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1.  Consequences of excessive use of Amlarasa (sour taste): A case-control study 
Ayu  2014;35(2):124-128.
Background:
Palatability is an important factor for choice of food by an individual. Amlarasa (sour taste) is one of the main organoleptic entities in foods of present day, which always tempts the consumer to take it now and then. According to classical Ayurvedic texts, balanced intake of Amlarasa in diet helps to maintain physiological health, but its excessive intake produces some signs and symptoms such as dentine hypersensitivity, stomatitis, halitosis, heartburn, urticaria, papule and joint inflammation.
Aim:
To establish the relationship between excessive use of sour predominant diets and signs/symptoms produced by it.
Materials and Methods:
A case-control survey study was designed wherein total of 178 volunteers were interviewed personally. Subjects with particular symptoms consider as a cases while healthy volunteers as controls. To measure the excessive intake of Amlarasa, quantity and frequency of common food articles such as mango, tomato, lime, butter milk, tamarind, curd, fermented items etc., are taken into consideration. Data was arranged in to 2 × 2 table and odd ratio was calculated for each symptom.
Results:
Odds ratio for dentine hypersensitivity, stomatitis, halitosis, heartburn, urticaria, papule and joint inflammation with 95% confidence interval were found 1.95 (0.97-3.93), 2.45 (1.12-5.40), 2.76 (0.96-7.98), 2.21 (1.09-4.53), 0.86 (0.32-2.32), 2.28 (1.02-5.05) and 4.85 (1.09-10.24) respectively.
Conclusion:
Study reveals that Amlarasa is a risk factor for joint inflammation, dentine hypersensitivity, stomatitis, halitosis, heartburn and papules. Study supports the Ayurvedic classical claim regarding Atiyoga of Amlarasa.
doi:10.4103/0974-8520.146204
PMCID: PMC4279316  PMID: 25558155
Amlarasa; Atiyoga; excessive intake; sour taste; survey
2.  An observational pilot study on the effect of Gomutra Haritaki, diet control and exercise in the management of Sthaulya (obesity) 
Ayu  2014;35(2):129-134.
Background:
India is currently witnessing rising numbers of people in the middle-class who are obese. A lot of the Indian population has started relying on processed foods that contain a huge percentage of trans-fat, sugars, and other unhealthy and artificial ingredients. Obesity is considered the core of many diseases. Increased weight carries significant health risks for some cancers, diabetes, heart diseases and strokes. Junk food, alcohol and sedentary lifestyle are leading us to silent self destruction, making one in every five Indian men and women either obese or overweight.
Aim:
To determine the effect of Gomutra Haritaki on Sthaulya.
Materials and Methods:
An observational pilot study on the effect of Gomutra Haritaki, diet control and exercise in the management of Sthaulya (obesity) was conducted on 21 patients. Enrolled patients were screened on the basis of clinical findings and allocated into two groups. Trial group received Gomutra Haritaki (6 g/day in three divided doses) while control group received placebo capsules in the same dose for 8 weeks.
Result:
Statistically highly significant relief was found in weight reduction (P < 0.001), and body mass index (BMI) (P < 0.01) in both groups. Control group has shown better results against trial group.
Conclusion:
These results prove the impact of diet and exercise in the management of Sthaulya.
doi:10.4103/0974-8520.146206
PMCID: PMC4279317  PMID: 25558156
Cow's urine; Gomutra; Haritaki; obesity; Sthaulya; Terminalia chebula
3.  A clinical study on the efficacy of Panchavalkala cream in Vrana Shodhana w.s.r to its action on microbial load and wound infection 
Ayu  2014;35(2):135-140.
Background:
The science of wound healing is advancing rapidly, particularly as a result of new therapeutic approaches. The wound healing effect of different herbal ointments have been enormous and are in wide practice these days.
Aim:
To evaluate the efficacy of Panchavalkala cream over wound debridement (wound infection and microbial load).
Materials and Methods:
Ghanasatwa (water extract) of the individual drugs of Panchavalkala was prepared and the extract formulated as herbal ointment. This was used to treat patients of infected chronic non healing wounds. The signs and symptoms of infection were graded before and during the course of treatment. Tissue biopsy to estimate the microbial load prior to and during the course of treatment was done.
Results:
The clinical symptoms like Slough, swelling, redness, pain, discharge, tenderness, and malodor in wounds showed statistically significant reduction following treatment. The microbial load of the wounds was also reduced significantly.
Conclusion:
In most of the cases, there was a progressive reduction in the microbial load with time, during the course of treatment indicating the efficacy of the formulation in reducing the microbial load and thus controlling infection, facilitating wound healing.
doi:10.4103/0974-8520.146216
PMCID: PMC4279318  PMID: 25558157
Chronic non healing wounds; infection; microbial load; Panchavalkala; Vrana Shodhana
4.  Comparative study of Ksharasutra suturing and Lord's anal dilatation in the management of Parikartika (chronic fissure-in-ano) 
Ayu  2014;35(2):141-147.
Background:
Parikartika resembles fissure-in-ano which is very common among all ano-rectal disorders. In Ayurvedic texts, Parikartika is described as a complication of Vamana and Virechana as well as complication of Atisara. Ksharasutra was proved successful in the management of fistula-in-ano, piles, and there is a need to try its efficacy in fissure-in-ano.
Aim:
To evaluate the role of Ksharasutra suturing (KSS) in fissure bed in chronic fissure-in-ano.
Materials and Methods:
Total 100 patients of chronic fissure-in-ano were selected and randomly divided into two groups (50 in each group). In group-A, patients were undergone by KSS; while in patients of Group-B Lord's anal dilatation followed by KSS was done under spinal anesthesia. The KSS was done once and after slough out of Ksharasutra, the wound was treated for 4 weeks and assessment of the result was done on the basis of gradation adopted.
Results:
The pain relief on 14th day in Group-A was 86% while in Group-B 100% was observed. As on 7th day in Group-A, oozing was stopped in 68% patients, while in Group-B, oozing was stopped in 82% patients. On 21st day, Group-B showed more healing (85%) as compared to Group-A (69%). In this study 68% of patients were cured.
Conclusion:
In Group-B (KSS with Lord's anal dilatation) patients were cured early as compared to patients of Group-A (KSS alone).
doi:10.4103/0974-8520.146219
PMCID: PMC4279319  PMID: 25558158
Fissure-in-ano; Ksharasutra; Lord's anal dilatation; Parikartika
5.  Effect of Anuvasana Basti with Ksheerabala Taila in Sandhigata Vata (Osteoarthritis) 
Ayu  2014;35(2):148-151.
Background:
Osteoarthritis (OA) is the most common joint disorder. In Ayurveda the disease Sandhigata Vata resembles with OA, which is described under Vatavyadhi. Treatment provides symptomatic relief, but the underlying pathology remains unchecked due to the absence of effective drugs. In the management of Sandhigata Vata, all the Acharyas have described the employment of Bahya Snehan, Swedana, Abhyantara Tikta Snehapana, Basti treatment and Guggulu Prayoga.
Aim:
To evaluate the effect of Ksheerbala Taila Anuvasana Basti in Sandhigata Vata
Materials and Methods:
In the present study, 30 patients of Sandhigata Vata were given Anuvasana Basti with Ksheerabala Taila. Subjective assessment of pain by visual analog scale and swelling, tenderness, crepitus and walking velocity were graded according to their severity.
Results:
Significant results (P < 0.05) were found in all the cardinal symptoms – Pain (Sandhiruja), Swelling (Shotha), tenderness, crepitus and walking velocity. Radiological findings showed no significant changes.
Conclusion:
Anuvasana Basti with Ksheerabala Taila was significant in the subjective symptoms of Sandhigata Vata.
doi:10.4103/0974-8520.146225
PMCID: PMC4279320  PMID: 25558159
Anuvasana Basti; Ksheerabala Taila; Sandhivata
6.  A comparative clinical study of Asanadi Ghanavati and Gomutra Haritaki in Kapha Medo Margavarana (dyslipidemia) 
Ayu  2014;35(2):152-159.
Background:
Dyslipidemia is a disorder of lipoprotein metabolism, including lipoprotein overproduction or deficiency and it can be understood in the parlance of the closest conditions in Ayurveda, viz. Kapha Medo Margavarana (dyslipidemia), Atisthaulya (obesity) or Meda Roga and Prameha. Asanadi Ghanavati (AG) is a modified presentation of Asanadi Gana drugs referred in Ashtanga Hridaya and Gomutra Haritaki (GH) is described in Charaka Samhita under Shotha Chikitsa and Ashtanga Hridaya in Arsha Chikitsa.
Aim:
To evaluate and compare the clinical effect of AG and GH in Kapha Medo Margavarana.
Materials and Methods:
Patients with the high lipid profile were selected and randomly divided into two groups. In Group A (n = 30), patients were administered with tablet of AG 1 g (500 mg each) thrice a day for 8 weeks and in Group B (n = 30), tablet of GH in similar dose and duration. Effect of therapy was assessed by body circumference, Body Mass Index (BMI), cardinal symptoms like Anga-Gaurava, Bharavriddhi, etc., and lipid profile parameters.
Result:
AG decreased the serum cholesterol by 7.12%, Serum Triglyceride (S. TG) by 7.72%, Serum Low Density Lipoprotein (S. LDL) by 11.68%, Serum Very Low Density Lipoprotein (S. VLDL) by 7.73%, and had increased Serum High Density Lipoprotein (S. HDL) by 9.52%, with moderate improvement in 14.81% and mild improvement in 70.37% of patients. The GH decreased the serum cholesterol by 6.31%, S. TG by 9.61%, S. LDL by 12.55%, serum VLDL by 8.99%, and increased S. HDL by 10.52% with moderate improvement in 3.70%, and mild improvement in 74.07% patients.
Conclusion:
AG and GH are suggested to be used in Kleda Bahul Samprapti Janya Vyadhi and Ama Bahul Samprapti Janya Vyadhi respectively.
doi:10.4103/0974-8520.146231
PMCID: PMC4279321  PMID: 25558160
Asanadi Ghanavati; dyslipidemia; Gomutra Haritaki; Kapha Medo Margavarana
7.  Low resource screening method of pre-cancerous lesions and its reversal by Triphala in teen-age Indian population 
Ayu  2014;35(2):160-167.
Background:
Cancer screening is the main weapon for early detection at a pre-invasive or premalignant stage. It has been reported that over 12 million people use some form of tobacco, which is one of the high risk factors and has hence become an alarming world-wide problem.
Aim:
To evaluate the effective diagnostic screening of disease in its early stage by inexpensive method and also to evaluate the effect of indigenous mouthrinse on reversal of pre-cancerous lesions.
Materials and Methods:
The screening for teenagers belonging to low socio-economic status was carried out. Suspected subjects were evaluated for the reversal of the lesions by use of Ayurvedic preparation as a mouthwash. From 13 to19 years working-child population of North India was selected for the study. Screening was performed by new method-visual inspection with acetic acid. The positive subjects were further investigated by pap smear and biopsy was done as a confirmatory histopathological report. In second phase, the subjects showing positive lesions were advised indigenous anti-cancer mouth rinse and its effect was evaluated after 6 month and 9 month of prescribing the rinse.
Results:
The total 1095 children were screened (831 boys and 264 girls). Out of total 34 teenager boys were diagnosed, as acetowhite positive lesion. All the acetowhite positive lesions were found exclusively in males. Histological findings after 9 month use of Triphala mouth rinse revealed no changes in cells in 23 (85.2%), hyperkeratinization in 2 (7.4%), hyperkeratinization and spongiosis was evident in 1 (3.7%), mild pleomorphism in 1 (3.7%) patient. Comparative evaluation from 0-9 month showed statistically highly significant test (P < 0.01).
Conclusion:
Use of different forms of tobacco and betel nut showed convincing relationship between developments of oral pre-cancerous lesions. Triphala was found to have great potential for reversal of these lesions.
doi:10.4103/0974-8520.146233
PMCID: PMC4279322  PMID: 25558161
Alcohol; oral pre-cancerous lesions; screening; tobacco; Triphala and teenagers
8.  Efficacy of Varunadi Ghritha (polyherbal compound) in treated head and neck cancer cases as a biological response modifier 
Ayu  2014;35(2):168-174.
Background:
Persistent immune suppression is reported in Head and Neck Cancers (HNC) even after treatment and a higher recurrence rate was observed in patients with poor CD3 count. Loco regional recurrences and second primary tumours are the common forms of failure in head and neck cancers. Several agents have been tried to overcome this problem without much benefit. In Ayurveda, several plant based products have been reported to have anti-tumour and immunomodulatory properties.
Aim:
To test the role of Varunadi Ghritha, as an immunomodulator in apparently healthy, treated and controlled HNC patients and to evaluate its effectiveness in preventing locoregional relapses and development of second primary tumours.
Materials and Methods:
Total 78 patients of treated head and neck cancers were randomly selected for intervention and control group. Patients in the intervention group (n = 38) received Varunadi Ghritha, 5gms twice daily for one year and followed up to two years. Patients in the control group (n = 40) were followed up at regular intervals. Immune parameters were assessed in the peripheral blood at base line and at the end of administration of the study compound.
Results:
In the intervention group, mean percentage increase in CD3, CD19 and CD16 positive cells were significantly higher after the administration of the study compound compared to the control group indicating an immunomodulatory effect of the study compound. A non-significant improvement in disease control was observed in patients with advanced stage of disease in the intervention group.
Conclusion:
Administration of Varunadi Ghritha resulted in an increase in T cell counts in patients with treated HNC.
doi:10.4103/0974-8520.146236
PMCID: PMC4279323  PMID: 25558162
Ayurveda; head and neck cancer; immunomodulation; loco-regional control; second primary tumour
9.  Role of thin-layer chromatography in ascertaining Kashaya Rasa (astringent taste) in medicinal plants on the concept of Samana and Vichitra Pratyayarabdha principles of Ayurveda 
Ayu  2014;35(2):179-183.
Background:
Pharmacodynamics, in Ayurveda has been described in terms of Rasadipanchaka. Rasa, on one side indicates the Bhautika composition of the drug and on the other side predicts the action. Different analytical techniques, pharmaceutical processes are being used in Ayurveda for the purpose of standardization of raw drugs.
Aim:
In this study an attempt has been made to apply chromatographic technique in determination of Kashaya (astringent) Rasa (taste).
Materials and Methods:
Two important Kashaya dominant drugs Kulattha (Dolichos biflorus Linn.) and Kanchanara (Bauhinia variegata Linn.), falling under Vichitra and Samana Pratyayarabdha category respectively, were subjected to physicochemical parameters and qualitative tests followed by High-Performance Thin-Layer Chromatography (HPTLC). In light of chromatographic fingerprinting; sample preparation protocol is modified to incorporate taste threshold in correlation. Column chromatography is used for first-level discrimination technique followed by HPTLC. Kashaya Rasa Dominant Zone (KsRDZ) was separated and subjected to TLC fingerprinting. The KsRDZ fraction was designated as Botanical Reference Material (BRM) in further analysis.
Results:
Ash value, Alcohol and water soluble extract value were more in B variegata as compared to D biflorus. Presence of tannin in both the samples was confirmed through qualitative test. The KsRDZ fraction separated at Rf 0.46 and 0.48 for Kulattha and Kanchanara respectively.
Conclusion:
The results showed that the planner chromatography technique seems very useful when BRM hypothesis was adjunct to method that explains the categorization according to traditional Rasa domain classification method.
doi:10.4103/0974-8520.146243
PMCID: PMC4279325  PMID: 25558164
Column chromatography; high-performance thin-layer chromatography; Rasa; spectral comparison; taste threshold
10.  Shelf-life evaluation of Rasayana Churna: A preliminary study 
Ayu  2014;35(2):184-186.
Background:
Concept of Saviryta Avadhi (shelf-life) of Ayurvedic dosage forms is well-defined in classics of Ayurveda. Information on this is scattered in initial classics of Ayurveda like Charaka Samhita, but focused well after 13th Century AD in texts such as Vangasena Samhita, Sharangadhara Samhita and Yogaratnakara. Though the concepts have a strong background; considering the pharmaceutical development, a need is felt to re-evaluate the age old concepts by following current norms.
Aim:
To evaluate shelf-life of two samples of Rasayana Churna.
Materials and Methods:
Raw material was procured from The Pharmacy, Gujarat Ayurved University and authenticated at Pharmacognosy Laboratory. Individual drugs were powdered and blended in specified ratio to obtain Rasayana Churna (RC). RC was levigated with decoction of Amalaki, Guduchi and Gokshura to prepare Bhavita Rasayana Churna (BRC). Both the samples were subjected to accelerated stability studies by following standard guidelines.
Results:
Both the samples are bitter and astringent with characteristic odor. RC is creamish brown in colour, while BRC is dark blackish brown. These Organoleptic characters were unchanged till the 6th month of study. On comparision, BRC is found to be more stable than RC.
Conclusion:
This signifies that, Bhavana not only incorporates additional therapeutic attributes, but also helpful in increasing shelf-life.
doi:10.4103/0974-8520.146247
PMCID: PMC4279326  PMID: 25558165
Accelerated stability; Bhavana; Churna; Rasayana; Saviryta Avadhi; shelf-life
11.  Hypoglycemic and antihyperglycemic activity of Saptarangyadi Ghanavati: An Ayurvedic compound formulation 
Ayu  2014;35(2):187-190.
Background:
Diabetes mellitus is a persistent health problem that requires innovative strategies to improve health and needs a multifactorial approach for the treatment. Saptarangyadi Ghanavati, a formulated Ayurvedic compound consists of herbs with anti-diabetic potential.
Aim:
To evaluate the hypoglycemic and antihyperglycemic activities of Saptarangydi Ghanavati.
Materials and Methods:
For hypoglycemic activity 18 Swiss albino mice were divided into three groups (6 in each). First group served as normal control, second group is the test drug and third is the standard control group. For antihyperglycemic activity 24 Swiss albino mice were divided into four groups (6 in each). First group served as water control, second negative control, third test drug and fourth as standard control group. Test drug Saptarangydi Ghanavati was suspended in water and administered to animals at the dose of 400 mg/kg. Glibenclamide was used as reference standard in both the models at the dose of 0.65 mg/kg.
Results:
Saptarangyadi Ghanavati showed mild reduction in Blood Sugar Level (BSL) at all the time intervals in normoglycemic mice; however, the observed decrease of BSL was found to be statistically non significant. In antihyperglycemic activity, even though the drug failed to cease the hyperglycemia in the first hour after the glucose overload, it attenuated the same in later hours in nonsignificant extent.
Conclusion:
The study reveals that Saptarangydi Ghanavati has moderate hypoglycemic and antihyperglycemic effect.
doi:10.4103/0974-8520.146248
PMCID: PMC4279327  PMID: 25558166
Albino mice; antihyperglycemic; glibenclamide; hypoglycemic; Saptarangydi Ghanavati
12.  The evaluation of anti-ulcerogenic effect of rhizome starch of two source plants of Tugaksheeree (Curcuma angustifolia Roxb. and Maranta arundinacea Linn.) on pyloric ligated rats 
Ayu  2014;35(2):191-197.
Background:
In the present era, because of the life-style, the disorders such as hyperacidity and gastric ulcers are found very frequently. Satwa (starch) obtained from the rhizomes of two plants namely Curcuma angustifolia Roxb. and Maranta arundinacea Linn. are used in folklore practice for the treatment of above complaints under the name Tugaksheeree.
Aim:
To compare the anti-ulcerogenic activity of the above two drugs in pyloric ligation induced gastric ulcer in albino rats.
Materials and Methods:
A total of 18 Wistar strain albino rats of both sexes grouped into three groups. Group C served as pyloric ligated control group, Group I received starch of C. angustifolia suspension and Group II received starch of M. arundinacea for seven days. On 8th day pylorus was ligated. After ligation the animals were deprived of food and water and sacrificed at the end of 14 h. The collected gastric contents were used for biochemical estimation and ulcer index was calculated from excised stomach.
Results:
Both the test drugs showed statistically significant decrease in the volume, increase in the pH, reduced the free acidity of gastric juice and decreased the peptic activity. The starch of C. angustifolia reduced a total acidity non-significantly while M. arundinacea reduced it significantly. Among the two drugs the M. arundinacea has effectively reduced the peptic activity, which is statistically significant. M. arundinacea shown statistically significant increase of total carbohydrates.
Conclusion:
Both the test drugs proved anti-ulcer activity and prevents the chance of gastric ulcer. Among these two M. arundinacea is more effective.
doi:10.4103/0974-8520.146251
PMCID: PMC4279328  PMID: 25558167
Curcuma angustifolia; gastric ulcer; Maranta arundinacea; pyloric ligation; starch; Tugaksheeree
13.  Evaluation of a topical herbal drug for its in-vivo immunomodulatory effect on cytokines production and antibacterial activity in bovine subclinical mastitis 
Ayu  2014;35(2):198-205.
Background:
Antibiotics have been in use in the treatment of bovine mastitis since decades; however, their use is associated with cost issues and human health concern. Use of herbal drugs does not generally carry these disadvantages. Many plants/herbs have been evaluated in the treatment of bovine mastitis with additional property of immunomodulation in affected mammary gland.
Aim:
To evaluate a topical herbal drug in two breeds of cattle for its in-vivo immunomodulatory effect on cytokines production and antibacterial activity in bovine subclinical mastitis.
Materials and Methods:
The response to treatment was evaluated by enumerating somatic cell count (SCC), determining total bacterial load, and studying the expression of different cytokines (interleukin [IL]-6, IL-8, IL-12, granulocyte macrophage-colony stimulating factor, interferon (IFN)-γ and tumor necrosis factor [TNF]-α).
Results:
The pre- and post-treatment SCC in mastitic quarters statistically did not differ significantly, however, total bacterial load declined significantly from day 0 onwards in both the breeds. Highly significant differences (P < 0.01) were observed in all the cytokines on day 0, 5, and 21 postlast treatment in both the breeds. The expression level of all the cytokines showed a significant increase on day 5, while a decrease was noticed on day 21 in both the breeds of cattle. The comparison of cytokine expression profiles between crossbred and Gir cattle revealed a significant difference in expression of IL-6 and TNF-α. However, other cytokines exhibited a similar pattern of expression in both breeds, which was non-significant.
Conclusion:
The topical herbal drug exhibited antibacterial and immunomodulatory activities in subclinical mastitis and thus the work supports its use as alternative herbal therapy against subclinical udder infection in bovines.
doi:10.4103/0974-8520.146254
PMCID: PMC4279329  PMID: 25558168
Herbal drug; immunomodulation; subclinical mastitis
14.  Microbial evaluation of Limnophila rugosa Roth. (Merr) leaf 
Ayu  2014;35(2):207-210.
Background:
Limphonia rugosa Roth. (Merr.), family-Scrophulariaceae is considered as a botanical source of classical Ayurvedic drug Bhringaraja by the traditional practitioners of Odisha and is being used for the management of various disorders.
Aim:
To study the antimicrobial activity of leaf of L. rugosa.
Materials and Methods:
Methanol extract of L. rugosa leaf (LRLM) has been studied, at various (5, 25, 50, 100, 250 μg/ml) dilutions, against medically important human pathogenic bacteria (two Gram-positive Staphylococcus aureus, Streptococcus pyogenes and two Gram-negative-Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa) and two fungal strains (Aspergillus niger, A. clavatus, Candida albicans) by using the agar disc diffusion method. A zone of inhibition of extract was compared with that of different standards such as ampicillin, ciprofloxacin, norfloxacin and chloramphenicol for antibacterial activity and nystatin and griseofulvin for antifungal activity.
Results:
The antibacterial and antifungal activities of the LRLM increased linear with the increase in concentration of extracts. When compared with standard drugs, the results revealed that, for bacterial activity S. pyogenes and S. aureus were more sensitive and in fungal activity C. albicans was more inhibited. The range of growth inhibition zone for all the sensitive bacteria was 11-20 mm and 13-19 mm for fungal strains.
Conclusion:
Methanolic extract of L. rugosa leaf is having antibacterial and antifungal activities.
doi:10.4103/0974-8520.146259
PMCID: PMC4279330  PMID: 25558169
Antifungal activity; Bhringaraja; Gandhamardan hills; in vitro antibacterial activity; Limnophila rugosa leaf; microbial load
15.  Therapeutic potency of saponin rich aqueous extract of Scoparia dulcis L. in alloxan induced diabetes in rats 
Ayu  2014;35(2):211-217.
Background:
Diabetes mellitus is major metabolic disorders of carbohydrate metabolism. This leads to alter the multiple organ system.
Aims:
To investigate the antidiabetic and antioxidant effects of the saponin rich aqueous extract of Scoparia dulcis (SRE-SD) using alloxan-induced hyperglycemic rat model.
Material and Methods:
The single dose of alloxan was injected for the induction of diabetes in rats. The SRE-SD and glibenclamide were administered for 15 consecutive days from the 3rd day of alloxan administration. Quantity of food and water intake was measured at day 0, and 18. Further, body weight was recorded and blood samples were collected at different time intervals that is, day 0, 3, 8, 13, and 18. The oxidative biomarkers (i.e. thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS), reduced glutathione (GSH) and nitrite (NO2−) levels were also estimated in the serum sample.
Results:
The SRE-SD showed a remarkable dose and time-dependent changes in alloxan-induced rise in the level of food consumption and water intake, serum glucose level, TBARS, NO2− and fall in the level of GSH. Further, significant attenuation was observed at 20 and 30 mg/kg of SRE-SD treated group.
Conclusions:
These findings demonstrate that SRE-SD has both antidiabetic and antioxidant effects on the experimental model of diabetes in rat.
doi:10.4103/0974-8520.146261
PMCID: PMC4279331  PMID: 25558170
Alloxan; diabetes mellitus; oxidative stress; saponin; Scoparia dulcis
16.  Gujarat Ayurved University: Achievements and future plans 
Ayu  2014;35(1):1-2.
doi:10.4103/0974-8520.141892
PMCID: PMC4213958  PMID: 25364190
17.  Physico-Chemical profile of Puga Khanda: A Preliminary Study 
Ayu  2014;35(1):103-107.
Background:
Herbal medicines are the oldest known form of medicine in the world. However, the quality control and the assurance still remains a challenge because of the high variability of chemical components. Herbal drugs, singlely or in combinations, contain numerous compounds in complex matrices in which no single active constituent is responsible for the overall efficacy. This creates a challenge in establishing quality control standards and the standardization of finished herbal products. Many formulations have been mentioned in Ayurvedic text for Vrushyatwa (aphrodisiac). Puga Khanda is one among such formulations.
Aim:
To develop preliminary physico-chemical profile of Puga Khanda.
Materials and Methods:
Puga Khanda was prepared in three batches as per the classical reference mentioned in Bhaishajya Ratnavali. The formulation was subjected for physico-chemical analysis, phytochemical analysis and Thin Layer Chromatography (TLC).
Results and Conclusion:
The study revealed that organoleptic characters, pH and extractive values of all 3 samples were almost equal. All the samples had 60% of sugar needed for preservation and 2/3rd of it was non reducing sugar. The total alkaloids ranged from 0.002 to 0.004% w/w. In TLC study the entire samples showed similar pattern except the 2nd sample of Puga Khanda.
doi:10.4103/0974-8520.141956
PMCID: PMC4213959  PMID: 25364209
Khanda Kalpana; pharmaceutical standardization; Puga Khanda; quality control
18.  Anti-inflammatory activity of Guduchi Ghana (aqueous extract of Tinospora Cordifolia Miers.) 
Ayu  2014;35(1):108-110.
Background:
Guduchi Ghana is one of the unique Ayuvedic classical preparation which is prepared from aqueous of extract of Guduchi (Tinospora cordifolia Miers.) stem. It is one of the frequently used drugs to treat the Madhumeha, Pandu, Kamala, Amlapitta, Grahani, Kustha, Jirna Jwara and Viswamjwara, Trishna, Shool, Yakritavikara, etc. Looking to these indications, in market most of the Pharma industries prepared Guduchi Ghana by applying the various extraction process.
Aim:
To evaluate comparative anti-inflammatory activity of classically prepared and market sample of Guduchi Ghana.
Materials and Methods:
Both samples were evaluated for anti-inflammatory activity using carrageenan induced paw edema model in rats. Animals were divided in three groups, having six animals in each. Group A received test drug, Group B received market sample at a dose of 50 mg/kg orally, while Group C (control group) received tap water.
Results:
Reduction in edema was observed in Group A and B at 3 h interval by 33.06% and 11.71% respectively. Group A showed significant effects (P < 0.05) in comparison to control group.
Conclusion:
These experimental results have shown anti-inflammatory activity of Guduchi Ghana.
doi:10.4103/0974-8520.141958
PMCID: PMC4213960  PMID: 25364210
Anti-inflammatory activity; aqueous extract; carrageenan; Ghana Kalpana; Guduchi; Tinospora cordifolia
19.  Phytochemical and analytical evaluation of Jyotishmati (Celastrus paniculatus Willd.) leaf extracts 
Ayu  2014;35(1):54-57.
Background:
Jyotishmati (Celastrus paniculatus Willd.) is a woody climber belongs to the family Celastraceae; a well known herbal nootropic, distributed through the tropical and subtropical regions of India. Its leaves are used in eye disease and headache. Very low qualitative and quantitative information about leaves have been documented to establish its quality and purity.
Aim:
Present study was conducted to evaluate physicochemical, phyto-chemical and HPTLC analysis of different solvent extracts of the C. paniculatus leaves.
Results:
Physico-chemical analysis revealed loss on drying 13.05% w/w, total ash value 16.08% w/w, acid insoluble ash 0.386% w/w, water-soluble extractive 14.22% w/w, alcohol-soluble extractive 9.91% w/w, chloroform-soluble extractive 7.75% w/w and ether-soluble extractive 4.74% w/w. Phytochemical screening showed the presence of steroid and terpenoid in the both pet. ether and ethyl acetate extracts while methanol extract possessed steroid, terpenoid, carbohydrate, alkaloid, saponin, and phenolic compounds.
Conclusion:
The observations made in this study may help to develop the standards of qualitative and quantitative parameters with regards to identification, quality and purity of C. paniculatus leaf.
doi:10.4103/0974-8520.141929
PMCID: PMC4213970  PMID: 25364201
Celastrus paniculatus; Jyotishmati leaf; high-performance thin layer chromatography; phytochemistry
20.  Quality control evaluation of Keshamasi, Keshanjana and Keshamasi eye ointment 
Ayu  2014;35(1):58-62.
Background:
Keshanjana (collyrium) is a well known Ayurvedic preparation prepared out of Keshamasi (ash prepared by scalp hairs) mixed with Goghrita (cow's ghee). This medicine is indicated for the treatment of Shushkakshipaka (dry eye syndrome) in the classical literature of Ayurveda; hence, it was under taken for standardization and clinical evaluation in an extra-mural research project from Central Council for Research in Ayurvedic Sciences, Department of AYUSH, New Delhi.
Aim:
To develop standard quality parameters for the Keshamasi, Keshanjana and Keshamasi ointment.
Materials and Methods:
Scalp hairs of male and females collected from saloons were converted to classical Masi Kalpana and mixed with cow ghee and petrolatum in the ratio of 1:5 to prepare the Keshanjana and Keshamasi ointment respectively. Standard Operation Procedure (SOP) were adopted and recorded accordingly. The raw material, furnished products and plain Goghrita were subjected for quality control parameters i.e., physico-chemical evaluation, anti-microbial study, particle size analysis, heavy metal analysis through inductive couple plasma spectroscopy with high performance thin layer liquid chromatography fingerprints.
Results:
Rancidity was negative in all the samples, indicating that the physico-chemical parameters are in acceptable range. Lead and zinc were present in most of the samples; while all samples are were free from microbial contamination.
Conclusion:
As no standards are available to compare the results of the current study, the observations cannot be compared. Thus the profile generated in the current study can be considered as standard to refer in future studies.
doi:10.4103/0974-8520.141938
PMCID: PMC4213971  PMID: 25364202
Keshamasi; Keshanjana; ointment; quality control profile
21.  Process standardization and characterization of Rajata Sindura 
Ayu  2014;35(1):63-70.
Background:
Rajata Sindura (RS) is a mercurial preparation, known for its properties like Rasayana (rejuvinating), Balya (strengthening), Vrushya (aphrodisiac), Medhya (increasing intellect) and can cure various diseases when used with appropriate adjuvant. It is prepared with Hingulottha Parada (purified mercury), Shuddha Gandhaka (purified sulfur) and Shuddha Rajata (purified silver) in a proportion of 1:1:4. Process standardization and characterization of RS are not reported until date.
Aim:
Pharmaceutical standardization and characterization of Rajata Sindura.
Materials and Methods:
Purified mercury and silver were triturated to form amalgam, followed by the addition of purified sulfur to prepare Kajjali and lavigated with Vatankura (leaf buds of Ficus benghalensis Linn.) swarasa (juice). This Kajjali was processed by Kupipakwa method.
Results and Conclusion:
RS was prepared in 33 h with 20.25% yield. Scanning electron microscope coupled with energy dispersive spectroscopy analysis has shown Mercury 86.21%, sulfur 13.27% as major elements; iron, calcium, potassium, magnesium and silver were other detected minor elements. X-ray diffraction report revealed the chemical nature of RS as HgS compound, having cubic crystal structure.
doi:10.4103/0974-8520.141940
PMCID: PMC4213972  PMID: 25364203
Kupipakwa Rasayana; Rajata Sindura; X-ray diffraction
22.  Anti-oxidant studies and anti-microbial effect of Origanum vulgare Linn in combination with standard antibiotics 
Ayu  2014;35(1):71-78.
Background:
Origanum is one of the over 200 genera in the Lamiaceae (mint family), and this genus includes culinary, fragrant, and medicinal properties. The plant is reported to contain anti-microbial properties, but it lacks combination studies with that of synthetic antibiotics.
Aim:
To investigate the anti-oxidant and anti-microbial interaction studies of Origanum vulgare with standard drugs against Bacillus species of bacteria and Aspergillus niger.
Materials and Methods:
The anti-oxidant properties of phenolic, non-phenolic fractions of chloroform extract and volatile oil were evaluated by free radical-scavenging, hydrogen peroxide radical-scavenging assay, reducing power, and metal chelating assays.
Results:
The minimum inhibitory concentration and fractional inhibitory concentration index were determined which demonstrates the behavior of volatile oil, phenolic, and non-phenolic fractions of volatile oil with that of ciprofloxacin and fluconazole. The IC50 value for volatile oil was found to be 15, 30, and 30 μg/ml and that of phenolic fraction was 60, 120, and 120 μg/ml for free radical-scavenging, hydrogen peroxide-scavenging, and metal chelating assays respectively. Non-phenolic fraction was found to act antagonistically along with ciprofloxacin against B. cereus and B. subtilis, while the phenolic fraction exhibited indifferent activity along with ciprofloxacin against both the bacterial strains.
Conclusion:
This combination of drug therapy will not only prove effective in antibiotic resistance, but these natural constituents will also help in preventing body from harmful radicals which lead to fatal diseases.
doi:10.4103/0974-8520.141944
PMCID: PMC4213973  PMID: 25364204
Anti-oxidants; fractional inhibitory concentration index; free radicals; minimum inhibitory concentration; Origanum vulgare
23.  Analgesic and hypnotic activities of Laghupanchamula: A preclinical study 
Ayu  2014;35(1):79-84.
Background:
In Ayurvedic classics, two types of Laghupanchamula -five plant roots (LP) have been mentioned containing four common plants viz. Kantakari, Brihati, Shalaparni, and Prinshniparni and the fifth plant is either Gokshura (LPG) or Eranda (LPE). LP has been documented to have Shothahara (anti-inflammatory), Shulanashka (analgesic), Jvarahara (antipyretic), and Rasayana (rejuvenator) activities.
Aim:
To evaluate the acute toxicity (in mice), analgesic and hypnotic activity (in rats) of 50% ethanolic extract of LPG (LPGE) and LPE (LPEE).
Materials and Methods:
LPEG and LPEE were prepared separately by using 50% ethanol following the standard procedures. A graded dose (250, 500 and 1000 mg/kg) response study for both LPEE and LPGE was carried out for analgesic activity against rat tail flick response which indicated 500 mg/kg as the optimal effective analgesic dose. Hence, 500 mg/kg dose of LPEE and LPGE was used for hot plate test and acetic acid induced writhing model in analgesic activity and for evaluation of hypnotic activity.
Results:
Both the extracts did not produce any acute toxicity in mice at single oral dose of 2.0 g/kg. Both LPGE and LPEE (250, 500, and 1000 mg/kg) showed dose-dependent elevation in pain threshold and peak analgesic effect at 60 min as evidenced by increased latency period in tail-flick method by 25.1-62.4% and 38.2-79.0% respectively. LPGE and LPEE (500 mg/kg) increased reaction time in hot-plate test at peak 60 min analgesic effect by 63.2 and 85.8% and reduction in the number of acetic acid-induced writhes by 55.9 and 65.8% respectively. Both potentiated pentobarbitone-induced hypnosis as indicated by increased duration of sleep in treated rats.
Conclusion:
The analgesic and hypnotic effects of LP formulations authenticate their uses in Ayurvedic system of Medicine for painful conditions.
doi:10.4103/0974-8520.141945
PMCID: PMC4213974  PMID: 25364205
Analgesic; hypnotic potentiation; Laghupanchamula
24.  Effect of Azadirachta indica (Neem) and Aloe vera as compared to subantimicrobial dose doxycycline on matrix metalloproteinases (MMP)-2 and MMP-9: An in-vitro study 
Ayu  2014;35(1):85-89.
Background:
A critical outcome of periodontal diseases is degradation of collagen in the periodontal tissues, by enzymes such as Matrix Metallo-Proteinases (MMPs). Doxycycline is known to down-regulate the activity of MMPs. Azadirachta indica (Neem) and Aloe vera are herbs known to have an anti-inflammatory effect. The present study was designed to evaluate the anti-inflammatory effect of Neem and Aloe vera by way of its inhibitory effect on MMP-2 and MMP-9 activity in cases of chronic periodontitis and compare it with doxcycline.
Materials and Methods:
A total of 30 subjects were enrolled in this study. Gingival tissue samples were obtained from patients diagnosed with the chronic periodontitis. The tissue extracts were treated with the said drug solutions and inhibition of MMP-2 and MMP-9 was analyzed. Enzymatic activity was detected by electrophoresis. The data was subjected to Student's paired t-test.
Results:
The results showed that the activity of MMP-2 and MMP-9 was significantly decreased by the use of doxycycline, Neem and Aloe vera. A 53.5% reduction in the MMP-2 and 52.5% reduction in the MMP-9 activity was seen when samples were subjected to Neem treatment at the concentration of 1500 μg/ml. Tissues treated with Aloe vera in the concentration of 2000 μg/ml showed a 20.09% reduction in the MMP-2 and 20.4% reduction in the MMP-9 activity. Doxycycline in the concentration of 300 μg/ml, showed an 82.1% reduction in the MMP-2 and 82.6% reduction in the MMP-9 activity.
Conclusion:
The present study demonstrated an inhibitory effect of Neem and Aloe vera on MMP-2 and MMP-9, which are involved in the extracellular matrix degradation during periodontitis.
doi:10.4103/0974-8520.141947
PMCID: PMC4213975  PMID: 25364206
Aloe; Azadirachta; doxycycline; matrix metallo-proteinases; periodontitis
25.  Knowledge level of Ayurveda practitioner on public health 
Ayu  2014;35(1):9-14.
Background:
Looking at the current scenario of shortage of public health professionals on one hand and intense demand of community health services on the other it is imperative that the contribution of Ayurveda practitioners is increased in the field of public health. However, the updating of the knowledge of public health issues and concepts will ultimately decide whether they can be successfully integrated into the community health arena or not.
Aim:
This study was conducted to assess the knowledge level of Ayurveda practitioners about public health Issues with the aim find out the competence of Ayurveda practitioners regarding knowledge of public health issues.
Materials and Methods:
Cross-sectional study was conducted in the union territory, Chandigarh and two districts each of the states of Haryana and Punjab. Public health knowledge assessment tool comprising a questionnaire was used to collect information from the respondents who were registered Ayurveda doctors and interns. The data was analyzed with the help of IBM SPSS (Statistical Product and Service Solutions).
Results:
The respondents scored between 5 and 17 points out of a total of 19 points and majority (82%) of the respondents fell in the category of “having average knowledge”. The mean score was 8.42 ± 2.
Conclusion:
Curriculum and training of Ayurveda education need to have more public health related inputs and hence that the Ayurveda practitioners are well-versed with the public health concepts and could contribute in the public health field meaningfully.
doi:10.4103/0974-8520.141897
PMCID: PMC4213976  PMID: 25364193
Ayurveda practitioners; public health; public health professionals; public health skills

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