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1.  ATG4B/autophagin-1 regulates intestinal homeostasis and protects mice from experimental colitis 
Autophagy  2013;9(8):1188-1200.
The identification of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) susceptibility genes by genome-wide association has linked this pathology to autophagy, a lysosomal degradation pathway that is crucial for cell and tissue homeostasis. Here, we describe autophagy-related 4B, cysteine peptidase/autophagin-1 (ATG4B) as an essential protein in the control of inflammatory response during experimental colitis. In this pathological condition, ATG4B protein levels increase in parallel with the induction of autophagy. Moreover, ATG4B expression is significantly reduced in affected areas of the colon from IBD patients. Consistently, atg4b−/− mice present Paneth cell abnormalities, as well as an increased susceptibility to DSS-induced colitis. atg4b-deficient mice exhibit significant alterations in proinflammatory cytokines and mediators of the immune response to bacterial infections, which are reminiscent of those found in patients with Crohn disease or ulcerative colitis. Additionally, antibiotic treatments and bone marrow transplantation from wild-type mice reduced colitis in atg4b−/− mice. Taken together, these results provided additional evidence for the importance of autophagy in intestinal pathologies and describe ATG4B as a novel protective protein in inflammatory colitis. Finally, we propose that atg4b-null mice are a suitable model for in vivo studies aimed at testing new therapeutic strategies for intestinal diseases associated with autophagy deficiency.
doi:10.4161/auto.24797
PMCID: PMC3748191  PMID: 23782979
ATG4B; autophagin-1; autophagy; colitis; inflammation; intestinal homeostasis; cysteine peptidase; Paneth cell
2.  Direct interaction between STAT3 and EIF2AK2 controls fatty acid-induced autophagy 
Autophagy  2013;9(3):415-417.
A chemical screen designed to identify novel inducers of autophagy led to the discovery that signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3) inhibitors can potently stimulate the autophagic flux. Although STAT3 is best known as a pro-inflammatory and oncogenic transcription factor, mechanistic analyses revealed that autophagy is regulated by the cytoplasmic, not nuclear, pool of STAT3. Cytoplasmic STAT3 normally interacts with the eukaryotic translation initiation factor 2, subunit 1α, 35kDa (EIF2S1/eIF2α) kinase 2/protein kinase, RNA-activated (EIF2AK2/PKR), a sensor of double-stranded RNA. This interaction, which could be recapitulated using recombinant proteins in pull-down experiments, involves the catalytic domain of EIF2AK2 as well as the SH2 domain of STAT3, which can adopt a fold similar to that of EIF2S1. Thus, STAT3 may act as a competitive inhibitor of EIF2AK2. Indeed, pharmacological or genetic inhibition of STAT3 stimulates EIF2AK2-dependent EIF2S1 phosphorylation and autophagy. Conversely, the overexpression of wild-type STAT3 as well as of STAT3 mutants that cannot be phosphorylated by JAK2 or are excluded from the nucleus inhibits autophagy. However, STAT3 mutants that fail to interact with EIF2AK2 are unable to suppress autophagy. Both STAT3-targeting agents (i.e., Stattic, JSI-124 and WP1066) and EIF2AK2 activators (such as the double-strand RNA mimetic polyinosinic:polycytidylic acid) are capable of disrupting the inhibitory interaction between STAT3 and EIF2AK2 in cellula, yet only the latter does so in cell-free systems in vitro. A further screen designed to identify EIF2AK2-dependent autophagy inducers revealed that several fatty acids including palmitate trigger autophagy via a pathway that involves the disruption of the STAT3-EIF2AK2 complex as well as the phosphorylation of mitogen-activated protein kinase 8/c-Jun N-terminal kinase 1 (MAPK8/JNK1) and EIF2S1. These results reveal an unsuspected crosstalk between cellular metabolism (fatty acids), pro-inflammatory signaling (STAT3), innate immunity (EIF2AK2), and translational control (EIF2S1) that regulates autophagy.
doi:10.4161/auto.22910
PMCID: PMC3590262  PMID: 23221979
EIF2S1S51A; endoplasmic reticulum; IRS1; palmitate; polyI:C; STAT3Y705F
3.  Targeting autophagy as a novel strategy for facilitating the therapeutic action of potentiators on ΔF508 cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator 
Autophagy  2012;8(11):1657-1672.
Channel activators (potentiators) of cystic fibrosis (CF) transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR), can be used for the treatment of the small subset of CF patients that carry plasma membrane-resident CFTR mutants. However, approximately 90% of CF patients carry the misfolded ΔF508-CFTR and are poorly responsive to potentiators, because ΔF508-CFTR is intrinsically unstable at the plasma membrane (PM) even if rescued by pharmacological correctors. We have demonstrated that human and mouse CF airways are autophagy deficient due to functional sequestration of BECN1 and that the tissue transglutaminase-2 inhibitor, cystamine, or antioxidants restore BECN1-dependent autophagy and reduce SQSTM1/p62 levels, thus favoring ΔF508-CFTR trafficking to the epithelial surface. Here, we investigated whether these treatments could facilitate the beneficial action of potentiators on ΔF508-CFTR homozygous airways. Cystamine or the superoxide dismutase (SOD)/catalase-mimetic EUK-134 stabilized ΔF508-CFTR at the plasma membrane of airway epithelial cells and sustained the expression of CFTR at the epithelial surface well beyond drug withdrawal, overexpressing BECN1 and depleting SQSTM1. This facilitates the beneficial action of potentiators in controlling inflammation in ex vivo ΔF508-CFTR homozygous human nasal biopsies and in vivo in mouse ΔF508-CFTR lungs. Direct depletion of Sqstm1 by shRNAs in vivo in ΔF508-CFTR mice synergized with potentiators in sustaining surface CFTR expression and suppressing inflammation. Cystamine pre-treatment restored ΔF508-CFTR response to the CFTR potentiators genistein, Vrx-532 or Vrx-770 in freshly isolated brushed nasal epithelial cells from ΔF508-CFTR homozygous patients. These findings delineate a novel therapeutic strategy for the treatment of CF patients with the ΔF508-CFTR mutation in which patients are first treated with cystamine and subsequently pulsed with CFTR potentiators.
doi:10.4161/auto.21483
PMCID: PMC3494594  PMID: 22874563
cystic fibrosis; autophagy; therapy; cystamine; CFTR potentiators
4.  Immunohistochemical detection of cytoplasmic LC3 puncta in human cancer specimens 
Autophagy  2012;8(8):1175-1184.
Autophagy is an evolutionarily conserved catabolic process that involves the entrapment of cytoplasmic components within characteristic vesicles for their delivery to and degradation within lysosomes. Alterations in autophagic signaling are found in several human diseases including cancer. Here, we describe a validated immunohistochemical protocol for the detection of LC3 puncta in human formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded cancer specimens that can also be applied to mouse tissues. In response to systemic chemotherapy, autophagy-competent mouse tumors exhibited LC3 puncta, which did not appear in mouse cancers that had been rendered autophagy-deficient by the knockdown of Atg5 or Atg7. As compared with normal tissues, LC3 staining was moderately to highly elevated in the large majority of human cancers studied, albeit tumors of the same histological type tended to be highly heterogeneous in the number and intensity of LC3 puncta per cell. Moreover, tumor-infiltrating immune cells often were highly positive for LC3. Altogether, this protocol for LC3 staining appears suitable for the specific detection of LC3 puncta in human specimens, including tissue microarrays. We surmise that this technique can be employed for retrospective or prospective studies involving large series of human tumor samples.
doi:10.4161/auto.20353
PMCID: PMC3973657  PMID: 22647537
autophagosomes; CT26; immunohistochemistry; lysosomes; macroautophagy; MCA205
5.  A comprehensive glossary of autophagy-related molecules and processes 
Autophagy  2010;6(4):438-448.
Autophagy is a rapidly expanding field in the sense that our knowledge about the molecular mechanism and its connections to a wide range of physiological processes has increased substantially in the past decade. Similarly, the vocabulary associated with autophagy has grown concomitantly. This fact makes it difficult for readers, even those who work in the field, to keep up with the ever-expanding terminology associated with the various autophagy-related processes. Accordingly, we have developed a comprehensive glossary of autophagy-related terms that is meant to provide a quick reference for researchers who need a brief reminder of the regulatory effects of transcription factors or chemical agents that induce or inhibit autophagy, the function of the autophagy-related proteins, or the role of accessory machinery or structures that are associated with autophagy.
doi:10.4161/auto.6.4.12244
PMCID: PMC3652604  PMID: 20484971
autophagy; definitions; glossary; lexicon; terms
6.  Guidelines for the use and interpretation of assays for monitoring autophagy 
Klionsky, Daniel J. | Abdalla, Fabio C. | Abeliovich, Hagai | Abraham, Robert T. | Acevedo-Arozena, Abraham | Adeli, Khosrow | Agholme, Lotta | Agnello, Maria | Agostinis, Patrizia | Aguirre-Ghiso, Julio A. | Ahn, Hyung Jun | Ait-Mohamed, Ouardia | Ait-Si-Ali, Slimane | Akematsu, Takahiko | Akira, Shizuo | Al-Younes, Hesham M. | Al-Zeer, Munir A. | Albert, Matthew L. | Albin, Roger L. | Alegre-Abarrategui, Javier | Aleo, Maria Francesca | Alirezaei, Mehrdad | Almasan, Alexandru | Almonte-Becerril, Maylin | Amano, Atsuo | Amaravadi, Ravi K. | Amarnath, Shoba | Amer, Amal O. | Andrieu-Abadie, Nathalie | Anantharam, Vellareddy | Ann, David K. | Anoopkumar-Dukie, Shailendra | Aoki, Hiroshi | Apostolova, Nadezda | Arancia, Giuseppe | Aris, John P. | Asanuma, Katsuhiko | Asare, Nana Y.O. | Ashida, Hisashi | Askanas, Valerie | Askew, David S. | Auberger, Patrick | Baba, Misuzu | Backues, Steven K. | Baehrecke, Eric H. | Bahr, Ben A. | Bai, Xue-Yuan | Bailly, Yannick | Baiocchi, Robert | Baldini, Giulia | Balduini, Walter | Ballabio, Andrea | Bamber, Bruce A. | Bampton, Edward T.W. | Juhász, Gábor | Bartholomew, Clinton R. | Bassham, Diane C. | Bast, Robert C. | Batoko, Henri | Bay, Boon-Huat | Beau, Isabelle | Béchet, Daniel M. | Begley, Thomas J. | Behl, Christian | Behrends, Christian | Bekri, Soumeya | Bellaire, Bryan | Bendall, Linda J. | Benetti, Luca | Berliocchi, Laura | Bernardi, Henri | Bernassola, Francesca | Besteiro, Sébastien | Bhatia-Kissova, Ingrid | Bi, Xiaoning | Biard-Piechaczyk, Martine | Blum, Janice S. | Boise, Lawrence H. | Bonaldo, Paolo | Boone, David L. | Bornhauser, Beat C. | Bortoluci, Karina R. | Bossis, Ioannis | Bost, Frédéric | Bourquin, Jean-Pierre | Boya, Patricia | Boyer-Guittaut, Michaël | Bozhkov, Peter V. | Brady, Nathan R | Brancolini, Claudio | Brech, Andreas | Brenman, Jay E. | Brennand, Ana | Bresnick, Emery H. | Brest, Patrick | Bridges, Dave | Bristol, Molly L. | Brookes, Paul S. | Brown, Eric J. | Brumell, John H. | Brunetti-Pierri, Nicola | Brunk, Ulf T. | Bulman, Dennis E. | Bultman, Scott J. | Bultynck, Geert | Burbulla, Lena F. | Bursch, Wilfried | Butchar, Jonathan P. | Buzgariu, Wanda | Bydlowski, Sergio P. | Cadwell, Ken | Cahová, Monika | Cai, Dongsheng | Cai, Jiyang | Cai, Qian | Calabretta, Bruno | Calvo-Garrido, Javier | Camougrand, Nadine | Campanella, Michelangelo | Campos-Salinas, Jenny | Candi, Eleonora | Cao, Lizhi | Caplan, Allan B. | Carding, Simon R. | Cardoso, Sandra M. | Carew, Jennifer S. | Carlin, Cathleen R. | Carmignac, Virginie | Carneiro, Leticia A.M. | Carra, Serena | Caruso, Rosario A. | Casari, Giorgio | Casas, Caty | Castino, Roberta | Cebollero, Eduardo | Cecconi, Francesco | Celli, Jean | Chaachouay, Hassan | Chae, Han-Jung | Chai, Chee-Yin | Chan, David C. | Chan, Edmond Y. | Chang, Raymond Chuen-Chung | Che, Chi-Ming | Chen, Ching-Chow | Chen, Guang-Chao | Chen, Guo-Qiang | Chen, Min | Chen, Quan | Chen, Steve S.-L. | Chen, WenLi | Chen, Xi | Chen, Xiangmei | Chen, Xiequn | Chen, Ye-Guang | Chen, Yingyu | Chen, Yongqiang | Chen, Yu-Jen | Chen, Zhixiang | Cheng, Alan | Cheng, Christopher H.K. | Cheng, Yan | Cheong, Heesun | Cheong, Jae-Ho | Cherry, Sara | Chess-Williams, Russ | Cheung, Zelda H. | Chevet, Eric | Chiang, Hui-Ling | Chiarelli, Roberto | Chiba, Tomoki | Chin, Lih-Shen | Chiou, Shih-Hwa | Chisari, Francis V. | Cho, Chi Hin | Cho, Dong-Hyung | Choi, Augustine M.K. | Choi, DooSeok | Choi, Kyeong Sook | Choi, Mary E. | Chouaib, Salem | Choubey, Divaker | Choubey, Vinay | Chu, Charleen T. | Chuang, Tsung-Hsien | Chueh, Sheau-Huei | Chun, Taehoon | Chwae, Yong-Joon | Chye, Mee-Len | Ciarcia, Roberto | Ciriolo, Maria R. | Clague, Michael J. | Clark, Robert S.B. | Clarke, Peter G.H. | Clarke, Robert | Codogno, Patrice | Coller, Hilary A. | Colombo, María I. | Comincini, Sergio | Condello, Maria | Condorelli, Fabrizio | Cookson, Mark R. | Coombs, Graham H. | Coppens, Isabelle | Corbalan, Ramon | Cossart, Pascale | Costelli, Paola | Costes, Safia | Coto-Montes, Ana | Couve, Eduardo | Coxon, Fraser P. | Cregg, James M. | Crespo, José L. | Cronjé, Marianne J. | Cuervo, Ana Maria | Cullen, Joseph J. | Czaja, Mark J. | D'Amelio, Marcello | Darfeuille-Michaud, Arlette | Davids, Lester M. | Davies, Faith E. | De Felici, Massimo | de Groot, John F. | de Haan, Cornelis A.M. | De Martino, Luisa | De Milito, Angelo | De Tata, Vincenzo | Debnath, Jayanta | Degterev, Alexei | Dehay, Benjamin | Delbridge, Lea M.D. | Demarchi, Francesca | Deng, Yi Zhen | Dengjel, Jörn | Dent, Paul | Denton, Donna | Deretic, Vojo | Desai, Shyamal D. | Devenish, Rodney J. | Di Gioacchino, Mario | Di Paolo, Gilbert | Di Pietro, Chiara | Díaz-Araya, Guillermo | Díaz-Laviada, Inés | Diaz-Meco, Maria T. | Diaz-Nido, Javier | Dikic, Ivan | Dinesh-Kumar, Savithramma P. | Ding, Wen-Xing | Distelhorst, Clark W. | Diwan, Abhinav | Djavaheri-Mergny, Mojgan | Dokudovskaya, Svetlana | Dong, Zheng | Dorsey, Frank C. | Dosenko, Victor | Dowling, James J. | Doxsey, Stephen | Dreux, Marlène | Drew, Mark E. | Duan, Qiuhong | Duchosal, Michel A. | Duff, Karen E. | Dugail, Isabelle | Durbeej, Madeleine | Duszenko, Michael | Edelstein, Charles L. | Edinger, Aimee L. | Egea, Gustavo | Eichinger, Ludwig | Eissa, N. Tony | Ekmekcioglu, Suhendan | El-Deiry, Wafik S. | Elazar, Zvulun | Elgendy, Mohamed | Ellerby, Lisa M. | Eng, Kai Er | Engelbrecht, Anna-Mart | Engelender, Simone | Erenpreisa, Jekaterina | Escalante, Ricardo | Esclatine, Audrey | Eskelinen, Eeva-Liisa | Espert, Lucile | Espina, Virginia | Fan, Huizhou | Fan, Jia | Fan, Qi-Wen | Fan, Zhen | Fang, Shengyun | Fang, Yongqi | Fanto, Manolis | Fanzani, Alessandro | Farkas, Thomas | Farre, Jean-Claude | Faure, Mathias | Fechheimer, Marcus | Feng, Carl G. | Feng, Jian | Feng, Qili | Feng, Youji | Fésüs, László | Feuer, Ralph | Figueiredo-Pereira, Maria E. | Fimia, Gian Maria | Fingar, Diane C. | Finkbeiner, Steven | Finkel, Toren | Finley, Kim D. | Fiorito, Filomena | Fisher, Edward A. | Fisher, Paul B. | Flajolet, Marc | Florez-McClure, Maria L. | Florio, Salvatore | Fon, Edward A. | Fornai, Francesco | Fortunato, Franco | Fotedar, Rati | Fowler, Daniel H. | Fox, Howard S. | Franco, Rodrigo | Frankel, Lisa B. | Fransen, Marc | Fuentes, José M. | Fueyo, Juan | Fujii, Jun | Fujisaki, Kozo | Fujita, Eriko | Fukuda, Mitsunori | Furukawa, Ruth H. | Gaestel, Matthias | Gailly, Philippe | Gajewska, Malgorzata | Galliot, Brigitte | Galy, Vincent | Ganesh, Subramaniam | Ganetzky, Barry | Ganley, Ian G. | Gao, Fen-Biao | Gao, George F. | Gao, Jinming | Garcia, Lorena | Garcia-Manero, Guillermo | Garcia-Marcos, Mikel | Garmyn, Marjan | Gartel, Andrei L. | Gatti, Evelina | Gautel, Mathias | Gawriluk, Thomas R. | Gegg, Matthew E. | Geng, Jiefei | Germain, Marc | Gestwicki, Jason E. | Gewirtz, David A. | Ghavami, Saeid | Ghosh, Pradipta | Giammarioli, Anna M. | Giatromanolaki, Alexandra N. | Gibson, Spencer B. | Gilkerson, Robert W. | Ginger, Michael L. | Ginsberg, Henry N. | Golab, Jakub | Goligorsky, Michael S. | Golstein, Pierre | Gomez-Manzano, Candelaria | Goncu, Ebru | Gongora, Céline | Gonzalez, Claudio D. | Gonzalez, Ramon | González-Estévez, Cristina | González-Polo, Rosa Ana | Gonzalez-Rey, Elena | Gorbunov, Nikolai V. | Gorski, Sharon | Goruppi, Sandro | Gottlieb, Roberta A. | Gozuacik, Devrim | Granato, Giovanna Elvira | Grant, Gary D. | Green, Kim N. | Gregorc, Ales | Gros, Frédéric | Grose, Charles | Grunt, Thomas W. | Gual, Philippe | Guan, Jun-Lin | Guan, Kun-Liang | Guichard, Sylvie M. | Gukovskaya, Anna S. | Gukovsky, Ilya | Gunst, Jan | Gustafsson, Åsa B. | Halayko, Andrew J. | Hale, Amber N. | Halonen, Sandra K. | Hamasaki, Maho | Han, Feng | Han, Ting | Hancock, Michael K. | Hansen, Malene | Harada, Hisashi | Harada, Masaru | Hardt, Stefan E. | Harper, J. Wade | Harris, Adrian L. | Harris, James | Harris, Steven D. | Hashimoto, Makoto | Haspel, Jeffrey A. | Hayashi, Shin-ichiro | Hazelhurst, Lori A. | He, Congcong | He, You-Wen | Hébert, Marie-Josée | Heidenreich, Kim A. | Helfrich, Miep H. | Helgason, Gudmundur V. | Henske, Elizabeth P. | Herman, Brian | Herman, Paul K. | Hetz, Claudio | Hilfiker, Sabine | Hill, Joseph A. | Hocking, Lynne J. | Hofman, Paul | Hofmann, Thomas G. | Höhfeld, Jörg | Holyoake, Tessa L. | Hong, Ming-Huang | Hood, David A. | Hotamisligil, Gökhan S. | Houwerzijl, Ewout J. | Høyer-Hansen, Maria | Hu, Bingren | Hu, Chien-an A. | Hu, Hong-Ming | Hua, Ya | Huang, Canhua | Huang, Ju | Huang, Shengbing | Huang, Wei-Pang | Huber, Tobias B. | Huh, Won-Ki | Hung, Tai-Ho | Hupp, Ted R. | Hur, Gang Min | Hurley, James B. | Hussain, Sabah N.A. | Hussey, Patrick J. | Hwang, Jung Jin | Hwang, Seungmin | Ichihara, Atsuhiro | Ilkhanizadeh, Shirin | Inoki, Ken | Into, Takeshi | Iovane, Valentina | Iovanna, Juan L. | Ip, Nancy Y. | Isaka, Yoshitaka | Ishida, Hiroyuki | Isidoro, Ciro | Isobe, Ken-ichi | Iwasaki, Akiko | Izquierdo, Marta | Izumi, Yotaro | Jaakkola, Panu M. | Jäättelä, Marja | Jackson, George R. | Jackson, William T. | Janji, Bassam | Jendrach, Marina | Jeon, Ju-Hong | Jeung, Eui-Bae | Jiang, Hong | Jiang, Hongchi | Jiang, Jean X. | Jiang, Ming | Jiang, Qing | Jiang, Xuejun | Jiang, Xuejun | Jiménez, Alberto | Jin, Meiyan | Jin, Shengkan V. | Joe, Cheol O. | Johansen, Terje | Johnson, Daniel E. | Johnson, Gail V.W. | Jones, Nicola L. | Joseph, Bertrand | Joseph, Suresh K. | Joubert, Annie M. | Juhász, Gábor | Juillerat-Jeanneret, Lucienne | Jung, Chang Hwa | Jung, Yong-Keun | Kaarniranta, Kai | Kaasik, Allen | Kabuta, Tomohiro | Kadowaki, Motoni | Kågedal, Katarina | Kamada, Yoshiaki | Kaminskyy, Vitaliy O. | Kampinga, Harm H. | Kanamori, Hiromitsu | Kang, Chanhee | Kang, Khong Bee | Kang, Kwang Il | Kang, Rui | Kang, Yoon-A | Kanki, Tomotake | Kanneganti, Thirumala-Devi | Kanno, Haruo | Kanthasamy, Anumantha G. | Kanthasamy, Arthi | Karantza, Vassiliki | Kaushal, Gur P. | Kaushik, Susmita | Kawazoe, Yoshinori | Ke, Po-Yuan | Kehrl, John H. | Kelekar, Ameeta | Kerkhoff, Claus | Kessel, David H. | Khalil, Hany | Kiel, Jan A.K.W. | Kiger, Amy A. | Kihara, Akio | Kim, Deok Ryong | Kim, Do-Hyung | Kim, Dong-Hou | Kim, Eun-Kyoung | Kim, Hyung-Ryong | Kim, Jae-Sung | Kim, Jeong Hun | Kim, Jin Cheon | Kim, John K. | Kim, Peter K. | Kim, Seong Who | Kim, Yong-Sun | Kim, Yonghyun | Kimchi, Adi | Kimmelman, Alec C. | King, Jason S. | Kinsella, Timothy J. | Kirkin, Vladimir | Kirshenbaum, Lorrie A. | Kitamoto, Katsuhiko | Kitazato, Kaio | Klein, Ludger | Klimecki, Walter T. | Klucken, Jochen | Knecht, Erwin | Ko, Ben C.B. | Koch, Jan C. | Koga, Hiroshi | Koh, Jae-Young | Koh, Young Ho | Koike, Masato | Komatsu, Masaaki | Kominami, Eiki | Kong, Hee Jeong | Kong, Wei-Jia | Korolchuk, Viktor I. | Kotake, Yaichiro | Koukourakis, Michael I. | Flores, Juan B. 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Angus | Meijer, Alfred J. | Meisler, Miriam H. | Meléndez, Alicia | Melia, Thomas J. | Melino, Gerry | Mena, Maria A. | Menendez, Javier A. | Menna-Barreto, Rubem F. S. | Menon, Manoj B. | Menzies, Fiona M. | Mercer, Carol A. | Merighi, Adalberto | Merry, Diane E. | Meschini, Stefania | Meyer, Christian G. | Meyer, Thomas F. | Miao, Chao-Yu | Miao, Jun-Ying | Michels, Paul A.M. | Michiels, Carine | Mijaljica, Dalibor | Milojkovic, Ana | Minucci, Saverio | Miracco, Clelia | Miranti, Cindy K. | Mitroulis, Ioannis | Miyazawa, Keisuke | Mizushima, Noboru | Mograbi, Baharia | Mohseni, Simin | Molero, Xavier | Mollereau, Bertrand | Mollinedo, Faustino | Momoi, Takashi | Monastyrska, Iryna | Monick, Martha M. | Monteiro, Mervyn J. | Moore, Michael N. | Mora, Rodrigo | Moreau, Kevin | Moreira, Paula I. | Moriyasu, Yuji | Moscat, Jorge | Mostowy, Serge | Mottram, Jeremy C. | Motyl, Tomasz | Moussa, Charbel E.-H. | Müller, Sylke | Muller, Sylviane | Münger, Karl | Münz, Christian | Murphy, Leon O. | Murphy, Maureen E. | Musarò, Antonio | Mysorekar, Indira | Nagata, Eiichiro | Nagata, Kazuhiro | Nahimana, Aimable | Nair, Usha | Nakagawa, Toshiyuki | Nakahira, Kiichi | Nakano, Hiroyasu | Nakatogawa, Hitoshi | Nanjundan, Meera | Naqvi, Naweed I. | Narendra, Derek P. | Narita, Masashi | Navarro, Miguel | Nawrocki, Steffan T. | Nazarko, Taras Y. | Nemchenko, Andriy | Netea, Mihai G. | Neufeld, Thomas P. | Ney, Paul A. | Nezis, Ioannis P. | Nguyen, Huu Phuc | Nie, Daotai | Nishino, Ichizo | Nislow, Corey | Nixon, Ralph A. | Noda, Takeshi | Noegel, Angelika A. | Nogalska, Anna | Noguchi, Satoru | Notterpek, Lucia | Novak, Ivana | Nozaki, Tomoyoshi | Nukina, Nobuyuki | Nürnberger, Thorsten | Nyfeler, Beat | Obara, Keisuke | Oberley, Terry D. | Oddo, Salvatore | Ogawa, Michinaga | Ohashi, Toya | Okamoto, Koji | Oleinick, Nancy L. | Oliver, F. Javier | Olsen, Laura J. | Olsson, Stefan | Opota, Onya | Osborne, Timothy F. | Ostrander, Gary K. | Otsu, Kinya | Ou, Jing-hsiung James | Ouimet, Mireille | Overholtzer, Michael | Ozpolat, Bulent | Paganetti, Paolo | Pagnini, Ugo | Pallet, Nicolas | Palmer, Glen E. | Palumbo, Camilla | Pan, Tianhong | Panaretakis, Theocharis | Pandey, Udai Bhan | Papackova, Zuzana | Papassideri, Issidora | Paris, Irmgard | Park, Junsoo | Park, Ohkmae K. | Parys, Jan B. | Parzych, Katherine R. | Patschan, Susann | Patterson, Cam | Pattingre, Sophie | Pawelek, John M. | Peng, Jianxin | Perlmutter, David H. | Perrotta, Ida | Perry, George | Pervaiz, Shazib | Peter, Matthias | Peters, Godefridus J. | Petersen, Morten | Petrovski, Goran | Phang, James M. | Piacentini, Mauro | Pierre, Philippe | Pierrefite-Carle, Valérie | Pierron, Gérard | Pinkas-Kramarski, Ronit | Piras, Antonio | Piri, Natik | Platanias, Leonidas C. | Pöggeler, Stefanie | Poirot, Marc | Poletti, Angelo | Poüs, Christian | Pozuelo-Rubio, Mercedes | Prætorius-Ibba, Mette | Prasad, Anil | Prescott, Mark | Priault, Muriel | Produit-Zengaffinen, Nathalie | Progulske-Fox, Ann | Proikas-Cezanne, Tassula | Przedborski, Serge | Przyklenk, Karin | Puertollano, Rosa | Puyal, Julien | Qian, Shu-Bing | Qin, Liang | Qin, Zheng-Hong | Quaggin, Susan E. | Raben, Nina | Rabinowich, Hannah | Rabkin, Simon W. | Rahman, Irfan | Rami, Abdelhaq | Ramm, Georg | Randall, Glenn | Randow, Felix | Rao, V. Ashutosh | Rathmell, Jeffrey C. | Ravikumar, Brinda | Ray, Swapan K. | Reed, Bruce H. | Reed, John C. | Reggiori, Fulvio | Régnier-Vigouroux, Anne | Reichert, Andreas S. | Reiners, John J. | Reiter, Russel J. | Ren, Jun | Revuelta, José L. | Rhodes, Christopher J. | Ritis, Konstantinos | Rizzo, Elizete | Robbins, Jeffrey | Roberge, Michel | Roca, Hernan | Roccheri, Maria C. | Rocchi, Stephane | Rodemann, H. Peter | Rodríguez de Córdoba, Santiago | Rohrer, Bärbel | Roninson, Igor B. | Rosen, Kirill | Rost-Roszkowska, Magdalena M. | Rouis, Mustapha | Rouschop, Kasper M.A. | Rovetta, Francesca | Rubin, Brian P. | Rubinsztein, David C. | Ruckdeschel, Klaus | Rucker, Edmund B. | Rudich, Assaf | Rudolf, Emil | Ruiz-Opazo, Nelson | Russo, Rossella | Rusten, Tor Erik | Ryan, Kevin M. | Ryter, Stefan W. | Sabatini, David M. | Sadoshima, Junichi | Saha, Tapas | Saitoh, Tatsuya | Sakagami, Hiroshi | Sakai, Yasuyoshi | Salekdeh, Ghasem Hoseini | Salomoni, Paolo | Salvaterra, Paul M. | Salvesen, Guy | Salvioli, Rosa | Sanchez, Anthony M.J. | Sánchez-Alcázar, José A. | Sánchez-Prieto, Ricardo | Sandri, Marco | Sankar, Uma | Sansanwal, Poonam | Santambrogio, Laura | Saran, Shweta | Sarkar, Sovan | Sarwal, Minnie | Sasakawa, Chihiro | Sasnauskiene, Ausra | Sass, Miklós | Sato, Ken | Sato, Miyuki | Schapira, Anthony H.V. | Scharl, Michael | Schätzl, Hermann M. | Scheper, Wiep | Schiaffino, Stefano | Schneider, Claudio | Schneider, Marion E. | Schneider-Stock, Regine | Schoenlein, Patricia V. | Schorderet, Daniel F. | Schüller, Christoph | Schwartz, Gary K. | Scorrano, Luca | Sealy, Linda | Seglen, Per O. | Segura-Aguilar, Juan | Seiliez, Iban | Seleverstov, Oleksandr | Sell, Christian | Seo, Jong Bok | Separovic, Duska | Setaluri, Vijayasaradhi | Setoguchi, Takao | Settembre, Carmine | Shacka, John J. | Shanmugam, Mala | Shapiro, Irving M. | Shaulian, Eitan | Shaw, Reuben J. | Shelhamer, James H. | Shen, Han-Ming | Shen, Wei-Chiang
Autophagy  2012;8(4):445-544.
In 2008 we published the first set of guidelines for standardizing research in autophagy. Since then, research on this topic has continued to accelerate, and many new scientists have entered the field. Our knowledge base and relevant new technologies have also been expanding. Accordingly, it is important to update these guidelines for monitoring autophagy in different organisms. Various reviews have described the range of assays that have been used for this purpose. Nevertheless, there continues to be confusion regarding acceptable methods to measure autophagy, especially in multicellular eukaryotes. A key point that needs to be emphasized is that there is a difference between measurements that monitor the numbers or volume of autophagic elements (e.g., autophagosomes or autolysosomes) at any stage of the autophagic process vs. those that measure flux through the autophagy pathway (i.e., the complete process); thus, a block in macroautophagy that results in autophagosome accumulation needs to be differentiated from stimuli that result in increased autophagic activity, defined as increased autophagy induction coupled with increased delivery to, and degradation within, lysosomes (in most higher eukaryotes and some protists such as Dictyostelium) or the vacuole (in plants and fungi). In other words, it is especially important that investigators new to the field understand that the appearance of more autophagosomes does not necessarily equate with more autophagy. In fact, in many cases, autophagosomes accumulate because of a block in trafficking to lysosomes without a concomitant change in autophagosome biogenesis, whereas an increase in autolysosomes may reflect a reduction in degradative activity. Here, we present a set of guidelines for the selection and interpretation of methods for use by investigators who aim to examine macroautophagy and related processes, as well as for reviewers who need to provide realistic and reasonable critiques of papers that are focused on these processes. These guidelines are not meant to be a formulaic set of rules, because the appropriate assays depend in part on the question being asked and the system being used. In addition, we emphasize that no individual assay is guaranteed to be the most appropriate one in every situation, and we strongly recommend the use of multiple assays to monitor autophagy. In these guidelines, we consider these various methods of assessing autophagy and what information can, or cannot, be obtained from them. Finally, by discussing the merits and limits of particular autophagy assays, we hope to encourage technical innovation in the field.
doi:10.4161/auto.19496
PMCID: PMC3404883  PMID: 22966490
LC3; autolysosome; autophagosome; flux; lysosome; phagophore; stress; vacuole
7.  A comprehensive glossary of autophagy-related molecules and processes (2nd edition) 
Autophagy  2011;7(11):1273-1294.
The study of autophagy is rapidly expanding, and our knowledge of the molecular mechanism and its connections to a wide range of physiological processes has increased substantially in the past decade. The vocabulary associated with autophagy has grown concomitantly. In fact, it is difficult for readers—even those who work in the field—to keep up with the ever-expanding terminology associated with the various autophagy-related processes. Accordingly, we have developed a comprehensive glossary of autophagy-related terms that is meant to provide a quick reference for researchers who need a brief reminder of the regulatory effects of transcription factors and chemical agents that induce or inhibit autophagy, the function of the autophagy-related proteins, and the roles of accessory components and structures that are associated with autophagy.
doi:10.4161/auto.7.11.17661
PMCID: PMC3359482  PMID: 21997368
autophagy; lysosome; mitophagy; pexophagy; stress; vacuole
8.  Bcl-2 family members 
Autophagy  2008;4(5):600-606.
The essential autophagy protein and haplo-insufficient tumor suppressor, Beclin 1, interacts with several cofactors (Ambra1, Bif-1, UVRAG) to activate the lipid kinase Vps34, thereby inducing autophagy. In normal conditions, Beclin 1 is bound to and inhibited by Bcl-2 or the Bcl-2 homolog Bcl-XL. This interaction involves a Bcl-2 homology 3 (BH3) domain in Beclin 1 and the BH3 binding groove of Bcl-2/Bcl-XL. Other proteins containing BH3 domains, called BH3-only proteins, can competitively disrupt the interaction between Beclin 1 and Bcl-2/Bcl-XL to induce autophagy. Nutrient starvation, which is a potent physiologic inducer of autophagy, can stimulate the dissociation of Beclin 1 from its inhibitors, either by activating BH3-only proteins (such as Bad) or by posttranslational modifications of Bcl-2 (such as phosphorylation) that may reduce its affinity for Beclin 1 and BH3-only proteins. Thus, anti-apoptotic Bcl-2 family members and pro-apoptotic BH3-only proteins may participate in the inhibition and induction of autophagy, respectively. This hitherto neglected crosstalk between the core machineries regulating autophagy and apoptosis may redefine the role of Bcl-2 family proteins in oncogenesis and tumor progression.
PMCID: PMC2749577  PMID: 18497563
Bcl-2; Bcl-xL; BH3-only proteins; Beclin 1; autophagy; apoptosis
9.  Guidelines for the use and interpretation of assays for monitoring autophagy in higher eukaryotes 
Klionsky, Daniel J. | Abeliovich, Hagai | Agostinis, Patrizia | Agrawal, Devendra K. | Aliev, Gjumrakch | Askew, David S. | Baba, Misuzu | Baehrecke, Eric H. | Bahr, Ben A. | Ballabio, Andrea | Bamber, Bruce A. | Bassham, Diane C. | Bergamini, Ettore | Bi, Xiaoning | Biard-Piechaczyk, Martine | Blum, Janice S. | Bredesen, Dale E. | Brodsky, Jeffrey L. | Brumell, John H. | Brunk, Ulf T. | Bursch, Wilfried | Camougrand, Nadine | Cebollero, Eduardo | Cecconi, Francesco | Chen, Yingyu | Chin, Lih-Shen | Choi, Augustine | Chu, Charleen T. | Chung, Jongkyeong | Clarke, Peter G.H. | Clark, Robert S.B. | Clarke, Steven G. | Clavé, Corinne | Cleveland, John L. | Codogno, Patrice | Colombo, María I. | Coto-Montes, Ana | Cregg, James M. | Cuervo, Ana Maria | Debnath, Jayanta | Demarchi, Francesca | Dennis, Patrick B. | Dennis, Phillip A. | Deretic, Vojo | Devenish, Rodney J. | Di Sano, Federica | Dice, J. Fred | DiFiglia, Marian | Dinesh-Kumar, Savithramma | Distelhorst, Clark W. | Djavaheri-Mergny, Mojgan | Dorsey, Frank C. | Dröge, Wulf | Dron, Michel | Dunn, William A. | Duszenko, Michael | Eissa, N. Tony | Elazar, Zvulun | Esclatine, Audrey | Eskelinen, Eeva-Liisa | Fésüs, László | Finley, Kim D. | Fuentes, José M. | Fueyo, Juan | Fujisaki, Kozo | Galliot, Brigitte | Gao, Fen-Biao | Gewirtz, David A. | Gibson, Spencer B. | Gohla, Antje | Goldberg, Alfred L. | Gonzalez, Ramon | González-Estévez, Cristina | Gorski, Sharon | Gottlieb, Roberta A. | Häussinger, Dieter | He, You-Wen | Heidenreich, Kim | Hill, Joseph A. | Høyer-Hansen, Maria | Hu, Xun | Huang, Wei-Pang | Iwasaki, Akiko | Jäättelä, Marja | Jackson, William T. | Jiang, Xuejun | Jin, Shengkan | Johansen, Terje | Jung, Jae U. | Kadowaki, Motoni | Kang, Chanhee | Kelekar, Ameeta | Kessel, David H. | Kiel, Jan A.K.W. | Kim, Hong Pyo | Kimchi, Adi | Kinsella, Timothy J. | Kiselyov, Kirill | Kitamoto, Katsuhiko | Knecht, Erwin | Komatsu, Masaaki | Kominami, Eiki | Kondo, Seiji | Kovács, Attila L. | Kroemer, Guido | Kuan, Chia-Yi | Kumar, Rakesh | Kundu, Mondira | Landry, Jacques | Laporte, Marianne | Le, Weidong | Lei, Huan-Yao | Lenardo, Michael J. | Levine, Beth | Lieberman, Andrew | Lim, Kah-Leong | Lin, Fu-Cheng | Liou, Willisa | Liu, Leroy F. | Lopez-Berestein, Gabriel | López-Otín, Carlos | Lu, Bo | Macleod, Kay F. | Malorni, Walter | Martinet, Wim | Matsuoka, Ken | Mautner, Josef | Meijer, Alfred J. | Meléndez, Alicia | Michels, Paul | Miotto, Giovanni | Mistiaen, Wilhelm P. | Mizushima, Noboru | Mograbi, Baharia | Monastyrska, Iryna | Moore, Michael N. | Moreira, Paula I. | Moriyasu, Yuji | Motyl, Tomasz | Münz, Christian | Murphy, Leon O. | Naqvi, Naweed I. | Neufeld, Thomas P. | Nishino, Ichizo | Nixon, Ralph A. | Noda, Takeshi | Nürnberg, Bernd | Ogawa, Michinaga | Oleinick, Nancy L. | Olsen, Laura J. | Ozpolat, Bulent | Paglin, Shoshana | Palmer, Glen E. | Papassideri, Issidora | Parkes, Miles | Perlmutter, David H. | Perry, George | Piacentini, Mauro | Pinkas-Kramarski, Ronit | Prescott, Mark | Proikas-Cezanne, Tassula | Raben, Nina | Rami, Abdelhaq | Reggiori, Fulvio | Rohrer, Bärbel | Rubinsztein, David C. | Ryan, Kevin M. | Sadoshima, Junichi | Sakagami, Hiroshi | Sakai, Yasuyoshi | Sandri, Marco | Sasakawa, Chihiro | Sass, Miklós | Schneider, Claudio | Seglen, Per O. | Seleverstov, Oleksandr | Settleman, Jeffrey | Shacka, John J. | Shapiro, Irving M. | Sibirny, Andrei | Silva-Zacarin, Elaine C.M. | Simon, Hans-Uwe | Simone, Cristiano | Simonsen, Anne | Smith, Mark A. | Spanel-Borowski, Katharina | Srinivas, Vickram | Steeves, Meredith | Stenmark, Harald | Stromhaug, Per E. | Subauste, Carlos S. | Sugimoto, Seiichiro | Sulzer, David | Suzuki, Toshihiko | Swanson, Michele S. | Tabas, Ira | Takeshita, Fumihiko | Talbot, Nicholas J. | Tallóczy, Zsolt | Tanaka, Keiji | Tanaka, Kozo | Tanida, Isei | Taylor, Graham S. | Taylor, J. Paul | Terman, Alexei | Tettamanti, Gianluca | Thompson, Craig B. | Thumm, Michael | Tolkovsky, Aviva M. | Tooze, Sharon A. | Truant, Ray | Tumanovska, Lesya V. | Uchiyama, Yasuo | Ueno, Takashi | Uzcátegui, Néstor L. | van der Klei, Ida | Vaquero, Eva C. | Vellai, Tibor | Vogel, Michael W. | Wang, Hong-Gang | Webster, Paul | Wiley, John W. | Xi, Zhijun | Xiao, Gutian | Yahalom, Joachim | Yang, Jin-Ming | Yap, George | Yin, Xiao-Ming | Yoshimori, Tamotsu | Yu, Li | Yue, Zhenyu | Yuzaki, Michisuke | Zabirnyk, Olga | Zheng, Xiaoxiang | Zhu, Xiongwei | Deter, Russell L.
Autophagy  2007;4(2):151-175.
Research in autophagy continues to accelerate,1 and as a result many new scientists are entering the field. Accordingly, it is important to establish a standard set of criteria for monitoring macroautophagy in different organisms. Recent reviews have described the range of assays that have been used for this purpose.2,3 There are many useful and convenient methods that can be used to monitor macroautophagy in yeast, but relatively few in other model systems, and there is much confusion regarding acceptable methods to measure macroautophagy in higher eukaryotes. A key point that needs to be emphasized is that there is a difference between measurements that monitor the numbers of autophagosomes versus those that measure flux through the autophagy pathway; thus, a block in macroautophagy that results in autophagosome accumulation needs to be differentiated from fully functional autophagy that includes delivery to, and degradation within, lysosomes (in most higher eukaryotes) or the vacuole (in plants and fungi). Here, we present a set of guidelines for the selection and interpretation of the methods that can be used by investigators who are attempting to examine macroautophagy and related processes, as well as by reviewers who need to provide realistic and reasonable critiques of papers that investigate these processes. This set of guidelines is not meant to be a formulaic set of rules, because the appropriate assays depend in part on the question being asked and the system being used. In addition, we emphasize that no individual assay is guaranteed to be the most appropriate one in every situation, and we strongly recommend the use of multiple assays to verify an autophagic response.
PMCID: PMC2654259  PMID: 18188003
autolysosome; autophagosome; flux; lysosome; phagophore; stress; vacuole

Results 1-9 (9)