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1.  The effect of smoking on the ocular surface and the precorneal tear film 
The Australasian Medical Journal  2012;5(4):221-226.
Background
Smoking, both active and passive, creates a plethora of health-related problems, which primarily affect the cardiovascular and respiratory systems. There is very little evidence on the effects of tobacco smoke on the eye, especially regarding anterior ocular surface related pathology. This study was undertaken to determine the effects of smoking on the ocular surface and the tear film in smokers.
Methods
A total of 51 (102 eyes) smokers and 50 (100 eyes) age-and gender-matched healthy non-smokers were included in this study. The ocular surface was evaluated by measuring tear film break-up time, surface staining with fluorescein, and corneal and conjunctival sensitivities, and by completing the Schirmer's II test. Data was analysed using Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS) version 11.5. A p value less than 0.05 was considered statistically significant.
Results
The smoker group had significantly lower tear film break-up time, and corneal and conjunctival sensitivity than the nonsmoker group. Punctate staining was significantly higher in the smoker group than the non-smoker group. There was no statistically significant difference in Schirmer's II test results between the smoker and non-smoker group.
Conclusion
Smoking caused adverse effects on the precorneal tear film and there was strong association between smoking and tear film instability. Although a causative relationship could not be determined, there is a need for further longitudinal studies.
doi:10.4066/AMJ.2012.1035
PMCID: PMC3395277  PMID: 22848314
Smoking; ocular surface; dry eye; tear stability; corneal and conjunctival sensitivity
2.  Contact lens compliance among a group of young, university-based lens users in South India 
The Australasian Medical Journal  2012;5(3):168-174.
Purpose:
To investigate the rate of compliance with the soft contact lens care and maintenance procedures with a focus on contact lens wearing habits, cleaning and disinfecting procedures, and maintenance of lens care accessories in a group of young, university-based contact lens wearers
Methods:
Two hundred and sixteen young soft contact lens wearers with an age range of 18-22 years were selected conveniently from the student population of Manipal University, Manipal, India. After receiving informed consent from the participants, their level of compliance with contact lenses was assessed using a questionnaire.
Results:
The mean (±SD) age of the participants was 21.86±2.35 years. Out of 216 subjects, only 34% of the lens users were identified to be compliant with the least level of compliance observed in the maintenance of lens care accessories. Conventional users showed significantly (p=0.001) better level of compliance compared to disposable wearers and so did the users who acquired their lenses from clinicians (p=0.001) compared to over-the-counter lens receipt. The gender (p=0.496) and years of experience in contact lens use (p=0.142) did not show any statistically significant difference in the level of compliance.
Conclusion:
This study demonstrated that non-compliance with lens care procedures among a group of young, university-based soft contact lens wearers is common. The results indicated that all subjects had some degree of non-compliance and the least level of compliance observed in the care of lens accessories.
doi:10.4066/AMJ.20121049
PMCID: PMC3433732  PMID: 22952562
Contact lens; compliance; lens care

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