition has been converted in to Shirishavaleha. Avaleha has been prepared by using Twak and Sara of Shirisha. No significant differences were found in pharmaceutical aspects of both the samples of Shirishavaleha and the current method of preparation can be considered as standard. Attempts were also made to develop analytical profile of avaleha, which were almost similar in both the samples, except showing more Rf values in High Performance Thin Layer Chromatography profile of Sara group.
Albizzia lebbeck; Avaleha; Bark; Heartwood; Shirisha; Shirishavaleha
Dhatryarishta has been described for the first time in Charaka Samhita, in the context of Panduroga. The same reference is available in Chakradatta, Bhaishajya Ratnavali, and Sahastrayogam too. Generally Dhatri Swarasa [Amalaki (Emblica officinalis Gaertn.)] is used in the preparation of Dhatryarishta as per classical reference, but fresh Amalaki is not available in every season, so in the present study, Amalaki Kwatha (decoction) is used instead of Swarasa. A total of 13 batches of Dhatryarishta were prepared, out of which nine batches were prepared with Dhatri Swarasa and four batches with Dhatri Kwatha. For Dhatryarishta prepared by using Dhatri Swarasa, three methods were applied and in Dhatryarishta prepared by using Dhatri Kwatha two methods were applied. The study revealed that Dhatryarishta could only be prepared by using Amalaki Swarasa as quoted in the classics and not by using Amalaki Kwatha.
Dhatri; Dhatryarishta; Kwatha; Panduroga; Swarasa
Makaradhwaja is an important Kupipakwa Rasayana. It is prepared by using Swarna (gold), Parada (mercury) and Gandhaka (sulfur) in different ratios, i.e. 1:8:16, 1:8:24 and 1:2:4, respectively. The amount of Gandhaka in the Jarana process is directly proportional to the increase in therapeutic efficacy and reduces the toxicity of the product. Specific temperature pattern for the preparation of Makaradhwaja has been followed. In the present study Swarna, Parada and Gandhaka were taken in the ratio 1:8:24, respectively, and 12 h of heating for a specified amount of Kajjali (i.e., 400 g) in a Kacha Kupi 1/3rd of its capacity. There are some controversies regarding the form of Swarna (i.e., Swarna Patra Swarna Varkha or Swarna Bhasma) used in the preparation of Makaradhwaja. Therefore, in the present study, the samples of Makaradhwaja were prepared by Swarna Patra, Varkha and Bhasma in different batches. It was found that the use of Varkha produced a good-quality product along with the maximum amount of gold, i.e. 268 ppm, in comparison with Patra, i.e. 131 ppm, and Bhasma, i.e. 19 ppm, respectively.
Bhavana; Hingulottha Parada; Kupipaka; Standard manufacturing process; Shodhana
Guduchi (Tinospora cordifolia wild miers) is a well-known medicinal plant, which is abundantly used in different ayurvedic formulations utilizing varieties of media. The drug has properties like Rasayana (rejuvenating property), Krimighna (anthelmintics), and Kushtghna (used in skin disorders), as described in ayurvedic literature. Taila (oil) and Ghrita (ghee) are used as media in Ayurvedic Sneha (oleaginous) formulations. Both the test drugs, Guduchi Taila and Ghrita, are prescribed in Vatrakta (gout) and also indicated for Kushtha (skin disorder). With all these details, the Guduchi Taila and Guduchi Ghrita samples, prepared by using Taila and Ghrita as media, have been subjected to comparative pharmacological investigations, to assess the impact of the media on the expression of pharmacological activity. The formulations have been evaluated for immunomodulation, anti-inflammatory, and anti-stress activities. Both the formulations have been found to be active in most of the experiments, however, with the change of media, their results vary at different levels. Taila prepared from Guduchi was found to have an immunostimulating activity. The formulation prepared with Ghrita exhibited an anti-stress effect with an immunosuppressing activity.
Guduchi (Tinospora cordifolia wild miers); Guduchi Taila; Guduchi Ghrita; Immunomodulation; Anti-inflammatory; Anti-stress
The Vanga Bhasma is an important one amongst the metallic Bhasmas. Mainly Gaja Puta, Ardhagaja Puta and Laghu Puta have been described for Marana of Vanga. The medicines, which are prepared from Gaja Puta, are said to be the best ones (Mahagunavidhayaka). Gaja Puta is commonly used in the preparation of almost all the Bhasmas. There are a few references found in classics regarding Ardhagaja Puta, but not any reference regarding its detail description, therefore, the effort was made to standardize both the Putas with regard to Vanga Bhasma. In the present study, Vanga Bhasma was prepared by Gaja Puta and Ardhagaja Puta. For Marana of Vanga, it was found that the Ardhagaja Puta is more convenient than Gaja Puta with respect to color and particle size analysis of Bhasma after Jarana procedure of Vanga.
Gaja Puta; Ardhagaja Puta; Shodhana; Jarana; Marana
Jwarahara Dashemani (JHD) is mentioned by Acharya Charaka under the different categories of Mahakashayas (groups of drugs having similar pharmacological actions). For the present study, syrup and tablet forms of JHDs were prepared and analyzed. The formulations were prepared in various batches by following the standard manufacturing procedure (SMP). JHD Kwatha (2200 ml) and 1430 g sugar candy powder were heated (80–90°C) together for 3.10 hours and 2200 ml syrup was obtained, whereas an average of 446 g of tablet was obtained from the mixture of 285 g Ghana and powder of sugar candy (125 g), JHD Dravyas (55 g) and talc (18 g). These formulations were subjected to various analytical parameters and the results were observed on the basis of preparation.
Jwarahara Dashemani; Kwatha; ghana; standard manufacturing procedure; syrup; tablet
Total six samples of Karpanpatru Taila were prepared with Murchchhita and Amurchchhita Sarshapa Taila (mustard oil) by using three different liquid media i.e. Gomutra, Takra and Kanji by following classical method and analyzed. The pharmaceutical analysis revealed that the Karpanpatru Taila prepared with Murchchhita Sarshapa taila by using Kanji, Gomutra, Takra as a liquid media showed minimum loss i.e. 4.00%, 8,33% & 8.66 respectively in comparison to Amurchchhita Sarshapa Taila by using Kanji, Gomutra, Takra i.e. 5.5%, 10.68%, 12% respectively. Pharmaceutical drawbacks like excessive frothing and burning of eyes & nose were absent during the preparation of Karpanpatru Taila with Takra and Kanji while present in batch of Gomutra. Analytical study reveals that Acid value was negligible increased after even 6 month in the samples of Murchchhita Karpanpatru Taila while significant increased in the samples of Amurchchhita Karpanpatru Taila. Saponification value was decreased in the samples of Murchhita Karpanpatru Taila while increased in the samples Amurchchhita Karpanpatru taila. Microbial growth was found absent in all the samples of Karpanpatru Taila even after 6 months.
Sneha Kalpana; Murchchhana; Gomutra; Takra; Kanji; Acid value; Saponification value
Rasamanikya is a famous drug, frequently used by Ayurvedic physicians for Vata-Kaphaja diseases like Shwasa, Kasa and Kushtha (Skin disorders). Various methods of preparation have been found described in Rasa classics. Generally it is prepared by Shuddha Haratala which is kept between two thin transparent Abharaka Patra (mica sheets) in small scale and in sharava for large scale, heated up to desired level. There are so many methods and different liquid media have been found described for Shodhana of Haratala. Therefore the methods of preparation of Rasamanikya and Shodhana process of Haratala have been validated through various experiments. Tankana-treated Haratala (T. Treated) is found best for Shodhana process and final product too i.e. Rasamanikya in terms of pharmaceutical standards i.e. Ruby in colour, along with reproducibility of fixed quality.
Shodhana; Validation; T-Treated Haratala