The problem of mass diabetes is steadily increasing everyday. This editorial introduces key issues that need to be addressed to support the effective control of diabetes in India as well as globally. Issues like awareness generation for risk reduction, frequency of monitoring for selected parameters, standards for monitoring chronic complications in patients with diabetes, and current recommended targets of various parameters, amongst others, are presented along with extensions to the vaccinations recommended for diabetic patients.
Diabetes; challenges; control; India; key issues; vaccinations; awareness
In the clinical microbiology laboratory, classical culture and identification methods are rapidly giving way to molecular techniques with many benefits for clinicians and patients. Building on the discovery of the structure of DNA and the genetic code, four main scientific advances have been made which underpin these techniques (hybridisation probes, polymerase chain reaction, the observation that the microbial species signature can be read in the ribosomal genes and also in the proteins). Early discoveries have paved the way for new diagnostic methods, which are rapid, highly sensitive and specific. Automation has provided high throughput for large numbers of clinical specimens combined with reasonable cost. The benefits for the clinician and patient include confirmation of clinical diagnoses and information about antimicrobial susceptibility within hours compared to days for conventional methods. In resource-poor settings, molecular techniques and automated systems may seem unaffordable but new public-private partnerships, initiatives by the World Health Organization and new, innovative laboratory methods offer the promise of benefit for all.
Microbiology; molecular methods; resource-poor
One-half of the world’s population lives in cities and towns; this is expected to increase to 70% by 2050. One in three urban dwellers lives in slums. As the urban population grows, so does the number of urban poor. Out of a billion children living in urban areas, approximately 300 million are suffering from exclusion or are at risk of exclusion. Urban poor children are devoid of basic rights of survival, development and protection and are marginalised in challenging conditions in overcrowded settlements. Rapid urbanisation and the consequent increase in urban population is one of the biggest challenges that developing countries, including India are facing. Thirty per cent (that is, 367.5 million) of India’s population of 1.23 billion live in urban areas. Moreover, this figure is increasing rapidly and is expected to reach 432 million (40%) by 2021. Rapid urbanisation has unfortunately outpaced development, and a large proportion (43 million) live in substandard conditions in slums. Now is the time to pay attention to the basic rights of the urban poor, especially the urban poor children, the most vulnerable group at the launching of 12th Five-Year Plan & National Urban Health Mission (NUHM) in India.
Urban poor; slum children; urban children
This editorial will consider the challenge of innovation for healthcare from three perspectives: the general practitioner (GP), the patient and the policy maker. The knowledge, attitudes and beliefs of each, respectively, are likely to affect the type of innovation adopted in practice. Each stakeholder has priorities and needs that must be reflected in the design and implementation of innovations.
Understanding the viewer impact of the prime time television cooking show, MasterChef Australia , may help us to communicate more positively received messages about food and eating.
Media; health communication; food; pleasure
Generalist; Doctor; impersonator; skills; innovation
Longstanding controversy over the efficacy of 23-valent pneumococcal polysaccharide vaccine (PPV23) led to a recommendation by the Joint Committee on Vaccination and Immunisation (JCVI) of the United Kingdom in March 2011, to discontinue routine use of PPV23 in older adults.1 Following careful review of the evidence and feedback from stakeholders, the JCVI decided to retain the original policy of uniform vaccination of adults >65 years of age, while keeping the subject under continued review. In the United States, the Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices (ACIP) which is also concerned about the efficacy of PPV23 is currently considering a different strategy, i.e. adding 13-valent pneumococcal protein-conjugate vaccine (PCV13) for recommended use in adults, following recent Food and Drug Administration (FDA) approval for this purpose in adults over 50 years of age. It is therefore timely to review the options for prevention of pneumococcal disease in adults.