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1.  Adverse drug reaction reporting in a pharmacovigilance centre of Nepal 
The Australasian Medical Journal  2012;5(5):268-271.
Pharmacovigilance is the “science and activities relating to the detection, assessment, understanding and prevention of adverse effects or any other drug related problems”. Nepal joined the international pharmacovigilance programme as a full member in 2007. KIST Medical College, Lalitpur, Nepal joined the national programme as a regional centre from mid-July 2008. Currently, the pattern and scope of adverse drug reactions (ADRs) in Nepal remains unexplored.
To observe and analyse the pattern of ADRs at KIST Medical College, Lalitpur, Nepal.
A retrospective analysis of all ADRs reported to the centre from mid July 2008 to July 2011 was performed. Data was analysed for ADR severity, causality, and preventability.
A total of 113 ADR reports were obtained from various clinical departments. The maximum number of reactions was due to antimicrobials, followed by anti-hypertensives and NSAIDs.
Antimicrobials were the commonest group of drugs causing ADRs and the most commonly seen ADR was maculopapular rash followed by diarrhea and vomiting.
PMCID: PMC3395286  PMID: 22848322
Adverse drug reactions; Nepal; pharmacovigilance; spontaneous reporting
2.  Small group effectiveness during pharmacology learning sessions in a Nepalese medical school. 
The Australasian Medical Journal  2011;4(6):327-331.
Small group learning sessions are used in pharmacology at the KIST Medical College, Lalitpur, Nepal. Feedback about student behaviours that enhance and hinder small group effectiveness was obtained. This will help us improve the small group sessions and will also be useful to educators using small groups in other medical schools.
The small groups were self-managing with a group leader, time-keeper, recorder and presenter. Small group effectiveness was measured using the Tutorial Group Effectiveness Instrument (TGEI) developed by Singaram and co-authors. The instrument was administered in June 2010 and key findings obtained were shared with students and facilitators. The instrument was administered again in August. The mean cognitive, motivational, demotivational and overall scores were compared among different categories of respondents in June and August. Scores were also compared between June and August 2010.
A total of 89 students participated in the study in June and 88 in August 2010. In June, females rated overall group productivity higher compared to males. The cognitive and motivational scores were higher in August 2010 while the demotivational score was lower.
The small group effectiveness was higher in August after the educational intervention which utilised feedback about problems observed, theoretical considerations of effective small groups and how this information can be applied in practice.
PMCID: PMC3562951  PMID: 23386895
Nepal; pharmacology; small group; tutorial group

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