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2.  The future of primary healthcare in Australia: Where to from here? 
doi:10.4066/AMJ.2014.1959
PMCID: PMC3941581  PMID: 24611077
3.  The current state of diabetes mellitus in India 
doi:10.4066/AMJ.2013.1979
PMCID: PMC3920109  PMID: 24567766
5.  Bacterial contamination of unused, disposable non-sterile gloves on a hospital orthopaedic ward 
The Australasian Medical Journal  2013;6(6):331-338.
Background
Non-sterile disposable gloves are used on large hospital wards, however their potential role as a vehicle for pathogen transmission has not been explored in this setting.
Aims
This study investigates glove use on a hospital orthopaedic ward to examine whether pathogen contamination occurs prior to contact with patients.
Method
Glove samples were aseptically removed from boxes on a hospital orthopaedic ward on opening and days 3, 6 and 9 thereafter. Following elution of bacteria and viable counts, glove isolates were identified by standard techniques and 16s rDNA sequencing. Methicillin resistance of staphylococci was determined by disc diffusion, Epsilon tests and PCR. Gloves were inoculated to determine two isolate survival rates.
Results
Total bacterial counts ranged from 0 to 9.6 x 103 cfu/glove. Environmental bacteria, particularly Bacillus species, were present on 31/38 (81.6%) of samples. Half (19/38) the samples were contaminated with skin commensals; coagulase negative staphylococci were predominant. Enterococcus faecalis , Klebsiella pneumoniae , Pseudomonas sp. or methicillin susceptible Staphylococcus aureus were recovered from 5/38 (13.2%) of samples. Significantly more skin commensals and pathogens were recovered from samples from days 3, 6, 9 than box-opening samples. Staphylococcus epidermidis and Klebsiella pneumoniae inoculated onto gloves remained viable for several days but counts decreased.
Conclusion
Health care workers introduced skin commensals and pathogenic bacteria into glove boxes indicating that unused, non-sterile gloves are potential pathogen transmission vehicles in hospitals. Findings highlight adherence to handwashing guidelines, common glove retrieval practice, and glove-box design as targets for decreasing bacteria transmission via gloves on hospital wards.
doi:10.4066/AMJ.2013.1675
PMCID: PMC3702138  PMID: 23837081
Bacteria; nosocomial pathogens; nosocomial infection; disposable gloves; contamination; methicillin resistance; hospital
7.  Evaluation of free i-applications for tertiary level gross anatomy education 
The Australasian Medical Journal  2012;5(4):239-242.
Background
The use of electronic resources in education, including i- applications used on portable handheld devices, is increasing. Apple® handheld devices are popular, with free applications the most prevalent download form. Many gross anatomy i- applications are available, however no information on the quality of free anatomy products is available. Rating such products could therefore guide product recommendations.
Aim
To evaluate the quality and range of free iPod® applications that are applicable for tertiary level gross anatomy education.
Methods
A search of the iTunes® Application Store with keywords anatomy, free, medical, functional, clinical, gross, and human was performed, with inclusion based on free applications containing human gross anatomy usable for tertiary education purposes. Application specification was noted; each was trialled independently and rated for usability, specification, academic level, and quality (image and programme).
Results
Sixty-three applications were identified and eleven met inclusion criteria. Two provided gross anatomy of the entire body, nine examined specific regions or systems. Five were judged introductory in academic level, five intermediate, and one advanced. One application was rated low quality, and four excellent. None were considered difficult to use (six easy, five medium). Application size ranged between 1.2MB and 229MB (mean 27MB).
Conclusions
There are few free i-applications for learning gross anatomy and most concentrate on individual body systems, with the academic level and usability of all products well rated. Results suggest some free I- applications could be suitable adjuncts for gross anatomy education at both an undergraduate and graduate level.
doi:10.4066/AMJ.2012.1249
PMCID: PMC3395276  PMID: 22848318
Gross anatomy; i-applications; education

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