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1.  Baseline antibody titres against Salmonella typhi in apparently asymptomatic HIV positive individuals in a tertiary care hospital 
The Australasian Medical Journal  2013;6(7):354-357.
Enteric fever is common in tropical regions and is caused by Salmonella enterica serotype typhi (S typhi ). For diagnosis of enteric fever, the Widal test is the most widely used test after blood culture. In HIV infected individuals false positive and false negative Widal reactions are common. The result is variable titres and baseline titres that are unusual in this patient population.
This study was done to determine the baseline antibody titres for S typhi among HIV infected individuals.
Average baseline antibody titres against O and H antigens of S typhi were measured by standard Widal test in 200 HIV positive asymptomatic individuals, as well as 200 age and sex-matched controls. The results were compiled and statistically analysed.
A total of 84 (42%) of the cases had an H antibody titre of >1:20 and 105 (52.5%) had a titre of >1:20 against O antigen. This implies that positive titre of H and O antigen is significantly associated with HIV positive cases with P<0.001. Correlation of CD4 count with antibody titres shows that there is no significant association between CD4 counts and antibody titres against either H (P=0.634) or O antigen (P=0.765)
This study shows that HIV infected individuals had increased titres of antibodies against S typhi from the baseline. This indicates a need for evaluation of current cut-off values of diagnostic titres for this group. We also suggest that it is best to perform baseline titres against S t yphi for each patient at the time of diagnosis of HIV status, and to use this for future reference.
PMCID: PMC3737764  PMID: 23940495
Salmonella typhi; Widal test; HIV/AIDS
2.  Post-traumatic endophthalmitis due to Brevibacterium casei : A case report 
Endophthalmitis is a serious post-traumatic ocular complication that can lead to loss of vision. We report a case of acute post-traumatic endophthalmitis following a penetrating injury caused by an unusual organism, Brevibacterium casei . The patient was successfully treated with intravitreal antibiotics like ceftazidime and vancomycin, along with topical cefazolin and tobramycin. Brevibacterium casei can be added to the list of rare bacteria causing endophthalmitis and should be kept in mind by clinicians as a potential source of pathology.
PMCID: PMC3593521  PMID: 23483044
Ocular complications; Endophthalmitis; Brevibacterium casei
3.  Efficacy of fresh Aloe vera gel against multi-drug resistant bacteria in infected leg ulcers 
The Australasian Medical Journal  2012;5(6):305-309.
Infected leg ulcers are major health problems resulting in morbidity and disability and are usually chronic and refractory to antimicrobial treatment.
The present study is aimed at determining the bacteria involved in leg ulcers and their resistance patterns to commonly used antibiotics as well as to determine whether Aloe Vera has antibacterial activity against multi-drug resistant organisms and promotes wound healing.
A total of 30 cases with leg ulcers infected with multi-drug resistant organisms were treated with topical aloe vera gel and 30 age and sex-matched controls were treated with topical antibiotics. Culture and sensitivity was done from the wounds on alternate days and the ulcer was clinically and microbiologically assessed after 10 days. The results were compiled and statistically analysed.
Cultures of the study group who were using aloe vera dressings showed no growth by the fifth day in 10 (33.3%) cases, seventh day in another 16 (53.3%) and ninth day in two of the remaining four cases (6.7%) while in two (6.7%) cases there was no decrease in the bacterial count. This means that of the 30 cases, 28 showed no growth by the end of 11 days while two cases showed no decrease in bacterial count. Growth of bacteria in study group is decreased from 100% (30 cases) to 6.7% (2 cases) by day 11 with P<0.001. Cultures of the control group did not show any decrease in the bacterial growth by day 11.
Aloe vera gel preparation is cheap and was effective even against multi-drug resistant organisms as compared to the routinely used topical anti-microbial agents.
PMCID: PMC3395293  PMID: 22848328
Leg ulcers; multi-drug resistant bacteria; Aloe vera

Results 1-3 (3)