Procedures for preparation of Lauha Bhasma are described in ancient texts of Ayurveda. These procedures also begin with different source material for iron such as Teekshna Lauha and Kanta Lauha etc. In the present study, we have selected different source materials viz. magnetite iron ore for Kanta Lauha and pure (Armco grade) iron turnings for Teekshna Lauha. The standard procedures of preparation of Lauha Bhasma are carried out in identical conditions for these two raw materials. The final product from the Puta are characterized by using X-ray diffraction and X-ray fluorescence spectroscopy to understanding the crystallographic form or forms of iron oxides and their composition at the end of each Puta. The iron content at the end of repeated Putas (18 for Kanta Lauha and 20 for Teekshna Lauha) have shown a decrease in case of Teekshna Lauha since the starting material is pure iron while it showed only marginal decreases in the case of Kanta Lauha because the Fe3O4 of magnetite is undergoing oxidation to Fe2O3. The trace elements remain within the Bhasma in the form of various oxides of Si, Al, Ca, etc.
Lauha Bhasma; X-ray diffraction; X-ray fluorescence
Authors present here water purifying methods for drinking purpose by employing few kinds of flowers, a traditional knowledge available in India from the classics of Ayurveda, the oldest system of medical practices. A simple method is designed to conduct a study for finding out the efficacy of the said method.
Ayurveda; flower; purification; water
This study was undertaken to study Kurpara Marma in relation to its Vaikalyakara effects when injured. The location of Kurpara Marma was found with the help of the description of Marma in Ayurvedic texts, dissection of the elbow joint, and with help of X-ray documentation. Total 80 patients having trauma to elbow joints due to various causes such as fall, road traffic accident, direct trauma on elbow joint, history of trauma a year back, and injury due to burn were included in this study. These patients were observed for 3 months for any changes in symptoms. In Sushruta Samhita, it was stated that an injury to the Kurpara Marma ends in Kuni (dangling of the hand), swelling, loss of power, restricted movements, and muscle wasting and associated symptoms like tingling sensation, heaviness, syncope, sweating, dizziness, and vomiting. After analysis of data, i.e., after analyzing the percentage of all symptoms on admission as well as after 3 months, it was found that all 80 patients, i.e., 100% had swelling and loss of muscle power. A total of 72 patients, i.e. 90% had dangling of hand on admission. After 3 months, 40 patients (50%) still remained with the dangling of hand. Seventy-two patients had restriction in flexion and extension deformity which still remained in 50% of patients. Hence, it was proved that Kurpara (elbow joint) is definitely a Vaikalyakara Marma. Disabilities like restriction of movements, swelling, and atrophy were remains of an injured elbow joint inspite of best surgical treatment.
Ayurveda; Kurpara Marma (elbow joint); Marma; Vaikalyakara Marma
Bhasma means ash but according to Ayurveda, Bhasma means conversion of a metal into a form which is irreversible in the sense that one cannot derive the metal back from it again (Apunarbhava). It should be so light so that it must float on the surface of water after sprinkling, called Varitara. Its particle should be so small that it can enter in to the creases of fingers called Rekha-purnatva. The preparative procedure of Bhasma is a bit complicated. Many texts are available regarding the identification, acceptable qualities of metals and minerals, their purification, uses and method of preparation of their Bhasma. But in many texts, the method of Bhasma preparation of some metals and minerals is mentioned very briefly, i.e. their references are available in Sutrarupa. This leads to many practical difficulties in the preparation of Bhasma. Kasisa Bhasma is one of them. The present work was aimed to study the basic concept of Bhasma Kalpana by means preparing Kasisa Bhasma. This study suggests some modifications and ways for standardization of Bhasma procedure.
Bhasma; Kasisa Bhasma; Marana; stardard operative procedure
Ten batches of Shirishavaleha were prepared by using Twak (Bark) and Sara (Heartwood) of Shirisha [Albizzia lebbeck Benth]. The adopted formulation was based on Shirisharishta of Bhaishajya Ratnavali. Though Shirisharishta has significant therapeutic effect in cases of Tamaka swasa, etc.; it has few difficulties during the pharmaceutical procedure like consuming long time, climatic influences etc. Considering these inconveniencies, the formulation composition has been converted in to Shirishavaleha. Avaleha has been prepared by using Twak and Sara of Shirisha. No significant differences were found in pharmaceutical aspects of both the samples of Shirishavaleha and the current method of preparation can be considered as standard. Attempts were also made to develop analytical profile of avaleha, which were almost similar in both the samples, except showing more Rf values in High Performance Thin Layer Chromatography profile of Sara group.
Albizzia lebbeck; Avaleha; Bark; Heartwood; Shirisha; Shirishavaleha
Rasa Shastra is a branch of Ayurveda which deals with the processing of minerals and metals having therapeutic importance. Rajata comes under the group of metals having high therapeutic value. Minerals and metals are mostly used in the form of Bhasma. During the medieval period Rasacharyas extensively worked and developed a number of processing methods for a single drug. They all are standard manufacturing procedures (SMP) which ensure the quality, safety, efficacy and reproducibility of the product. Earlier Ayurvedic physicians were producing medicines by themselves according to their need. Now a day, due to commercialization of Ayurvedic medicines and ignorance of classical methods, quality of drugs has deteriorated. Presently, the demand of Ayurvedic drugs in the global market is increasing day by day. Hence it is the need of time to develop SMP for Ayurvedic products for global acceptability. This paper aims at providing SMP for the manufacture of Rajata Bhasma and also attempts to study the effect of Shodhana process on Rajata. Rajata was obtained from the local market of Varanasi. Rajata Bhasma was prepared and it was observed that during the preparation of Rajata Bhasma, use of Muffle Furnace instead of conventional Puta is more advantageous due to better temperature control. Use of mercury and sulphur together acts as best medium in the preparation of Rajata Bhasma.
Bhavana; Marana; Rajata; Rajata sindura; Shodhana
Efforts have been made to lay down analytical standards for Mehamudgara vati (MMV), which were not found reported till date. Weight variation showed that 90% tablets of MV manufactured in the Gujarat Ayurved University Pharmacy were within acceptable range (323 mg ± 10%), pH 4.58, and disintegration time 17 min, whereas hardness was 1.25 kg/cm2. Loss on drying was found to be 9.3% w/w, acid insoluble ash was 0.9 %w/w, water soluble extract was 24.06% w/w and methanol soluble extract 14.1% w/w. Determination of iron as Fe2O3 was done as Lauha bhasma being the major ingredient of MMV. The result showed that iron content was reduced in the formulation (28.67%) as compared to that in Lauha bhasma (61.19%). In TLC, 5 spots each at 254 nm and 366 nm were found.
Lauha-bhasma; Mehamudgara vati; standardization; thin layer chromatography
Kupeelu (Strychnos nux-vomica Linn.) commonly known as nux vomica is a poisonous plant used extensively in various ayurvedic formulations, with great therapeutic significance. Ayurveda recommended the administration of Kupeelu only after purification in different media like cow's urine (Go mutra), cow's milk (Go dugdha), cow's ghee (Go ghrita), Kanji (sour gruel), and so on. Apart from the classical methods some other methods are also adopted by the traditional practitioners using castor oil (Eranda taila), ginger juice (Ardraka swarasa), in the purification of Kupeelu seeds. In the present study an attempt has been made to purify the seeds by performing two different methods (one classical and another traditional) using Kanji and Ardraka
swarasa as Shodhana media. This study reveals that both the methods studied reduce the strychnine and brucine contents in comparison to the raw seeds as determined by high performance thin layer chromatography (HPTLC). After purification in Kanji and Ardraka swarasa, the strychnine content was reduced by 39.25% and 67.82%, respectively, and the brucine content in the purified seeds was also found to have decreased by 17.60% and 40.06%, in comparison to the raw seeds.
Ardraka swarasa; brucine; kanji; kupeelu; shodhana; strychnine
Today, World over, there is a great deal of interest in Ayurvedic system of medicine and thus the demand for various medicinal plants in the production of Ayurvedic medicines is ever increasing. Due to varied geographical locations where these plants grow, a great deal of adulteration or substitution is encountered in the commercial markets. Histological studies of the plant drugs are not only to study the adulterants but also are indispensable in accurate identification. Microscopic observations of the Phyllanthus species revealed the occurrence of anisocytic and paracytic type of stomata in Phyllanthus amarus , while only anisocytic type of stomata is present in P. fraternus and P. maderaspatensis. Epidermal cell walls of P. amarus and P. fraternus are wavy and straight walled epidermal walls are observed in P. maderaspatensis. In India all the above-mentioned species of Phyllanthus are called “Bhumyamalaki” and they are being used in the treatment of various liver disorders. However, all the species of Phyllanthus doesn’t have the active constituents responsible for the treatment of liver disorders. In the present investigation by using simple micro techniques accurate identification of different species of Phyllanthus has been established.
Bhumyamalaki; Pharamcognosy; Phyllanthus
Plants of ethnomedicinal importance have contributed for the development of many new pharmacologically effective molecules/chemical entities to modern medicine. India, the country having one of the richest biodiversity of its flora in its forest, with numerous tribal inhabitants, is able to contribute a lot from ethnomedicine to the ailing humanity. Cordia macleodii Hook. (Boraginaceae), an ethnomedicinal plant has been highlighted for its wound healing, aphrodisiac and hepatoprotective activities. It is a medium-sized tree, known as Panki/Shikari by the tribals, rarely found in the forests of Orissa, Chhattisgarh and Madhya Pradesh. So far, the plant has been studied neither for its pharmacognostical characters nor for its pharmacological actions except its hepatoprotective activity. Hence, it has been selected for a detailed investigation which includes pharmacognostic study of its leaf to find out the diagnostic characters and preliminary physicochemical analysis. Results of the study will help in identifying the plant pharmacognostically. Presence of alkaloids, glycosides and tannins were found during the study.
Cordia macleodii; ethnomedicine; pharmacognostical evaluation
Ayurvedic texts describe rejuvenate measures called Rasayana to impart biological sustenance to bodily tissues. Rasayana acting specifically on brain are called Medhya Rasayana. Brahmi is one of the most commonly practiced herbs for the same. Yet there exist a controversy regarding the exact plant species among Bacopa monnieri L. Penn (BM) and Centella asiatica (L.) Urban (CA) to be used as Brahmi in the formulations. Though the current literature available has suggested a very good nootropic potential of both the drugs, none of the studies have been carried out on comparative potential of these herbs to resolve the controversy. Free-radical scavenging potential for these plants is studied to find out their comparative efficacy. The study revealed a very good in vitro free-radical scavenging properties of aqueous and ethanolic extracts of both the plants as evidenced by FRAP, DPPH, reducing power, and antilipid peroxidation assays. It can be concluded from the studies that both the plants, although taxonomically totally different at family level, showed similar type of in vitro activities. The total phenolic and flavonoid contents also revealed a significant similarity in the two plants. The in vitro study supports the Ayurvedic concept of BM and CA having a similar potential.
Bacopa; Brahmi; Centella; free-radical scavenging antioxidants
Dhatryarishta has been described for the first time in Charaka Samhita, in the context of Panduroga. The same reference is available in Chakradatta, Bhaishajya Ratnavali, and Sahastrayogam too. Generally Dhatri Swarasa [Amalaki (Emblica officinalis Gaertn.)] is used in the preparation of Dhatryarishta as per classical reference, but fresh Amalaki is not available in every season, so in the present study, Amalaki Kwatha (decoction) is used instead of Swarasa. A total of 13 batches of Dhatryarishta were prepared, out of which nine batches were prepared with Dhatri Swarasa and four batches with Dhatri Kwatha. For Dhatryarishta prepared by using Dhatri Swarasa, three methods were applied and in Dhatryarishta prepared by using Dhatri Kwatha two methods were applied. The study revealed that Dhatryarishta could only be prepared by using Amalaki Swarasa as quoted in the classics and not by using Amalaki Kwatha.
Dhatri; Dhatryarishta; Kwatha; Panduroga; Swarasa
Ayurvedic dosage forms are very exclusive in its pharmaceutics and therapeutics. Sneha Kalpana is a group of products of medicated taila and ghee, these drugs are treating very wide range of diseases among patients of all age groups. Liposomal system of drug delivery is a new invention in conventional system of medicine. This system is also covering a high degree of objective of therapeutics at different targets successfully. Probably, here is very distinctive similarity between these two on account of their aqueous and oleaginous origin. Most likely, these are two faces of same coin. A brief survey of literature is done here to explore possibilities of further investigation in benefit of mankind by applying wisdom of both fields together. In fact, this is a review paper based on certain hypothesis which may be established or rejected factually by further researches.
Aqueous; liposomes; oleaginous; Sneha Kalpana; therapeutics
Makaradhwaja is an important Kupipakwa Rasayana. It is prepared by using Swarna (gold), Parada (mercury) and Gandhaka (sulfur) in different ratios, i.e. 1:8:16, 1:8:24 and 1:2:4, respectively. The amount of Gandhaka in the Jarana process is directly proportional to the increase in therapeutic efficacy and reduces the toxicity of the product. Specific temperature pattern for the preparation of Makaradhwaja has been followed. In the present study Swarna, Parada and Gandhaka were taken in the ratio 1:8:24, respectively, and 12 h of heating for a specified amount of Kajjali (i.e., 400 g) in a Kacha Kupi 1/3rd of its capacity. There are some controversies regarding the form of Swarna (i.e., Swarna Patra Swarna Varkha or Swarna Bhasma) used in the preparation of Makaradhwaja. Therefore, in the present study, the samples of Makaradhwaja were prepared by Swarna Patra, Varkha and Bhasma in different batches. It was found that the use of Varkha produced a good-quality product along with the maximum amount of gold, i.e. 268 ppm, in comparison with Patra, i.e. 131 ppm, and Bhasma, i.e. 19 ppm, respectively.
Bhavana; Hingulottha Parada; Kupipaka; Standard manufacturing process; Shodhana
Pharmacognosy is the study of naturally occurring biological substances, principally those derived from plants that find use in medicine. The word “Pharmacognosy” is derived from the Greek “Pharmacon,” “a drug” and “gignosco,” to acquire knowledge of. It is closely related to both botany and plant chemistry and both originated from the earlier scientific studies on medicinal plant. The plant kingdom still holds many species of plants containing substances of medicinal value which have yet to be discovered large number of plants constantly being screened for their possible pharmacological value. The plant Chandrashura is being used for the treatment of Amavata, Sandhivata, and Katishula successfully. Here, an attempt is made to study the plant pharmacognostically; the part taken for study is the seed. Diagnostic features of seed and seed powder were also worked out and the details were presented.
Amavata; gignosco; katishula; pharmacon; sandhivata
In the present study, toxic effects of powder of seeds of Butea monosperma (Linn.) Kuntze were evaluated for a period of 3 months in albino rats. Control group received distilled water. The powder suspension was orally given to the treated group at a dose of 800 mg/kg/day for 90 days. Parameters like body weight, weight of important organs, biochemical, hematological parameters, bone marrow cytology and histopathology of vital organs were studied. Test drug administration did not affect the body weight, organ weight and bone marrow cytology to a significant extent. Among the 18 hematological parameters studied, significant changes were observed in three parameters, namely, significant decrease in hemoglobin content, red blood cell count and hematocrit. Of 16 biochemical parameters studied, significant changes were observed in 5 parameters, namely, decrease in total protein, albumin, bilirubin and significant increase in very low density lipoprotein and triglyceride. The histopathology of 18 organs revealed changes such as fatty changes, glomerular congestion and tubular hemorrhage in the kidneys, decrease in the cellularity of the spleen, epithelial disruption in jejunum, decrease in spermatogenesis in the testis, epithelial proliferation in ventral prostate and decrease in epithelial proliferation in the uterus. Thus, toxicity profile obtained from the present study shows that B. monosperma seeds are likely to produce toxic effect when administered in a powder form.
Albino rats; Butea monosperma (Linn.); Kuntze; chronic toxicity; seeds
A symbiotic relationship between Allopathy (Modern medicine) and Ayurveda is fundamental in creating a health care system that is : (a) more effective than either system used alone, (b) less expensive, (c) less toxic and (d) more likely to create a healthier society. The fundamental basis of Allopathy is “offense thinking,” corresponding to Newton′s physics, which makes it an excellent disease management system; on the other hand, Ayurveda is based upon “defense thinking” and corresponds to Quantum physics, and is an excellent system for prevention of disease and for protection and rejuvenation of health. A judicious use of the two systems in group practice will provide better care to the masses.
Ayurveda; defense; human ecosystem; offense; symbiohelath
Rasaka, which is one among the Maharasas, is an ore of zinc and has been used to extract Yashada in ancient times. It has a wide range of therapeutic applications, including in diseases like Prameha, Streeroga, and so on. The practice of Rasaka Bhasma preparation has declined with time due to various reasons. The present study aims to identify the genuine samples of Rasaka, prepare Rasaka Bhasma by subjecting it to Shodhana and Marana, and undertake a physiochemical analysis of the prepared Bhasma with an eye toward the standardization of Rasaka Bhasma.
Rasaka; identification; Shodhana; Marana; physicochemical analysis
The Vanga Bhasma is an important one amongst the metallic Bhasmas. Mainly Gaja Puta, Ardhagaja Puta and Laghu Puta have been described for Marana of Vanga. The medicines, which are prepared from Gaja Puta, are said to be the best ones (Mahagunavidhayaka). Gaja Puta is commonly used in the preparation of almost all the Bhasmas. There are a few references found in classics regarding Ardhagaja Puta, but not any reference regarding its detail description, therefore, the effort was made to standardize both the Putas with regard to Vanga Bhasma. In the present study, Vanga Bhasma was prepared by Gaja Puta and Ardhagaja Puta. For Marana of Vanga, it was found that the Ardhagaja Puta is more convenient than Gaja Puta with respect to color and particle size analysis of Bhasma after Jarana procedure of Vanga.
Gaja Puta; Ardhagaja Puta; Shodhana; Jarana; Marana
Gandhaka Rasayana is frequently used in the management of different skin disorders (Kushtha). It is a herbo-mineral preparation prepared by Shuddha Gandhaka Bhavit with 11 herbal drugs in a serial manner for eight times each. Therefore, it was used as a model drug and four samples were prepared by adopting different methods and media. The physicochemical parameters were evaluated. The effect of increasing the number of Bhavana (lavigation) on particle size of the drug was examined. Similarly, an attempt was also made to differntiate the structure (surface anatomy) of the drug with Bhavana and without Bhavana by using a very sophisticated x-ray photo electron spectrometer (XPS) study. Overall, a remarkable difference was observed in the samples with Bhavana and without Bhavana.
Bhavana; Gandhaka Rasayana; ICP; particle size; XPS