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1.  Antiretroviral therapy associated mastopathy 
The Australasian Medical Journal  2012;5(8):418-420.
Reports about bilateral breast enlargement in patients on antiretroviral therapy are rare. It forms a constituent of the human immunodeficiency virus lipodystrophy syndrome. Often clinical suspicion followed by appropriate imaging evaluation is confirmative.
A case of antiretroviral therapy associated mastopathy is therefore presented here so that increased awareness would obviate the need of mastectomy in such cases. We also emphasise the role of adequate counselling in this scenario in alleviating patients’ anxiety.
doi:10.4066/AMJ.2012.1248
PMCID: PMC3442184  PMID: 23024714
Breast cancer; breast mass; mastopathy, antiretroviral therapy mastopathy; lipodystrophy
2.  Primary tubercular mastopathy 
The Australasian Medical Journal  2012;5(8):436-439.
Primary breast tuberculosis is a rare entity in the developed world but is slightly more common in the developing world. All lesions that clinically, pathologically and imaging wise appear benign but do not respond to routine antibiotics, must be worked up for possible tubercular aetiology especially when they present as plain oedema, induration or as non-healing ulcers. Imaging has a role in defining the extent, deciding the type of management and duration of follow-up. This article highlights the clinical and sonographic imaging findings in one such case which was followed up for a period of one year.
doi:10.4066/AMJ.2012.1345
PMCID: PMC3442188  PMID: 23024718
Primary breast tuberculosis; ultrasound; acid fast bacilli; imaging
3.  Diabetic mastopathy 
The Australasian Medical Journal  2012;5(6):296-299.
Diabetic mastopathy is the occurrence of lymphocytic mastitis and stromal fibrosis in men as well as women having long-standing diabetes. Clinical and radiological appearance can raise a suspicion of malignancy and result in unnecessary biopsy. As these lesions are known to recur; failure to recognise them can have devastating results. A case of diabetic mastopathy is therefore presented for the knowledge and benefit of all so that unnecessary surgery can be avoided.
doi:10.4066/AMJ.2012.1247
PMCID: PMC3395289  PMID: 22848327
Breast cancer; Breast mass; Mastopathy; Diabetic mastopathy; Diabetes mellitus; B-­‐lymphocytes; Lymphocytic mastitis
4.  Telepathology for effective healthcare in developing nations 
The Australasian Medical Journal  2011;4(11):592-595.
Telepathology has grown immensely due to rapid advances in information and technology. It has a wide variety of applications especially in the developing world, namely for remote primary diagnosis, specialist referrals, secondary opinions, remote teachings and in research. Basic infrastructure and skilled and experienced staff are the prerequisites for its successful implementation.
Socio-economic differences in developing nations result in a chaotic scenario so that, the advanced areas have expertise, while rural and remote areas remain deprived. Telepathology has the potential to bridge this gap.
This article discusses how successful use of the internet for telepathology is bridging this gap in developing nations and thereby contributing positively to effective healthcare. Possible constraints to telepathology and some solutions to overcome them are also discussed.
doi:10.4066/AMJ.2011.855
PMCID: PMC3562914  PMID: 23386872
Internet; Healthcare; Telepathology; Telereporting; Developing nations
5.  Radio-imaging for detecting congenitally defective metabolic pathways: A review 
The Australasian Medical Journal  2011;4(9):480-484.
Congenitally defective metabolic pathways adversely affect the quality of life of patients as well as their care givers. Early diagnosis is therefore vital. Frequently, radio-imaging alone raises a strong suspicion and sometimes even provides conclusive evidence of defective metabolic pathways, when the patient presents with signs and symptoms that clinically fail to lead to a definitive diagnosis. This article discusses the role of radiological imaging that can lead to a strong suspicion, or even a diagnosis of these errors.
doi:10.4066/AMJ.2011.822
PMCID: PMC3562905  PMID: 23393538
Congenital metabolic defects; radiograph; ultrasound; CT scan; MRI; MR spectroscopy

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