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1.  Natural medicaments in dentistry 
Ayu  2014;35(2):113-118.
The major objective in root canal treatment is to disinfect the entire root canal system. Cleaning, shaping, and use of antimicrobial medicaments are effective in reducing the bacterial load to some extent, but some bacteria do remain behind and multiply, causing reinfection. Taking into consideration the ineffectiveness, potential side-effects and safety concerns of synthetic drugs, the herbal alternatives for endodontic usage might prove to be advantageous. Over the past decade, interest in drugs derived from medicinal plants has markedly increased. Phytomedicine has been used in dentistry as anti-inflammatory, antibiotic, analgesic, sedative and also as endodontic irrigant. Herbal preparations can be derived from the root, leaves, seeds, stem, and flowers. The PubMed database search revealed that the reference list for natural medicaments featured 1480 articles and in dentistry 173 articles. A forward search was undertaken on the selected articles and author names. This review focuses on various natural drugs and products as well as their therapeutic applications when used as phytomedicine in dentistry.
doi:10.4103/0974-8520.146198
PMCID: PMC4279314  PMID: 25558153
Dentistry; phytomedicines; therapeutic implication
2.  Some basic aspects of statistical methods and sample size determination in health science research 
Ayu  2014;35(2):119-123.
A health science researcher may sometimes wonder “why statistical methods are so important in research?” Simple answer is that, statistical methods are used throughout a study that includes planning, designing, collecting data, analyzing and drawing meaningful interpretation and report the findings. Hence, it is important that a researcher knows the concepts of at least basic statistical methods used at various stages of a research study. This helps the researcher in the conduct of an appropriately well-designed study leading to valid and reliable results that can be generalized to the population. A well-designed study possesses fewer biases, which intern gives precise, valid and reliable results. There are many statistical methods and tests that are used at various stages of a research. In this communication, we discuss the overall importance of statistical considerations in medical research with the main emphasis on estimating minimum sample size for different study objectives.
doi:10.4103/0974-8520.146202
PMCID: PMC4279315  PMID: 25558154
Applications; health-sciences-research; sample-size; statistics
3.  Systematic review of the concept of Yakrutotpatti (embryology of liver) 
Ayu  2014;35(1):5-8.
Ayurveda has its own view to understand the development of human body and its various organs. As the quotations are in a concise manner, it is essential to amalgamate the basics stated by various Acharyas with comprehensive explanation of modern science. The liver is a vital organ for metabolism. Acharyas have opined about the genesis of Yakrut (liver) from Rakta Dhatu (blood tissue). Parallel opinion in conventional anatomy states that abundant quantity of blood is responsible for the formation of sinusoids of liver. This huge quantity of blood comes from broken viteline and umbilical veins in the septum transversum. On the other hand, the raw material for the formation of blood cells and liver (septum transversum) is the same, being mesenchymal cells from the mesoderm. The present review was conducted to discover the similarities about the genesis of liver in the opinions of ancient and conventional medical science. This may be useful for utilizing the ancient medical science in a new perspective. Therefore, it is attempted to correlate the genesis of liver in Ayurveda with modern science.
doi:10.4103/0974-8520.141895
PMCID: PMC4213968  PMID: 25364192
Angapratyanga Nirman; embryology; liver; Yakrut; Yakrutsharira
4.  A critical appraisal of dementia with special reference to Smritibuddhihrass 
Ayu  2013;34(3):235-242.
Dementia (Smritibuddhihrass) is a chronic organic mental disorder, characterized by progressive usually irreversible, global cognitive deficit. Presently no reliable treatment is available to check the progression of the disease in the conventional medicine. Although this condition is not described as a disease moiety in a separate chapter among Ayurvedic classics but the signs and symptoms along with pathogenesis of dementia can be understood in terms of Ayurvedic concepts. As a large part of pathogenesis of dementia involves neurodegeneration, Rasayana and Panchkarma therapy play an a very important role in the management of dementia. These therapeutic techniques have the potential to check the progression of disease as well as can improve the deficit in cognitive functions of these patients. In the present paper the possible pathogenesis of Dementia in the terms of Ayurvedic concepts has been discussed and suggested the management profiles from Ayurvedic perspectives which can be beneficially utilized for this important class of geriatric disorders.
doi:10.4103/0974-8520.123102
PMCID: PMC3902586  PMID: 24501515
Dementia; Smritibuddhihrass; Ayurvedic management
5.  A critical review of rhythmic recitation of Charakasamhita as per Chhanda Shastra 
Ayu  2013;34(2):134-142.
Charakasamhita is one of the most important life lines of Ayurvedic classical knowledge. This supreme text of “science of life” has been composed nearly about 3000 years ago and before the well-established era of documentation. It is composed in the then language, style, and method. The ancient scholars of Ayurveda have presented it in such a way that all three kinds of pupil can get the matter easily. Nearly two thirds of the compendium is shaped in verse form according to rules and regulations of Chhandashastra of classical Sanskrit literature to retain in memory for a long time. With the advent of time this classical practice of recitation has been gradually losing its popularity and as a result the proper Ayurvedic learning cannot be completely possible in the current era. This review consists of methods of rhythmic recitation of all verses of Charakasamhita with notations and classical analysis.
doi:10.4103/0974-8520.119665
PMCID: PMC3821240  PMID: 24250120
Charakasamhita; Chhandashastra; meter; recitation; rhythm
6.  Concept of Satkaaryavaada in Darshana and its application in Ayurveda 
Ayu  2013;34(2):143-146.
Ayurveda is a Sarvaparishada Shastra which means this system of medicine is related to all its scriptures, takes into account even the mutually divergent views expressed in various philosophical systems so far as they do not oppose the Ayurvedic concepts. The most nearest allied branch of Ayurveda is the Darshana Shastra (philosophical texts). There are similarities of some concepts of Ayurveda and Darshana Shastra, but as the Prayojana (aim) of both Shastra are different, they have been advocated in a different way. One such concept taken by Saankhya Darshana is “Satkaaryavaada,” which is mentioned in respect to Srishti (evolution of universe). This theory is taken as it is in Ayurveda but applied in different manner.
doi:10.4103/0974-8520.119666
PMCID: PMC3821241  PMID: 24250121
Ayurveda; Darshana; Saankhya; Sarvaparishada; Satkaaryavaada
7.  Medohara and Lekhaniya dravyas (anti-obesity and hypolipidemic drugs) in Ayurvedic classics: A critical review 
Ayu  2013;34(1):11-16.
Santarpanottha Vikaras (diseases due to excessive nutrition) are increasing during current times. Medodushti (disorders of fat metabolism) serves as one of the important etiological factor in most of these disorders including Ischemic Heart Disease (IHD). IHD is identified as one of the leading cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide in both developing and developed countries. Retention and deposition of serum lipids resulting in decreased flow of blood in coronary arteries being the underlying cause. Conventional and herbal drugs are being used to lower levels of serum cholesterol to prevent this menace. In this regard, an attempt has been made to critically review the Medohara and Lekhaniya (Anti-obesity and Hypolipidemic) drugs mentioned in Ganas (group of drugs) of Ayurvedic classical texts which may abet our understanding of prevention and management of conditions like Dyslipidemia and its complications. Administration of drugs possessing Tikta Rasa (bitter taste), Ushna Veerya (hot in potency), Laghu and Ruksha Guna (light and dry qualities), Katu Vipaka and Vata Kaphahara actions were noted during the analysis.
doi:10.4103/0974-8520.115437
PMCID: PMC3764867  PMID: 24049399
Dyslipidemia; Lekhana; Medohara; obesity; herbs
8.  A review through Charaka Uttara-Tantra 
Ayu  2013;34(1):17-20.
In the present scenario, the available editions of Charaka Samhita contain eight Sthanas only. Charaka Samhita does not contain Uttara-Tantra like Sushruta Samhita and Samhitas of Vagbhata. On contrary, in the 12th chapter of Siddhi Sthana, Charaka has mentioned about Uttara-Tantra of Charaka Samhita. So, it is essential to emphasize on this issue, which was not explained in length by commentators of Charaka Samhita. Many controversies raised on the existence and recognition of Uttara-Tantra of Charaka Samhita. On the other hand, some scholars who belong to a later period have been mentioned certain references in their work, which are claimed to be from Uttara-Tantra of Charaka Samhita. After a thorough study and scanning of available literature, it is concluded that, Charaka Uttara-Tantra was existing up to the time of Nishchalakara (13th century AD). Nishchalakara has quoted a number of references in Ratnaprabha, which are from Uttara-Tantra of Charaka Samhita. Furthermore, there is a need to discuss about the existence of Uttara-Tantra of Charaka Samhita by further more detailed study and scanning of literatures of Ayurveda and allied literatures.
doi:10.4103/0974-8520.115438
PMCID: PMC3764873  PMID: 24049400
Chakrapanidatta; Charaka Samhita; Nishchalakara; Ratnaprabha; Tika; Uttara Tantra
9.  Review of research works done on Tamra Bhasma [Incinerated Copper] at Institute for Post-Graduate Teaching and Research in Ayurveda, Jamnagar 
Ayu  2013;34(1):21-25.
The metal, Tamra though mentioned in Ayurveda with a wide range of therapeutic utilities; is attributed with Ashta Maha Dosha. Hence, one should be cautious while using Tamra Bhasma. Considering the significance of Tamra in therapeutics, many studies have been carried out at different centers of India. Aim of the present study was to compile such available research works done on Tamra in the Department of Rasa Shastra and Bhaishajya Kalpana (RS and BK), IPGT and RA, Jamnagar and provide brief information about pharmaceutical, analytical, and pharmacological studies. Total eleven studies on Tamra Bhasma, which revalidated the impact of classical guidelines, safety issues, and therapeutic utilities, were screened from PG Department of RS and BK, Institute for Post-Graduate Teaching and Research in Ayurveda, Gujarat Ayurved University, Jamnagar. All studies revealed that Tamra Bhasma is safe clinically, experimentally at Therapeutic Equivalent Dose (TED) levels as no toxic hazards were reported during the treatment period. In all aspects (pharmaceutical, pharmacological, and clinical) Somnathi Tamra Bhasma has proven to be better than Tamra Bhasma. The clinical efficacy of Tamra Bhasma has been evaluated in Shvasa, Kasa, Yakrit Pliha Vriddhi, Grahani, etc. conditions. Satisfactory responses with a decrease in the intensity of signs and symptoms were reported in all the studies. Though certain limitations were observed in these researches, the results can be considered as a lead for further well stratified studies covering larger population. No adverse effects were reported in any of these studies.
doi:10.4103/0974-8520.115440
PMCID: PMC3764875  PMID: 24049401
Bhasma; Grahani; Rasa Shastra; safety; Somanathi Tamra; Tamra toxicity
10.  Inter relationship of Ayurveda and Astrology 
Ayu  2013;34(1):26-35.
In the universe all the creatures are related to Adhivyadhi, which indicates mental agony or bodily pain. Acharyas of Ayurveda like Charaka, Sushruta and Kashyap have classified diseases into various categories like Agantuja, Sharirika, Manasika, Swabhavika, etc. Charaka classified diseases based on the prognosis like Sadhya, Asadhya, Mrudu and Daruna. Ayurveda also suggested Daiva Vyapashraya Chikitsa which includes of Manidharana and chanting Mantras. Astrological sciences suggest 10 types of remedial measures in the treatment of diseases. This science considers that causative factors of various disorders are the Navagrahas (nine planets). The influence of the planets on various procedures like drug processing, bath taking, performing Yajna, wearing Ratna, etc. are well documented in Jyotishashastra. Drugs processed in Chandra Nakshatra acts as ambrosia and subdues Tridoshajanya Vyadhi. Medicated baths are suggested for diseases engendered due to involvement of different planet effects viz. Sarshpa for Shukra, Haridra and Daruharidra for Shani Lodhra for Ketu, Sharpunkha for Rahu, etc. In a close scrutiny it appears that Jyotishashastra Siddhanta can play crucial role in the management of chronic diseases.
doi:10.4103/0974-8520.115443
PMCID: PMC3764876  PMID: 24049402
11.  Critical review on Bhaishajya Kaala (time of drug administration) in Ayurveda 
Ayu  2013;34(1):6-10.
Bhaishajya Kaala (time of drug administration) is an important principle to be considered while treating a disease. Still hardly a handful of physicians are seen, who account for this. To highlight its imperial role in Chikitsa, there is an immense necessity to analyze this concept, which is the need of the hour. Bhaishajya Kaala is mainly explained in relation with Bala of Roga, Rogi, particular Dosha, Dooshya, and various other factors. The comprehensive understanding of this concept involves so many questions as, why there is a difference in the number of Aushdha Kaala? What is the logic behind their indications as well as contraindications? The present paper focuses on the above points to find out the convincing answers.
doi:10.4103/0974-8520.115436
PMCID: PMC3764882  PMID: 24049398
Bhaishajya Kaala; Bhojana Kaala; Roga; Rogi Bala
12.  Management of rheumatoid arthritis (Aamavata) using symbiohealth healthcare system 
Ayu  2012;33(4):466-474.
Rheumatoid Arthritis (RA), according to modern medicine, and Aamavata according to Ayurveda, has an etiological and clinical relationship. Aamavata is a disease complex of which RA is a part. A comparative study of the pathophysiology of this disease by both systems reveals that modern medicine has investigated the mechanism of inflammation and has developed an offense strategy to control it. Ayurveda follows a defense strategy and it focuses its search on the etiological process, where disequilibrium at a higher level of physiology affects the gastrointestinal tract, causing an immune response that results in inflammation. Understanding the pathophysiology of both systems will help the treating physician to institute a dual treatment plan of modern medicine's offense strategy and Ayurvedic medicine's defense strategy at appropriate stages of the disease. Studying the pathophsiology of the two systems also gives insight into the genetic and epigenetic phenomenon in the treatment of disease and opens the doors for groundbreaking research.
doi:10.4103/0974-8520.110513
PMCID: PMC3665188  PMID: 23723661
Aama; Aamavata; defense; epigenetics; genetics; offense; symbiohealth
13.  sushruta-samhitA: A critical review Part - 2: Few new additions 
Ayu  2012;33(4):491-498.
In this part importace and specialize of sushruta are specified. In Part – 1 all the translation works in all the available languages is narrated. After studying all those books and keeping in to mind about a comprehensive work of sushruta it is necessary to elaborate in this present text. This part is divided into 5 sections. (A) All available commentaries taken in to consideration for this part is written, (B) Specialities of sushruta are most important as he has narrated all eight sections of Ayurveda elabroted widely where as caraka has only narrated mainly selected part of kAya-cikitsA and left other sections for other authors e.g., “atra dhAnavantareyaNAM adhikArah” etc., Specifying a list of all sections and chapters with the numbers of prose + poetery, (C) None of the translator or commentator touched the importance of sushruta in the literature of samskRta, where as sushruta was a great poet. Giving similar resemblance of common use by mass, he tried to explain the tough subject in simpler mode of knowledge for proper understanding to all public. He has specifically selected the prosody for the specified subject. Examples are given in this section. (D) sushruta has written prosody in14 metres and long sentences too in samskRta that shows his ability and wast knowledge in the literature. All references of each and every metre is noted from all sections of sushruta with complete reference numbers. And no where this subject is published till now- (E) A challenging word regarding the work of sushruta “shArIre sushruto naSTah” is turned back while quoting various references of shArIra-sthAnam and placing its world wide importance by various writers.
doi:10.4103/0974-8520.110523
PMCID: PMC3665190  PMID: 23723665
Ayurveda; caraka; sushruta; sushruta samhitA
14.  Alternative medicine and anesthesia: Implications and considerations in daily practice 
Ayu  2012;33(4):475-480.
Nowadays, herbal medicines are widely used by most of the people, including the pre-surgical population. These medicines may pose numerous challenges during perioperative care. The objective of the current literature review is to dwell upon the impact of the use of herbal medicines during the perioperative period, and to review the strategies for managing their perioperative use. The data was generated from various articles of different journals, text books, web source, including, Entrez Pubmed, Medscape, WebMD, and so on. Selected only those herbal medicines for which information on, safety, usage, and precautions during the perioperative period was available. Thereafter, the information about safety, pharmacokinetics, and pharmacodynamics from selected literature was gathered and analyzed. The whole review focused on the fact that these commonly used alternative medicines could sometimes pose as a concern during the perioperative period, in various ways. These complications could be due to their direct action, pharmacodynamic effect, or pharmacokinetic effect. In view of the serious impacts of herbal medicine usage in perioperative care, the anesthesiologist should take a detailed history, especially stressing on the use of herbal medicine during the preoperative anesthetic assessment. The anesthesiologist should also be aware of the potential perioperative effects of those drugs. Accordingly, steps should to be taken to prevent, recognize, and treat the complications that may arise due to their use or discontinuation.
doi:10.4103/0974-8520.110515
PMCID: PMC3665191  PMID: 23723662
Anesthesia; Ayurveda; Echinacea; ephedra; garlic; ginger; herbal medicines
15.  Dyslexia: A solution through Ayurveda evidences from Ayurveda for the management of dyslexia in children: A review 
Ayu  2012;33(4):486-490.
Dyslexia is one of the commonest learning disability. It is defined as a disorder where a child, in spite of all the classroom teaching, is not able to attain the language skills of reading, writing and spelling according to their level of intelligence. Dyslexia individuals often have difficulty in relating to the association between sound and their respective letters. Reversing or transposing the letters while writing is characteristic with letters such as b and d, P and q, etc., The prevalence among school children is reported as 9.87% and in the selected families, it is 28.32%. Dyslexia significantly interferes with academic achievement or activities of daily life and are not primarily due to sensory, motor or mentally handicaps. About 40% of dyslexic children and adolescents dropout of schools. According to Ayurveda, learning is a result of successive and complex interaction of Indriyas (cognitive and motor organs), Indriyartha (sense organs), Mana (psyche), Atma and Buddhi (intellect). Above all, the functioning of these factors is governed by Tridosha (vata, pitta and kapha) and Triguna (Sattva, Raja and Tama) in a specific coordination and balance Any disturbance in these Tridosha and Triguna will cause disordered functioning of Indriya, Mana and Buddhi leading to impaired learning or Dyslexia Ayurvedic drugs can help in the management of dyslexia by making these Tridosha and Triguna in well-balanced state and also by providing Medhya (intellect promoting) drugs to improve the learning ability in these children.
doi:10.4103/0974-8520.110521
PMCID: PMC3665203  PMID: 23723664
Ayurveda; dyslexia; Medhya; Tridosha; Triguna
16.  An overview of the causes of current practices in Pratinidhi Dravyas (substitution of drugs) in Ayurveda including newer techniques for their evaluation 
Ayu  2012;33(4):481-485.
Many Pratinidhi Dravyas in Ayurvedic classics are mentioned and certainly are based on a methodical approach, which involves many aspects. These principles on which Pratinidhis were decided are quoted nowhere; so both to understand the established Pratinidhis and to find new ones a rational approach is the need of the hour. This article is an effort in the direction to study this concept meticulously in light of modern techniques for its better understanding and application. As there are very few established parameters, which help for selection and evaluation of Pratinidhi Dravyas. A rational technique like Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy may be incorporated to set a new dimension. As most of the routine analytical techniques are separation based, overall component load cannot be predicted. Thus, it is prime necessity to compare the drugs with a whole aspect, which goes in hand by hand with a holistic approach of Ayurveda “Treat the man as Whole – Take the drug as whole.”
doi:10.4103/0974-8520.110518
PMCID: PMC3665206  PMID: 23723663
Ayurveda; Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy; Pratinidhi Dravya
17.  Viruddha Ahara: A critical view 
Ayu  2012;33(3):332-336.
Viruddha Ahara is a unique concept described in Ayurveda. The present article deals with the critical review of Viruddha Ahara referred in terms of food–food interactions, food processing interactions. Ayurveda clearly defines that certain diet and its combinations, which interrupts the metabolism of tissue, which inhibits the process of formation of tissue and which have the opposite property to the tissue are called as Viruddha Anna or incompatible diet. The food which is wrong in combination, which has undergone wrong processing, which is consumed in incorrect dose, which is consumed in incorrect time of day and in wrong season can lead to Viruddha Ahara. The article narrates the modern perspective of Samskar Viruddha, Veerya Viruddha, Samyoga Viruddha, and so on. It also enlists a variety of incompatible dietary articles consumed in today's day-to-day life and its hazardous effects on health.
doi:10.4103/0974-8520.108817
PMCID: PMC3665091  PMID: 23723637
Ayurveda; food–food interactions; incompatible diet; processing; Viruddha Ahara
18.  A critical review on two types of Laghupanchamula 
Ayu  2012;33(3):343-347.
A group of five roots of small plants i.e., Shalaparni, Prshniparni, Brhati, Kantakari and Gokshura or Eranda is known as Laghupanchamula under Mishraka Varga (group of drugs). It is used as such or with Mahat Panchamula i.e., Bilva, Gambhari, Shyonaka, Agnimantha and Patala, constituting Dashamula, a well recognized and popular Ayurvedic preparation or as an ingredient of different dosage forms. Classical texts of Ayurveda differs regarding components of this Mishraka Varga. Four out of five drugs of Laghupanchamula are similar in all the Ayurvedic texts, but either Gokshura or Eranda is considered as the fifth drug. So a comphrenesive review of Veda, Samhita Grantha, Cikitsa Grantha and Nighantus, with regards to synonyms, contents, Guna- Karma, origin of variation in contents and possible thought behind two kinds of Laghupanchamula, to throw light for rational use of either Eranda or Gokshura under Laghupanchamula was conducted. It was observed that both the traditions were in practice however Acharya Kashyapa and Ravigupta were in view of Eranda as a fifth drug of Laghupanchamula where as Acharya Charaka, Sushruta, Vagabhatta, Yogaratnakara and Chakradatta are in favour of Gokshura. Infact, the variation in content depends on the need i.e Dosha, Dushya and Vyadhi.
doi:10.4103/0974-8520.108820
PMCID: PMC3665092  PMID: 23723639
Brihatpanchamula; Eranda; Gokshura; Laghupanchamula
19.  Bhattar Harichandra: The first commentator of Charaka Samhita 
Ayu  2012;33(3):328-331.
Bhattar Harichandra was the first commentator who wrote ‘Charakanyasa’ commentary on Charaka Samhita after completion of redaction process by Dridhabala. Two manuscripts of this commentary are available with number 9290 and 13092 in Asiatic Society of Kolkata and Government East Library, Chennai respectively. Yadavji opines that Bhattar Harichandra belongs to the period of Chandragupta – II (375 A.D. – 413 A.D.) while Acharya Priyavrat Sharma considers the period of Yashodharaman (6 A.D.) as the period of Bhattar Harichandra. As far as external evidence is considered Banabhatta another notable Sanskrit poet quoted Bhattar Harichandra in his work Harshacharitam. Banabhatta was contemporary to Chandragupta. Charaka Samhita enjoyed much reputation during Chandragupta Mourya – II period. Agnivesha Tantra was redacted during the period of Kanishka (2 A.D.) and then onwards it was referred by titles like Sahasanka and Vikramaditya. Among Navaratna (Nine gems), Shanku and Vaitala Bhatta are included. But in the authors opinion it should be commented as “Shankuvaitala” and “Bhatta”. The name Bhatta in his context may be referring to Bhattar Harichandra. Based on the external evidences it may be concluded that Bhattar Harichandra was contemporary to Chandragupta period i.e. 375 A.D. – 413 A.D. (4th to 5th century).
doi:10.4103/0974-8520.108815
PMCID: PMC3665101  PMID: 23723636
20.  Critical appraisal of Doshavaha Srotas 
Ayu  2012;33(3):337-342.
Tridoshas viz Vata, Pitta, and Kapha are responsible for health and disease depending on their normalcy and disequilibrium state. Improper usage of foods and drinks along with abnormal activities manifests diseases of respective Doshik predominance. Sira (vein) is the synonym of Srotas, keeping this in mind, Vatavaha Sira is correlated with Vatavaha Srotas, Pittavaha Sira with Pittavaha Srotas, Kaphavaha Sira with Kaphavaha Srotas, and Sarvavaha Sira with Sarvavaha Srotas. The purpose of detail understanding of Doshavaha Srotas is essential to understand the role of Doshas in the manifestation of diseases. One can easily predict by observing the color changes in particular area to be able to predict the predominance of Doshas in that area. Manifestation of a disease occurs in the body as a result of the defective Srotas favoring the Dosha–Dushya conglomeration. Hence, any defect in the Srotas must be corrected quickly for the restoration of normal health. Present article emphasis on the proper understanding of Doshavaha Srotas in a systematic manner to understand its root, causative factors, signs and symptoms, and diseases produced due to their vitiation.
doi:10.4103/0974-8520.108819
PMCID: PMC3665105  PMID: 23723638
Kapha; nanatmaja vikara; pitta; Sarvavaha Srotas; sira; vata
21.  Medicinal and cosmetic uses of Bee’s Honey – A review 
Ayu  2012;33(2):178-182.
Bee’s honey is one of the most valued and appreciated natural substances known to mankind since ancient times. There are many types of bee’s honey mentioned in Ayurveda. Their effects differ and ‘Makshika’ is considered medicinally the best. According to modern scientific view, the best bee’s honey is made by Apis mellifera (Family: Apidae). In Sri Lanka, the predominant honey-maker bee is Apis cerana. The aim of this survey is to emphasize the importance of bee’s honey and its multitude of medicinal, cosmetic and general values. Synonyms, details of formation, constitution, properties, and method of extraction and the usages of bee’s honey are gathered from text books, traditional and Ayurvedic physicians of Western and Southern provinces, villagers of ‘Kalahe’ in Galle district of Sri Lanka and from few search engines. Fresh bee’s honey is used in treatment of eye diseases, throat infections, bronchial asthma, tuberculosis, hiccups, thirst, dizziness, fatigue, hepatitis, worm infestation, constipation, piles, eczema, healing of wounds, ulcers and used as a nutritious, easily digestible food for weak people. It promotes semen, mental health and used in cosmetic purposes. Old bee’s honey is used to treat vomiting, diarrhea, rheumatoid arthritis, obesity, diabetes mellitus and in preserving meat and fruits. Highly popular in cosmetic treatment, bee’s honey is used in preparing facial washes, skin moisturizers, hair conditioners and in treatment of pimples. Bee’s honey could be considered as one of the finest products of nature that has a wide range of beneficial uses.
doi:10.4103/0974-8520.105233
PMCID: PMC3611628  PMID: 23559786
Bee’s honey; Mee Peni; Makshika
22.  Sushruta-samhitA - A critical Review Part-1 : Historical glimpse 
Ayu  2012;33(2):167-173.
In the history of Ayurveda, Sushruta stands before Caraka. He practically applied Vaidika culture for treatment. His treatise translated into nine foreign languages apart from various Indian languages like Hindi, Bengali, Malayalam, etc., Sushruta is the most celebrated physician and surgeon in India. Though he practiced during the 5th century BC, many of his contributions to medicine and surgery preceded similar discoveries in the western world. Sushruta devotes a complete volume of his experiences to ophthalmologic diseases. In the Uttara Tantram, Sushruta enumerates a sophisticated classification of eye diseases complete with signs, symptoms, prognosis, and medical/surgical interventions. In particular, Sushruta describes what may have been the first extracapsular cataract surgery using a sharply pointed instrument with a handle fashioned into a trough. His ability to manage many common eye conditions of the time with limited diagnostic aids is a testament to his virtuosity.
doi:10.4103/0974-8520.105232
PMCID: PMC3611650  PMID: 23559784
Ayurveda; Caraka; Sushruta; Sushruta Samhita
23.  A critical study of Rasamritam and it’s applied aspects 
Ayu  2012;33(2):183-187.
Historical studies of Rasa shastra reveal the use of metals and minerals, both for alchemical and therapeutical purposes in ancient past. But, gradually the alchemical use of the subject, declines and the therapeutical use takes over. Rasamritam is the latest doctrine in the field of Rasa shastra which compiles the extract of the older books and adopted some new and contemporary concepts. The practical aspects of this text influence both the academicians as well as physicians in large extent. Keeping the wealthier, timely concept of this text in mind, we are trying to review and analyze it critically for the benefit of researchers and practitioners and hope the idea will be fruitful.
doi:10.4103/0974-8520.105235
PMCID: PMC3611651  PMID: 23559787
Amritikarana; Dhatu; Dwigandhaayasa; Marana; Shodhana
24.  Self evolution: 1st domain of spiritual health 
Ayu  2012;33(2):174-177.
While measuring physical, mental, and social health as defined by the World Health Organization (WHO), the basis of measurement is in terms of Determinants. Recently with the advent of health promotion activities, the emphasis is on enabling individuals, groups, and societies to have control on these Determinants. To measure the spiritual health, the 4th Dimension, a Spiritual Health Scale consisting of 3 Domains, 6 Constructs, and 27 Determinants of spiritual health were identified through a scientific process. A statistically reliable and valid Spiritual Health Scale (SHS 2011) containing 114 items has been developed. Construct validity and test-retest reliability has been established. The 3 Domains are: Self-Evolution, Self-Actualization, and Transcendence. In this article, the process of self evolution in terms of “Wider Perspective” and “Nurturance-Art” have been captured through the Determinants like Commitment, Introspection, Honesty, Creativity, Contemplation, Prayer, Philanthropy, Extending Self, Empathy, Yoga and Exercise, Questioning Injustice, Aesthetics, Value for Time, and Being Away From Comparisons.
doi:10.4103/0974-8520.105234
PMCID: PMC3611654  PMID: 23559785
Determinants; domains; self-evolution; spirituality
25.  Applicability and importance of Caraka’s concept of Aaturaparijnana Hetawah in understanding a patient 
Ayu  2012;33(2):188-192.
Many concepts in Ayurveda are untouched or unexplored till date. One of such concepts to understand the healthy and unhealthy persons is that of the Aaturaparijnana Hetawah (APH), which is only mentioned in Caraka Samhita. The descriptions about Dushya, Desha, Bala, Kala, Prakriti, etc. are mentioned very briefly in all the classics. But no standard figure or pattern is maintained while considering them. It is only in the description of Aaturaparijnana Hetawah mentioned in Vimana Sthana that all the factors are pre-arranged in a chronological order to understand an individual according to one’s Desha as from birth till grown up stage, and also to understand about the illness and most common disorders. In this article, it is aimed at presenting an in-depth evaluation about description of Aaturaparijnana Hetawah in Ayurveda. For this study, the references of Aturaparijnana Hetu have been collected through the Ayurvedic texts along with their commentaries. By making use of 14 factors described in Aaturaparijnana Hetawah, it is possible to have an in depth understanding about the patient’s nature and factors that may be contributing to his health and illness. Aaturaparijnana Hetawah helps in an in-depth understanding of a patient’s disease and heath status. More in-depth evaluation studies and application in the modern medical science should be done in order to avail the benefits of this approach.
doi:10.4103/0974-8520.105236
PMCID: PMC3611657  PMID: 23559788
Aaturaparijnana Hetu; Bala; Dehabala; Desha; Dushya; Kala; Prakriti

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