Ashwagandharishta, an Ayurvedic classical formulation, is the remedy for Apasmara (epilepsy), Murchha (syncope), Unmada (psychosis), etc. Recent studies in animal models have shown that n-3 PUFAs can raise the threshold of epileptic seizures. The indigenous medicinal plant, called Atasi (Linum usitatissimum Linn.) in Ayurveda, or flax seed, is the best plant source of omega-3 fatty acids. The present study is designed to investigate whether Ashwagandharishta and Atasi taila (flax seed oil) protect against maximal electroshock (MES) seizures in albino rats. Further, a possible protective role of flax seed oil as an adjuvant to Ashwagandharishta in its anticonvulsant activity has also been evaluated in the study. MES seizures were induced for rats and seizure severity was assessed by the duration of hind limb extensor phase. Phenytoin was used as the standard antiepileptic drug for comparison. Both flax seed oil and Ashwagandharishta significantly decreased convulsion phase. Pre-treatment with flax seed oil exhibited significant anticonvulsant activity by decreasing the duration of tonic extensor phase. Contrary to the expectations, pre-treatment with flax seed oil as an adjuvant to Ashwagandharishta failed to decrease the tonic extensor phase; however, it significantly decreased the flexion phase (P < 0.001) and duration of the convulsions (P < 0.05). Both the drugs exhibited an excellent anti-post-ictal depression effect and complete protection against mortality.
Antiepileptic; Ashwagandharishta; flax seed oil; maximal electroshock seizure; omega-3 fatty acid
The rhizome of Vacha (Acorus calamus) has been used in Ayurvedic medicine for the treatment of various ailments, such as epilepsy, headache, eye disorders, insomnia, loss of memory, etc. Previous studies demonstrated that Vacha rhizome is having significant anticonvulsant activity against various induced seizures models in experimental animals. Ayurvedic pharmacopoeia of India has advocated Shodhana (purificatory procedures) to be done prior to its use. In the present study a comparative anticonvulsant activity of raw and Shodhita (classically processed) Vacha rhizomes were screened against Maximal Electro Shock (MES) seizure model to assess the effect of classical purificatory procedure on pharmacological action of Vacha. Phenytoin was used as standard antiepileptic drug for comparison. Pretreatment with both raw and classically processed Vacha samples exhibited significant anticonvulsant activity by decreasing the duration of tonic extensor phase. Further classically processed Vacha statistically decreased the duration of convulsion and stupor phases of MES-induced seizures. The results obtained from the present study clearly confirmed the anticonvulsant activity of raw Vacha and subjecting to classical Shodhana procedure did not alter the efficacy of Vacha rhizomes instead it enhanced the activity profile of the Vacha.
Acorus calamus; anticonvulsant; epilepsy; phenytoin; shodhana; vacha
The present study was undertaken to evaluate the anxiolytic and anti-depressant activity of Sarasvata choorna. The anxiolytic activity was evaluated in elevated plus maze (EPM) and the anti-depressant activity was evaluated in forced swimming test (FST). The efficacy of Sarasvata choorna was compared with the standard anti-anxiety (diazepam 2 mg/kg) and anti-depressant (imipramine – 5 mg/kg) drugs. It was observed that Sarasvata choorna at the dose of 390 mg/kg is as effective as standard drugs used in anti-anxiety and anti-depressant activities in mice by increasing time spent in open arm and entries to open arm in EPM model and increasing immobility time in FST model respectively. Hence it can be concluded that Sarasvata choorna may be used as a potent therapeutic agent in treating anxiety and depressive disorders.
Anxiolytic; anti-depressant; elevated plus maze; imipramine; Sarasvata choorna
In recent years, many Ayurvedic formulations are being researched to provide an effective antidepressant and anxiolytic drug in the field of psycho-pharmacology. The present study was planned to evaluate the anti-depressant and anxiolytic activity of Rasayana Ghana Tablet comprising three herbs Guduchi (Tinospora cordifolia Miers), Aamalaki (Emblica officinalis Garten) (RGT) and Gokshura (Tribulus terrestris Linn). Swiss albino mice were divided into four groups of six animals each, comprising of both male and female in each group. Group I received water served as normal control (WC), group II received vehicle and served as vehicle control (VC), group III received Rasayana Ghana tablet and group IV received standard drug diazepam (2 mg/kg) for anxiolytic study in elevated plus maze and standard antidepressant imipramine (5 mg/kg) for anti-depressant activity in behavior despair test. Rasayana Ghana tablet along with ghee and honey as vehicle is found to be having antidepressant and anxiolytic activity in experimental animals. Thus, this formulation can be used in prevention and treatment of depression and anxiety.
Aamalaki (Emblica officinalis Garten); Anti-depressant; anxiolytic; Gokshura (Tribulus terrestris Linn); Guduchi (Tinospora cordifolia Miers); Rasayana Ghana
The present study was undertaken to evaluate diuretic activity of Euphorbia fusiformis root powder in Wistar strain albino rats. Randomly selected animals were divided into three groups of six animals each. The root powder was suspended in distilled water and administered orally at a dose of 90 mg/kg therapeutically equivalent dose (TED) and 180 mg/kg (TED × 02) to overnight fasted rats. The diuretic activity was evaluated by determination of urine volume and urinary electrolyte concentrations. Test drug showed significant increase in urine volume and urinary electrolyte excretion in a dose-dependant manner. Thus, from this study, it can be concluded that roots of E. fusiformis possess diuretic activity.
Albino rats; diuretic activity; Euphorbia fusiformis; urine volume
The purpose of the present study was to evaluate the diuretic activity of Veerataru [Dichrostachys cinerea (Linn.)] Kwatha in experimental animals by following the standard procedure. Randomly selected animals were divided into three groups of six animals each. The root of Veerataru was administered orally in the form of Kwatha at a dose of 5.4 and 10.8 ml/kg. Parameters like volume of urine, pH of urine and urinary electrolyte concentrations like sodium, potassium and chloride were studied. Veerataru Kwatha increased the urine output in a dose-dependent manner. However, it did not affect the urinary electrolyte concentrations. From the present study, it can be concluded that the root of Veerataru has diuretic property.
Dichrostachys cinerea; diuretic activity; Veerataru Kwatha
In the present study, toxic effects of powder of seeds of Butea monosperma (Linn.) Kuntze were evaluated for a period of 3 months in albino rats. Control group received distilled water. The powder suspension was orally given to the treated group at a dose of 800 mg/kg/day for 90 days. Parameters like body weight, weight of important organs, biochemical, hematological parameters, bone marrow cytology and histopathology of vital organs were studied. Test drug administration did not affect the body weight, organ weight and bone marrow cytology to a significant extent. Among the 18 hematological parameters studied, significant changes were observed in three parameters, namely, significant decrease in hemoglobin content, red blood cell count and hematocrit. Of 16 biochemical parameters studied, significant changes were observed in 5 parameters, namely, decrease in total protein, albumin, bilirubin and significant increase in very low density lipoprotein and triglyceride. The histopathology of 18 organs revealed changes such as fatty changes, glomerular congestion and tubular hemorrhage in the kidneys, decrease in the cellularity of the spleen, epithelial disruption in jejunum, decrease in spermatogenesis in the testis, epithelial proliferation in ventral prostate and decrease in epithelial proliferation in the uterus. Thus, toxicity profile obtained from the present study shows that B. monosperma seeds are likely to produce toxic effect when administered in a powder form.
Albino rats; Butea monosperma (Linn.); Kuntze; chronic toxicity; seeds
Immunity plays a key role in maintaining the health of an individual. Therefore, the rational modulation of the immunity through psycho-neuro-endocrine-immune (PNI) axis is useful for the prevention as well as for the curing of the diseases. As immunomodulation is a parameter for evaluation of the rasayana effect of a drug, the same has been studied to assess the rasayana effect of Ranahamsa Rasayanaya (RR). Experimental models such as antibody formation against sheep red blood cells (SRBC) and cell mediated immunity (CMI) have been carried out befitting on Wistar strain albino rats to determine the immunomodulatory effect plus rasayana effect of RR. Statistically significant increase in body weight, nonsignificant increase in antibody formation against SRBC, highly significant decrease in CMI were observed in the treatment groups, when compared to the standard control group. These results show the probable immunomodulatory and anabolic activities of the test drug. Outcome of these studies validate the strong rasayana effect of the test drug claimed by the traditional practitioners of Sri Lanka.
Ranahamsa Rasayanaya; immunomodulation; Sheep RBC; cell mediated immunity; psychoneuroimmunology; anabolic activity
The present pharmacological investigation was undertaken to study the anti-pyretic activity of Guduchi ghrita formulations in albino rats against yeast induced pyrexia. Seven groups of six animals were used for the experiment. The yeast induced pyrexia method was standardized first by injecting 12.5% yeast suspension (s.c) followed by recording the rectal temperature at regular intervals. Then the evaluation of anti-pyretic activity of Guduchi ghrita formulations was carried out by using this standard procedure. Both the Guduchi ghrita samples including vehicle significantly attenuated the raise in temperature after three hours of yeast injection. After 6 and 9 hours of yeast injection also both the Guduchi ghrita samples attenuated the raise in temperature in a highly significant manner in comparison to both yeast control and vehicle control groups. The data generated during study shows that both the Guduchi ghrita formulations having significant anti-pyretic activity.
Guduchi Ghrita; pyrexia; Brewer's yeast; paracetamol; Tinospora cordifolia (Willd.) Miers. medicated ghee
Ayurveda has given prime importance to Mutravaha srotas (urinary system) and Srotogata Vikaras (urinary disorders). Being a system responsible for homeostasis of fluids in the body it also detoxifies the body by eliminating certain waste products through urine. When diseased, people produce symptoms such as, increased or decreased urine production, painful maturition, formation of stones, and thereby obstructed micturition, increased frequency of micturition, and so on. There are many herbs with varied actions specifically aimed at mitigating urinary system disorders. Drugs such as Jambu, Amrasthi, and the like, reduce the increased flow of urine, and hence, are considered as Mutrasangrahaneeya, whereas, drugs like Ikshu, Kustha, and so on, increase the flow of urine, and hence, are considered as Mutravirechaneeya. There are drugs like Padma, Utpala, and so on, which impart normal color to the urine and are known as Mutravirajaneeya dravyas. Asmarighna dravyas break down the calculi and remove them through the urine. These dravyas, when used under proper direction, help in relieving the pain and apathy caused by the disease.
Ashmarighna dravya; Mutrasangrahaneeya dravya; Mutravirajaneeya dravya; Mutravirechaneeya dravya; urinary system; herbs