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1.  The role of Atg29 phosphorylation in PAS assembly 
Autophagy  2013;9(12):2178-2179.
Macroautophagy (hereafter autophagy) initiates at the phagophore assembly site (PAS), where most of the AuTophaGy-related (Atg) proteins are at least transiently localized. As the first protein complex targeted to the PAS, the Atg17-Atg31-Atg29 complex serves as the scaffold for other Atg proteins and plays a critical role for the organization of the PAS, and in autophagy initiation. We recently showed that this complex is constitutively formed and activated by the phosphorylation of Atg29 when autophagy is induced. Phosphorylation of Atg29 is required for its interaction with Atg11, another scaffold protein, and its function for promoting the proper assembly of the PAS. Single-particle electron microscopy analysis of the Atg17-Atg31-Atg29 complex reveals an elongated structure with Atg29 located at the opposing ends. This structural arrangement allows Atg29 to interact with Atg11, and is critical in the organization of the intact Atg1 complex.
doi:10.4161/auto.26740
PMCID: PMC4028347  PMID: 24141181
autophagy; PAS; scaffold; vacuole; yeast
2.  Proteolytic processing of Atg32 by the mitochondrial i-AAA protease Yme1 regulates mitophagy 
Autophagy  2013;9(11):1828-1836.
Mitophagy, the autophagic removal of mitochondria, occurs through a highly selective mechanism. In the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae, the mitochondrial outer membrane protein Atg32 confers selectivity for mitochondria sequestration as a cargo by the autophagic machinery through its interaction with Atg11, a scaffold protein for selective types of autophagy. The activity of mitophagy in vivo must be tightly regulated considering that mitochondria are essential organelles that produce most of the cellular energy, but also generate reactive oxygen species that can be harmful to cell physiology. We found that Atg32 was proteolytically processed at its C terminus upon mitophagy induction. Adding an epitope tag to the C terminus of Atg32 interfered with its processing and caused a mitophagy defect, suggesting the processing is required for efficient mitophagy. Furthermore, we determined that the mitochondrial i-AAA protease Yme1 mediated Atg32 processing and was required for mitophagy. Finally, we found that the interaction between Atg32 and Atg11 was significantly weakened in yme1∆ cells. We propose that the processing of Atg32 by Yme1 acts as an important regulatory mechanism of cellular mitophagy activity.
doi:10.4161/auto.26281
PMCID: PMC4028336  PMID: 24025448
mitochondrial protease; mitophagy; starvation; vacuole; yeast
3.  Mitochondrial fission facilitates mitophagy in Saccharomyces cerevisiae 
Autophagy  2013;9(11):1900-1901.
As a highly dynamic organelle, mitochondria undergo constitutive fusion and fission as well as biogenesis and degradation. Mitophagy, selective mitochondrial degradation through autophagy, is a conserved cellular process used for the elimination of excessive and damaged mitochondria in eukaryotes. Despite the significance of mitophagy in cellular physiology and pathophysiologies, the underlying mechanism of this process is far from clear. In this report, we studied the role of mitochondrial fission during mitophagy, and uncover a direct link between the fission complex and mitophagy machinery in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.
doi:10.4161/auto.25804
PMCID: PMC4028339  PMID: 24025250
mitophagy; phagophore; stress; vacuole; yeast
4.  The variability of autophagy and cell death susceptibility 
Autophagy  2013;9(9):1270-1285.
Impaired autophagic machinery is implicated in a number of diseases such as heart disease, neurodegeneration and cancer. A common denominator in these pathologies is a dysregulation of autophagy that has been linked to a change in susceptibility to cell death. Although we have progressed in understanding the molecular machinery and regulation of the autophagic pathway, many unanswered questions remain. How does the metabolic contribution of autophagy connect with the cell’s history and how does its current autophagic flux affect metabolic status and susceptibility to undergo cell death? How does autophagic flux operate to switch metabolic direction and what are the underlying mechanisms in metabolite and energetic sensing, metabolite substrate provision and metabolic integration during the cellular stress response? In this article we focus on unresolved questions that address issues around the role of autophagy in sensing the energetic environment and its role in actively generating metabolite substrates. We attempt to provide answers by explaining how and when a change in autophagic pathway activity such as primary stress response is able to affect cell viability and when not. By addressing the dynamic metabolic relationship between autophagy, apoptosis and necrosis we provide a new perspective on the parameters that connect autophagic activity, severity of injury and cellular history in a logical manner. Last, by evaluating the cell’s condition and autophagic activity in a clear context of regulatory parameters in the intra- and extracellular environment, this review provides new concepts that set autophagy into an energetic feedback loop, that may assist in our understanding of autophagy in maintaining healthy cells or when it controls the threshold between cell death and cell survival.
doi:10.4161/auto.25560
PMCID: PMC4026026  PMID: 23846383
ATP; autophagy; energy; energetics; metabolite; mitochondria; threshold
5.  A comprehensive glossary of autophagy-related molecules and processes (2nd edition) 
Autophagy  2011;7(11):1273-1294.
The study of autophagy is rapidly expanding, and our knowledge of the molecular mechanism and its connections to a wide range of physiological processes has increased substantially in the past decade. The vocabulary associated with autophagy has grown concomitantly. In fact, it is difficult for readers—even those who work in the field—to keep up with the ever-expanding terminology associated with the various autophagy-related processes. Accordingly, we have developed a comprehensive glossary of autophagy-related terms that is meant to provide a quick reference for researchers who need a brief reminder of the regulatory effects of transcription factors and chemical agents that induce or inhibit autophagy, the function of the autophagy-related proteins, and the roles of accessory components and structures that are associated with autophagy.
doi:10.4161/auto.7.11.17661
PMCID: PMC3359482  PMID: 21997368
autophagy; lysosome; mitophagy; pexophagy; stress; vacuole
6.  Mitochondria removal by autophagy 
Autophagy  2011;7(3):297-300.
Mitochondrial dysfunction has severe cellular consequences and is linked with neurodegenerative diseases and aging. Maintaining a healthy population of mitochondria is thus essential for proper cellular homeostasis. Several strategies have evolved to prevent and limit mitochondria damage, and macroautophagy plays a role in degrading superfluous or severely damaged mitochondria. Selective removal of mitochondria by autophagy (termed mitophagy) has been extensively studied recently in both yeast and mammalian cells. In this review, we summarize our current knowledge of mitophagy. We also compare the molecular process of mitophagy with other types of specific autophagic pathways and discuss its biological importance.
doi:10.4161/auto.7.3.14502
PMCID: PMC3359476  PMID: 21252623
lysosome; mitophagy; protein targeting; stress; vacuole; yeast
7.  A role for diacylglycerol in antibacterial autophagy 
Autophagy  2011;7(3):331-333.
Antibacterial autophagy is understood to be a key cellular immune response to invading microbes. However, the mechanism(s) by which bacteria are selected as targets of autophagy remain unclear. We recently identified diacylglycerol as a novel signaling molecule that targets bacteria to the autophagy pathway, and show that it acts via protein kinase C activation. We also found that Pkc1 is required for autophagy in yeast, indicating that this kinase plays a conserved role in autophagy regulation.
doi:10.4161/auto.7.3.14045
PMCID: PMC3359477  PMID: 21079417
bacteria; Salmonella; innate immunity; adaptor; lipid second messenger; diacylglycerol; ubiquitin; NDP52; p62; SQSTM1
8.  The Golgi as a potential membrane source for autophagy 
Autophagy  2010;6(7):950-951.
In macroautophagy (hereafter autophagy), a morphological hallmark is the formation of double-membrane vesicles called autophagosomes that sequester and deliver cytoplasmic components to the lysosome/vacuole for degradation. This process begins with an initial sequestering compartment, the phagophore, which expands into the mature autophagosome. A tremendous amount of work has been carried out to elucidate the mechanism of how the autophagosome is formed. However, an important missing piece in this puzzle is where the membrane comes from. Independent lines of evidence have shown that preexisting organelles may continuously supply lipids to support autophagosome formation. In our analysis, we identified several components of the late stage secretory pathway that may redirect Golgi-derived membrane to autophagosome formation in response to starvation conditions.
doi:10.4161/auto.6.7.13009
PMCID: PMC3359472  PMID: 20729630
lysosome; membrane biogenesis; protein targeting; secretory pathway; stress; vacuole; yeast
9.  Antibacterial autophagy occurs at PtdIns(3)P-enriched domains of the endoplasmic reticulum and requires Rab1 GTPase 
Autophagy  2011;7(1):17-26.
Autophagy mediates the degradation of cytoplasmic components in eukaryotic cells and plays a key role in immunity. The mechanism of autophagosome formation is not clear. Here we examined two potential membrane sources for antibacterial autophagy: the ER and mitochondria. DFCP1, a marker of specialized ER domains known as ‘omegasomes,’ associated with Salmonella-containing autophagosomes via its PtdIns(3)P and ER-binding domains, while a mitochondrial marker (cytochrome b5-GFP) did not. Rab1 also localized to autophagosomes, and its activity was required for autophagosome formation, clearance of protein aggregates and peroxisomes, and autophagy of Salmonella. Overexpression of Rab1 enhanced antibacterial autophagy. The role of Rab1 in antibacterial autophagy was independent of its role in ER-to-Golgi transport. Our data suggest that antibacterial autophagy occurs at omegasomes and reveal that the Rab1 GTPase plays a crucial role in mammalian autophagy.
doi:10.4161/auto.7.1.13840
PMCID: PMC3039730  PMID: 20980813
autophagy; DFCP1; Rab1; Salmonella; ER-to-golgi trafficking

Results 1-9 (9)