It is crystal clear from critical analysis of Vedic period literature that the man at that time was highly civilized, well educated and had developed adaptation with the nature. Man had established social, economic and political systems and he was aware that all the Dravyas on the earth have medicinal values and they may give results for physical and mental well being if utilized after research as per classics. In Vedas 3 types of medicinal Dravyas are discussed viz Khanija, Vanaspatika, Pranija which are discussed in Charaka Samhita and Sushruta Samhita in terms of Jangala, Oudbidha, Partheeva. Since ancient times with growth in population, agricultural profession also got encouragement resulting in highly developed resources, contamination free soil with its classification, soil types, rain, season and importance of time etc. had given due importance from agriculture point of view. Man had successfully understood the importance of agriculture for production of grain and medicinal herbs. Thus in this sector number of researches were carried out in Vedic period resulting in co-operation between natural resources, various resources related to agricultural profession, different types of methods for cultivation, preservation of grains and medicinal herbs, methods to improve production etc. were researched scientifically.
Ayurveda is getting its due recognition as a rationale system of medicine worldwide despite the fact that medical and scientific fraternity of the globe has very strong opposite opinion regarding safety and efficacy of Ayurvedic medicines. Meanwhile, provisions of Intellectual Property Rights under World Intellectual Property Organization (WIPO) and Patents have attracted many individuals and organizations to explore possibilities of commercial benefits with Ayurvedic traditional knowledge. Although rules are not favoring to grant a patent on prior published knowledge, biopiracy managed grant of Patent on knowledge of Ayurvedic medicinal plants which has been successfully checked with references of data base of Traditional Knowledge Digital Library (TKDL). Current provisions of the Patent law of India are obstructive in nature for getting patent on Ayurvedic medicines. If we have to invite researchers from basic science to ensure quality, safety and efficacy of Ayurvedic medicines, there is an urgent need to amend laws of patent with pragmatic promotional policies. This will encourage more patents on numerous pharmaceutical, nutraceutical and cosmaceutical products based on Ayurveda. As every action of today's world is based on economic criteria so why stakeholders of Ayurveda should be deprived of it. New inventions would drive acceptance of Ayurveda as a global system of medicine.
Ayurvedic pharmaceuticals; cosmaceuticals; IPR; nutraceuticals; product patent; TKDL
Amorphophallus paeoniifolius is used for long period in various chronic diseases therapeutically. Aim of the current review is to search literature for the pharmacological properties, safety/toxicity studies, pharmacognostic studies and phytochemical investigation of Amorphophallus paeoniifolius tuber. The compiled data may be helpful for the researchers to focus on the priority areas of research yet to be discovered. Complete information about the plant has been collected from various books, journals and Ayurvedic classical texts like Samhitas, Nighantus etc. Journals of the last 20 years were searched. Particulars of pharmacological activities, phytochemical isolation, toxicity studies etc. were extracted from the published reports focussing on the safety profile of the plant. Safety of the whole plant was concluded in the review.
Amorphophallus paeoniifolius; areaceae; phytopharmacological review; safety
Hypoxia has been a frightening term for doctors and medical students because of the possibility of damage to cells, tissues and organs. However, we now know that brief, episodic hypoxia gives rise to several adaptive responses. These responses in general prepare the body for better tolerating such hypoxic episodes, and also offer protection against several other types of insults. Indeed, scientists at the erstwhile U.S.S.R. have developed what is known as ‘hypoxia therapy’ and reaped the benefits of brief intermittent hypoxia for the last several decades. In India, yogic treatment of various diseases is common. A lesser known but important variety of Pranayama is ‘nisshesha rechaka’, which may be described as breath holding at residual volume. Studies done at our centre have demonstrated that Nisshesha rechaka is the easiest way to produce brief, intermittent hypoxia. There is therefore reason to believe that Nisshesha rechaka pranayama may offer benefits through this mechanism.
Adult stem cell migration; breath holding; erythropoietin; expiration; intermittent hypoxia; vascular endothelial growth factor; yogic Pranayama
Basavarajeeyam is an important handbook for an Ayurvedic physician of Andhra region. It is a bilingual work and the content was presented in Sanskrit and Telugu languages. With regard to the place and date of Basavarajeeyam there is no common opinion among the present day scholars. Pt Govardhana Sharma Changani in his introduction to the Sanskrit version of Basavarajeeyam exposed a historical profile of Basavrajeeyam picturising him as Basava who was a staunch follower of Veerashaivism and a contemporary of king Bijjala (end of 12th cent. AD). The same statement is carried out in the works of Ayurvedic Itihasa written by Atredeva Vidyawalkan and Acharya Priyavrata Sharma. It appears that the historical evidence shown by these scholars is one sided and cannot stand any reason. Basavraju stated that he had started writing this work after a thorough study of many works such as Charaka, Nithyanatheeyam (1360 AD), Revenakalpam, Pujyapadiyam, Bahatam, Kashikhandam (1435 AD) etc. Basavraju has faithfully reproduced certain chapter of Vaidyachintamani, which is considered to be a work of 15th century. Basavraju not only mentioned Phirangiroga in the index of diseases described by him at the end of the book, but also indicated Phirangichekka (Madhusnuhi) in the management of Meharoga and Granthi. By this evidence Basavarajiyam should be considered as the work of post Bhavaprakasha period. Basavraju indicates in the Gulmaroga Chikitsa that Sankhadravaka should be administered in the dose of ‘Ekanni′. The name Ekanni was given for a copper coin which came in to circulation of money during British India produced from Madras mint (1794 AD). Based on these internal evidences, it can be safely concluded that Basavraju belong to 18thcentury.
Basavarajeeyam; Ekaani; Phirangiroga
Ayurvedic science of life is one of the great contributions of India to the systems of health science. Apart from classical medical works, much information related to this Indian system is found elsewhere in other branches of science, such as Philosophy, Joutishya, Natya, Kavya, etc. Still much Ayurvedic information is clubbed in other compilations meant for general purpose. However, it is unfortunate that not all such works came into lime light; and still remain in the dark for many reasons. Haramekhala written by Mahuka is one such work, which contains Ayurvedic information along with various other themes, such as cosmetics. The author Mahuka lived in Dharanivaraha rajya of central India during Chapa Dynasty in 9th–10th century A.D. Haramekhala also known as Prayogamala comprises of five Paricchedas written in Prakrita language, later added by translations in Sanskrit called Chaya and foot notes in Sanskrit called Tika. The detail about this book is described in this article.
Cosmetics; Dharanivaraha; Haramekhala; Mahuka; Prakrita; Prayogamala
Ritu, the season, classified by different features expresses different effects on the body as well as the environment. Ayurveda has depicted various rules and regimens (Charya), regarding diet and behavior to acclimatize seasonal enforcement easily without altering body homeostasis. The prime principle of Ayurvedic system of medicine is preventive aspect, can be achieved by the change in diet and practices in response to change in climatic condition. This is a very important aspect of preventive medicine as mentioned in Ayurvedic texts. Lifestyle disorders are very common in the present era, basically originating from lack of following seasonal regimens due to lack of concentration in seasonal characteristics. A firm scientific analysis is the base, which holds true even on date. In this review article, various regimens in diet and lifestyle as mentioned in the classics of Ayurveda and their importance on lifestyle disorders has been discussed.
Lifestyle disorders; seasonal regimens; seasonal variations in India
Sandhana kalpana (biomedical fermented formulations) are one of the best dosage forms of Ayurveda in practice since thousands of years. In order to prepare these medicaments, certain sets of conditions are prearranged, which lead to fermentation. Thus, products bequeath with self-generated ethyl alcohol, which potentiate these preparations (Asava–Arishta), pharmaceutically and therapeutically. Commonly, medicinal and commercial components of these formulations are prompting many researchers to contribute in manufacturing, quality control, safety, and efficacy of these formulations. To cope up with this, literature related to Asava–Arishta has been surveyed from the Vedic period to recent publications of Government of India, ie, Ayurvedic Formulary of India, and presented briefly here. In this review paper, we have discussed pioneering facts such as nature and amount of carbohydrate, type of containers, optimum temperature, variety and relevance of initiator of fermentation, manufacturing, regulatory rules, and business aspects of Asava-Arishta. After going through this basic information, any academician or researcher may show a way to further strengthen this dosage form.
Asava; Arishta; ethyl alcohol; fermentation; quality control; Sandhana kalpana
Horse-shoe Fistula is a big challenge for both Modern and Ayurvedic Surgeons. We can correlate this with ‘Shambukawarta Bhagandara’ described by Sushruta. Here, fistula forms secondary to an ischiorectal abscess and both the ischiorectal fossae are involved. Also, they open posteriorly into the anal canal, at the 6 o’clock position, and are associated with a big cavity lying superior (above the levatorani). Therefore, in such a clinical feature neither Fistulotomy (‘Wanley operation’) nor ‘Ksharasutra’ treatment alone, prove useful. After going through this, we can say that there is a definite need for newer surgical innovative techniques, to tackle this challenging disease. An integral approach of ‘Fistulectomy along the arms of the Horse-shoe fistula with Ksharasutra ligation’ in the remaining track connected to the anal canal, and drainage of the postanal space abscess, proved to be very successful. We have tried the same technique with very good results. No recurrence was found in the patients during the follow-up period of three years. The given diagrammatic presentation of the plan of surgery will help to understand the procedure.
Ayurveda; Bhagandara; Fistula in ano; Ksharasutra; surgery
Philosophy is the prime specialty as it fulfills the ultimate goal of life with the depiction of the liberation of the soul. The human body composed of mind, other sensory organs along with five proto-elements, is to be treated from the clinical applicability of the philosophical series of events. The current review is the categorical analysis of the philosophical thought depicted in “Carakopaskara commentary” of Pandit Jogindranath Sen in the purview of underlined theme of Caraka Samhita and classical orthodox philosophy.
Caraka Samhita; Carakopaskara commentary; philosophy
Avaleha, which are generally elegant preparations, can be used for both preventive and curative purposes. Many research works have been carried out on different Avalehas. A number of studies with different Avalehas and their respective clinical efficacy in Tamaka Shwasa (Bronchial Asthma) have been carried-out at Department of Rasashastra and Bhaishajya Kalpana, IPGT & RA, Jamnagar. A review has been carried out of such works to know the better one. In the work, it has been found that highly significant (P<0.001) results on Shwasakastata were found in all the groups, except in the Kamsa Haritaki Avaleha (B) group which was insignificant (P<0.02).
Avaleha; Brimhana; Shwasa
The concept of personalized medicine has been around for as long as people have been practicing medicine. From Charaka to Hippocrates, all have practiced the personalized approach for treating a disease. In the 21st century, personalized medicine is all about DNA. Whereas the single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) and epigenetic factors influence drug response and form the basis of personalized medicine, the tridosha theory forms the basis of Prakriti-based medicine. It is well established by now that western allopathic medicine is excellent in handling acute medical crises, whereas Ayurveda has successfully demonstrated an ability to manage chronic disorders that Western medicine has been unable to cure. With effective integration of ‘omics’ Prakriti-based medicine can play a vital role in this changing scenario of global health wisdom as Ayurveda offers its modalities by way of ahara (diet), vihara (lifestyle), and aushadhi (medication), which are the three pillars of prakriti-based medicine making it a holistic science. Prakriti-based medicine and other traditional medicine systems have the potential to offer remedies to the challenging health issues like adverse drug reactions, drug withdrawals, and economic disparities among few. An integrative global approach could do wonders to health sciences benefiting a broad spectrum of patients.
Ayurgenomics; epigenetics; pharmacogenomics; personalized medicine; pharmacogenetics; single nucleotide polymorphism
Ayurveda is serving the mankind for centuries with a holistic approach. This system has preached to treat the diseases which are only curable by the physicians. It has advised the physicians to strictly avoid treating the incurable diseases. In order to assess the incurability of the diseases or the incurable state of a patient; this system has preached the signs and symptoms of incurability which are known as arista-vijnana, which have been described in Brhattrayi of Ayurveda. Though Caraka has placed them in a separate section of his treatise, Cakrapani and Dalhana have also spent a considerable portion in their commentaries dealing with arista-vijnana. They were two renowned scholars who have commented with a depth of wisdom on Susruta Samhita. In this paper, the author has tried to present the comparative and critical comments of both commentators based on Bhanumati and Nibandha Samgraha, respectively, over arista-vijnana as described in Sutrasthana of Susruta Samhita. Dalhana was greatly influenced by Caraka Samhita with regard to the prognostic science. On the other hand, Cakrapani repeatedly recognized the superiority of the indriya-sthana of Caraka Samhita with regard to analysis of prognostic science.
Arista; Bhanumati; Cakrapani; Dalhana; Indriya-sthana; Nibandha Samgraha
Nomenclature of the disease on the basis of vitiation of the body humors is stressed in ayurveda. Sannipatika, i.e., ‘conglomeration of vitiated tridosa’ is the final stage of process of manifestation of disease. In this specific state of pathogenesis, the disease becomes more advance and mostly irreversible. A detailed scientific study of Sannipatika-avastha has been documented in classics. Comprehensive analysis of sannipata-state and its ways of presentation is the main theme of the current article.
Sannipata; Sannipata dosa; Sannipata jvara; Sannipata rogas
The study of personality has fascinated psychologists since a long time. Personality as an area of study has grown so much that a wealth of literature is available. On the other hand, the socio-ethnic dynamics of human race in the emerging global village context provoking psychologists to develop a personality theory which can treat certain basic components of personality as invariants, so that irrespective of culture, race, and nativity could still be able to study personality which will have universal applicability and relevance, is still far away. In the above emerging backdrop, “Ayurveda” has perhaps an important role to play as it can enable providing a theoretical and empirical base of personality traits and types. These Ayurvedic concepts are applicable to all human beings irrespective of caste, color, sex or race. Therefore, it is interesting to build on the Ayurvedic knowledge which has already given us so much since time immemorial, and validate some of these issues related to personality from psychological perspective. There are already certain efforts in understanding Sattva, Rajas, and Tamas Gunas. It can be furthered so that a comprehensive personality picture can be generated, which can have implications for health, career, education and many other dimensions of life. The present paper is a theoretical attempt in developing such a personality proposition which can be validated. Thus, the present paper only builds a theoretical framework for their possible empirical validity.
Ayurvedic typology; personality assessment; Prakriti; Tridoshas; Trigunas
In Atreya Virachita Sara sangraha written by Atreya 6 Datta (seasons) Viz. Hemanta, Shishira (winter), Vasanta (spring), Grishma (Summer), Varsha (Rainy) and Sharada (Autumn) were described in a realistic way. Along with this, there is elutriations of specific Roga-Doshas which occur in a particular season and their treatment for maintenance of health along with this pathya-apathya (wholesome diet-behaviour) and vyayama is indicated. Emphasizing the Ritucharya, greater importance is given to Ahara and vihara according to particular Ritu, time of vitiation of Doshas as per season & time of pacification of Doshas are also described. Along with this importance daily regimen for a particular season is also described.
Ayurveda is an eternal science with absolute principles, and prakriti is one of these. It plays an important role in the selection and establishment of every factor for which a person is going to interact from conception till death, e.g. lifestyle, diet planning, etc. Prakriti stands for nature of the body in terms of dosha and is decided at the time of conception according to the predominance of dosha. It does not change during the whole life and is responsible for the physical and mental characteristics of an individual. This prakriti is of seven types according to tridosha. The individuals of specific prakriti exhibit biological variations in terms of structure, function, behavior, individual response to internal and external environmental stimuli, susceptibility to different diseases, etc. Aging is a process of decaying and included in natural diseases. In our body, Pitta or Agni is responsible for the various types of pathological conditions. Although aging is a natural pathological condition, Pitta plays an important role in its causation like other pathological conditions. It is clearly indicated in Charak samhita that persons having Pitta predominance personality tend to suffer early with decaying process and other changes of aging. Through this article, we have made an attempt to reevaluate the interrelationships between prakriti and aging.
Aging; dosha; Pitta; prakriti; Jara
Ayurveda has a holistic approach toward all the miseries of man and aging is one of these. It is classified as one of the natural and Yapya (palliative) diseases. It is the process of becoming old and decaying. As age advances, several changes take place in the body, in the external appearance, in the condition of Dosha, Dhatu, Mala, Agni, Oja, and so on, as well as in the mental and cognitive functions. Elderly people are susceptible to several chronic diseases also. The problems of the elderly are becoming a matter of great concern as increased life expectancy due to better medical services and improved technology is resulting in an increasing population of the aged. By the year 2020, the World will have more than one billion people aged 60 and over, and more than two-thirds of them will be living in the developing countries. A major concern related to the rapid increase in the population of the aged is that there will be an increase in the prevalence of chronic diseases and disabilities, both being conditions that tend to accompany the aging process. This burden is increasing day by day. In the Ayurvedic texts, a comprehensive description has been given of aging. The aim of this conceptual article is to compile and re-evaluate the various principles related to different aspects of aging.
Aging; Yapya; Ayurveda; Jara; Vriddhavastha
Vasa (Adhatoda vasica Linn.) is a well known and easily available drug in almost all the seasons. Easy availability of any drug gains popularity among physicians as well as pharmaceuticals and this is the reason why almost every Kalpana of Vasa is found described in the Ayurvedika text. The different dosage forms of Vasa like Kvatha, Avaleha, Sneha, and Sandhana have been used for the treatment of Shwasa Roga. A number of research studies have been performed on different formulations of Vasa and its effect on Shwasa Roga. Therefore, a review study has been carried out on the Vasa extract, Vasa Avaleha (prepared from Svarasa and Kvatha), Vasa Ghrita, Vasarishta, and Vasakasava on Shwasa Roga, to know which formulation is better. It was found in the review that Vasa Ghana, Vasa Ghrita (1), and Vasa Avaleha have shown good results on Tamaka Shwasa.
Ghana (extract); Avaleha; Shwasa; Asava; Arishta; Tamaka Shwasa; Adhatoda vasica
Atreya in his sara sangraha, after Nadi pariksha, described / elaborated in detail the mutra pariksha. Under this he appropriately described various precautions for urine examination, various characteristics of mutra vitiated by Tridosha, differentiation of urine of diseased & normal person characteristics of sama & nirama, mutra, characters, mutra of sadhya & Asadhya rogi characters of murta in jeerna & Ajeerna (indigestion) conditions etc.
Saffron is produced from the dried styles of Crocus sativus L. (Iridaceae) which is unknown as wild plant, representing a sterile triploid. These belong to subgenus Crocus series Crocus sativus – series are closely related species; and are difficult to be separated taxonomically and have a complex cytology. Botany of C. sativus – series, taxonomy of their species and their infraspecific taxa are presented, and their distribution, ecology and phenology; full description and chromosome counts are provided with key to their identification.
Chromosome; classification; Crocus; cytology; geographic area; sativus series
Agni is the invariable agent in the process of Paka (digestion, transformation). Ingested food is to be digested, absorbed and assimilated, which is unavoidable for the maintenance of life, and is performed by the Agni. Different examples are available in our classics to indicate that Pitta is the same as Agni, but some doubt arises behind this concept, that Pitta is Agni. Agni is innumerable because of its presence in each and every paramanu of the body. But, the enumeration of the number of Agni varies in various classical Ayurvedic texts. According to the functions and site of action, Agni has been divided into 13 types, i.e. one Jatharagni, five Bhutagni and seven Dhatvagni. Jatharagni is the most important one, which digests four types of food and transforms it into Rasa and Mala. The five Bhutagnis act on the respective bhutika portion of the food and thereby nourish the Bhutas in the body. The seven Dhatvagni act on the respective dhatus by which each Dhatu is broken into three parts. In this way, the entire process of transformation consists of two types of products – PRasad (essence) and Kitta (excrete). The former is taken for nourishment while the latter one is thrown out, which otherwise defiles the body if it stays longer.
Agni; bhutagni; dhatvagni; jatharagni; Pitta
Ayurveda has given prime importance to Mutravaha srotas (urinary system) and Srotogata Vikaras (urinary disorders). Being a system responsible for homeostasis of fluids in the body it also detoxifies the body by eliminating certain waste products through urine. When diseased, people produce symptoms such as, increased or decreased urine production, painful maturition, formation of stones, and thereby obstructed micturition, increased frequency of micturition, and so on. There are many herbs with varied actions specifically aimed at mitigating urinary system disorders. Drugs such as Jambu, Amrasthi, and the like, reduce the increased flow of urine, and hence, are considered as Mutrasangrahaneeya, whereas, drugs like Ikshu, Kustha, and so on, increase the flow of urine, and hence, are considered as Mutravirechaneeya. There are drugs like Padma, Utpala, and so on, which impart normal color to the urine and are known as Mutravirajaneeya dravyas. Asmarighna dravyas break down the calculi and remove them through the urine. These dravyas, when used under proper direction, help in relieving the pain and apathy caused by the disease.
Ashmarighna dravya; Mutrasangrahaneeya dravya; Mutravirajaneeya dravya; Mutravirechaneeya dravya; urinary system; herbs
There are many concepts in Ayurveda as well as the ancient sciences that are untouched or unexplored. One such concept is that of the Swapna (dreams). Being an abstract phenomenon it makes it difficult to be explained and understood; probably because of this the descriptions related to Swapna in the Indian classics are supported by mythology, to make them acceptable. Variations in these explanations are seen according to the objective of the school of thought; that is, in the ancient texts where dreams are used to delve into the knowledge of the Atman and are related to spirituality, its description in the Ayurvedic texts evolves around the Sharira and Manas. Although all these explanations seem to be shrouded in uncertainty and mythology; there definitely seems to be a logical and rational science behind these quotations. They only need research, investigation, and explanation on the basis of logic, and a laboratory.
Indian classics; mythology; science; Swapna; dreams; ayurveda; upanishad
Despite the advancements in diagnostic techniques and therapeutic interventions, medical science has failed to keep the incidence of congenital malformations under control. Ayurveda, the ancient Indian medical system has given due emphasis on this and postulated various measures to minimize the risks. These measures start well before conception. According to Ayurvedic principles, proper preparation of the parents is an essential prerequisite for a healthy progeny. Pre-conception care is a set of interventions that identifies biomedical behavioral and social risks to the health of the mother and the baby. It includes both-prevention and management, emphasizing health issues that require action before conception, very early in pregnancy, for maximal impact. For meeting the objective of healthy progeny, Ayurveda scholars felt the importance of six procreative factors (Shadgarbhkarabhavas) such as Matrija, Pitrija, Aatmaja, Rasaja, Satmyaja, and Sattvaja. The conglomeration of these procreative factors is must for healthy progeny. The physical, mental, social, and spiritual well-being of the person, proper nutrition of the mother during pregnancy, and practice of a wholesome regimen, play a prime role in achieving a healthy offspring, thus structuring a healthy family, society, and nation. Negligence toward any of these factors becomes a cause for unhealthy and defective child birth. The present literary / conceptual study, thus focuses mainly on interpreting these observations, on the basis of modern scientific knowledge.
Atmaja; Matrija; Pitrija; procreative factors; Rasaja; Sattmyaja; Sattvaja; shad-garbhakarbhavas