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1.  SHOULDER PAIN IN ELITE SWIMMERS 
Much research has investigated shoulder pain which inhibits the performance of elite swimmers. An ever increasing understanding of the epidemiology and aetiology of what has been termed 'swimmer's shoulder' has enabled better treatment, rehabilitation and prevention programs to be implemented. This paper reviews the current research relevant to 'swimmer's shoulder' and the methods of treatment being employed to treat the problem.
PMCID: PMC2051095  PMID: 17987196
Shoulder; pain; elite swimmer; chiropractic
2.  CHIROPRACTIC MANAGEMENT OF MIGRAINE WITHOUT AURA 
Objective: To assess the response of a patient with chronic migraines to a short program of chiropractic care (diversified technique).
Method: The study was run over a 13 week period with chiropractic spinal manipulative therapy (CSMT) on a once weekly schedule for 5 weeks, followed by an 8 week re-evaluation.
Outcome Measures: To measure the effect of treatment, a previously reported diary system was used which noted the intensity of a range of symptoms that are recorded following each migraine episode.
Results: The results attained showed there was a marked improvement in the migraine symptoms following the chiropractic care. The patient reported an improvement in frequency, intensity, duration and use of medication. These findings appear to also confirm other evidence which documented similar changes following a large randomised controlled trial of chiropractic treatment of migraine.
Discussion: The case is presented as further support for CSMT in the treatment of migraine. The outcome of this case is also discussed in relation to recent research that concludes that CSMT is a very effective treatment for some people with non-neuromusculoskeletal conditions.
Conclusion: It now appears clear that chiropractic care may be used to assist patients with migraine. Research is currently being undertaken to investigate the potential mechanisms of chiropractic in the treatment of migraine. This research should also assess what (if any) prognostic signs can be identified to assist practitioners making a more informed decision on the treatment of choice for migraine.
PMCID: PMC2051094  PMID: 17987195
Classic Migraine; chiropractic; manipulation; spinal; case report
3.  TREATMENT OF ACUTE ATOPIC ECZEMA BY CHIROPRACTIC CARE 
Objective: To investigate a patient with atopic eczema and assess how they responded to chiropractic care.
Method: The study was run over a 7 week period with chiropractic treatments (diversified technique) on a once weekly schedule.
Outcome Measures: To measure the effect of treatment, a rating system was developed and the intensity of a range of symptoms was recorded (through a questionnaire) on a twice weekly basis.
Results: The results attained showed there was a marked improvement in the eczema symptoms following the chiropractic care. The patient reported an improvement in eczematous symptoms of excoriation, pruritus, oedema and general psychological ease. These findings were also confirmed by photographic evidence which documented the change in the lesions.
Discussion: The case is presented to assist practitioners making a more informed decision on the treatment of choice for eczema. The outcome of this case is also discussed in relation to recent research that concludes that chiropractic spinal manipulative therapy has a role in the treatment for some people with non-neuromusculoskeletal conditions.
Conclusion: It appears that chiropractic care may have assisted this patient with eczema. However, more research is required to investigate the role that chiropractic has in the treatment of patients with eczema, and the potential mechanisms that could explain the improvement.
PMCID: PMC2051093  PMID: 17987197
Eczema; dermatitis; atopic; chiropractic; case report
4.  THE ROLE OF THE CHIROPRACTOR 
Chiropractors in Australia face some challenges that are unique in their history. The value of their primary treatment modality is now widely recognised. The process of professionalisation of this occupation is well advanced. Yet the integration of chiropractic services within the mainstream Australian health care system remains problematic. It is contended in this paper that chiropractors' integration will be facilitated by two genuine and strategic moves by the medically minded segment of, or the entire, profession. One is to abandon metaphysical notions as part of the 'philosophy of chiropractic' and the other is to pursue limited prescription rights allowing chiropractors to play fully the role of the primary contact practitioners of neuromusculoskeletal medicine. This development is deemed to be beneficial and appropriate for the profession as well as the patients served by this profession.
PMCID: PMC2051092  PMID: 17987192
Chiropractic; prescription rights; neuromusculoskeletal; scope of practice
5.  A TWELVE MONTH CLINICAL TRIAL OF CHIROPRACTIC SPINAL MANIPULATIVE THERAPY FOR MIGRAINE 
Objective: To assess the efficacy of Chiropractic spinal manipulative therapy (SMT) in the treatment of migraine.
Design: A prospective clinical trial of twelve months duration. The trial consisted of 3 stages: two month pre-treatment, two month treatment, and two months post treatment. Comparison of outcomes to the initial baseline factors was made and also 6 months after the cessation of the study.
Setting: Chiropractic Research Centre of Macquarie University.
Participants: Thirty two volunteers, between the ages of 20 to 65 were recruited through media advertising. The diagnosis of migraine was based on a self reported detailed questionnaire, with minimum of one migraine per month.
Interventions: Two months of chiropractic SMT at vertebral fixations determined by the practitioner, through orthopedic and chiropractic testing.
Main Outcome Measures: Participants completed diaries during the entire trial noting the frequency, intensity (visual analogue score), duration, disability, associated symptoms and use of medication for each migraine episode.
Results: The initial 32 participants showed statistically significant (p < 0.05) improvement in migraine frequency, VAS, disability, and medication use, when compared to initial baseline levels. A further assessment of outcomes after a six month follow up (based on 24 participants), continued to show statistically significant improvement in migraine frequency (p < 0.005), VAS (p < 0.01), disability (p < 0.05), and medication use (p < 0.01), when compared to initial baseline levels.
In addition, information was collected regarding any changes in neck pain following chiropractic SMT. The results indicated that 14 participants (58%) reported no increase in neck pain as a consequence of the two months of SMT. Five participants (21%) reported a slight increase, three participants (13%) reported mild pain, and two participants (8%) reported moderate pain.
Conclusion: The results of this study support the hypothesis that Chiropractic SMT is an effective treatment for migraine, in some people. However, a larger controlled study is required.
PMCID: PMC2051091  PMID: 17987194
Migraine; chiropractic; spinal manipulation; prospective trial; neck
6.  IS THERE A ROLE FOR THE PRESCRIPTION OF MEDICATION BY CHIROPRACTORS? 
PMCID: PMC2051090  PMID: 17987193
Chiropractic; drugs; medicine
7.  BACTERIAL ARTHRITIS 
Acute pain in peripheral joints is not a common presenting symptom for chiropractors or osteopaths. However, chiropractors or osteopaths may be asked to assess peripheral joints when patients present with other conditions such as back pain.
This paper reviews the literature on bacterial arthritis as a specific type of infectious arthritis. Information was obtained from Medline and internet search using the keyword: “bacterial arthritis”. The most common presenting symptoms are described, with specific reference for chiropractors and osteopaths in clinical presentation of patients' with this condition.
PMCID: PMC2051089  PMID: 17987191
Bacterial arthritis; chiropractic
8.  THE DESIGN AND PRESENTATION OF A CASE STUDY 
PMCID: PMC2051088  PMID: 17987187
Case study; design
9.  MULTIPLE CHANNEL RECORDING OF THE ARTICULAR CRACK ASSOCIATED WITH MANIPULATION OF THE METACARPOPHALANGEAL JOINT 
Background: The audible release or cracking sound associated with spinal manipulation is familiar to practitioners of spinal manipulative therapy. Furthermore, some authors believe the articular crack to be at least in part responsible for the therapeutic benefits derived from spinal manipulative therapy. Although some research has been directed towards the investigation of some aspects of this phenomenon, little research has be conducted in order to establish from which side and vertebral level the audible release occurs during the manipulative process.
Objective: To assess the reliability and accuracy of multiple surface mounted microphones to detect the audible release of the target joint during manipulation of the third metacarpophalangeal joint.
Design: Observational study.
Setting: Private practice of chiropractic, Ringwood, Victoria, Australia.
Participants: Twenty volunteers recruited from staff and patients of the private practice of chiropractic.
Method: Eight omnidirectional microphones were affixed to the palmar surface of the hand. Microphone No.1 was positioned directly over the third metacarpophalangeal joint while the remaining microphones were arranged in a uniform pattern over the palmar surface of the hand. Manipulation in the form of long axis traction was then applied to the third metacarpophalangeal joint. Where an audible release was associated with the manipulation the resultant signals were captured via computer and stored for later analysis.
Main Outcome Measure: A difference of greater than one volt in peak amplitude between the microphone positioned over the target joint and the other microphones. The student's t-test was then applied to the data in order to determine if the mean output of the target joint microphone was statistically different to the mean output of the other microphones.
Results: A total of eighteen manipulations resulted in nineteen audible release signals. The mean voltage of channel 1 was consistently greater than all the other channels in this group of subjects. This difference was statistically significant for all the channels.
Conclusion: This research suggests that multiple surface mounted microphones are capable of consistently detecting the audible release from the target joint, with manipulation directed to the third MCP joint. It is hoped that this method will be able to be applied to the audible release associated with spinal manipulative therapy and a better understanding of the manipulative process will ensue.
PMCID: PMC2051087  PMID: 17987189
Joint crack; cavitation; noise; sound; audible release; vibration; recording; manipulation; metacarpophalangeal joint; spine
10.  CHIROPRACTIC AND OSTEOPATHIC EDUCATION AT ROYAL MELBOURNE INSTITUTE TECHNOLOGY 
Objective: To assess the attitudes of undergraduate chiropractic and osteopathic students at Royal Melbourne Institute of Technology (RMIT) in 1992 on the education they are receiving and on the effectiveness of chiropractic and osteopathic care.
Design: Cross-sectional descriptive survey.
Participants: Undergraduate chiropractic and osteopathic students enrolled at RMIT School of Chiropractic and Osteopathy in 1992.
Results: This study surveyed 272 students, 196 who were chiropractic students and 76 who were osteopathic students from RMIT School of Chiropractic and Osteopathy in Melbourne, Australia. The students that responded represented 73.4% of chiropractic students and 85.4% of osteopathic students currently enrolled in their respective courses. Chiropractic and osteopathic students entered their respective courses from non-chiropractic/non-osteopathic families. More chiropractic students than osteopathic students (1.3:1.0) had their respective course as their first choice when applying for tertiary education. A majority (95.8 chiropractic students and 94.8% osteopathic students) of both groups surveyed were pleased with their choice of course. Students from both disciplines held considerable respect for each other in the care of certain conditions, but did not see the other profession’s care as effective as their own. A greater percentage of osteopathic students believed there was sufficient difference between chiropractic and osteopathy to justify two separate professions (57.6% compared to 97.2%).
Discussion: High quality education is a major aim in our schools and colleges. For this standard to be maintained it requires continual re-evaluation and assessment. Surveys such as this should be performed regularly as a method of evaluating student attitude and how these attitudes change during the course. This would also allow administrators to determine whether they are achieving their academic intentions. An immediate follow up survey asking the same questions is suggested to ascertain whether the same attitudes exist today.
PMCID: PMC2051086  PMID: 17987188
Chiropractic; osteopathic medicine; education; students; attitude
11.  THE AMA AND CHIROPRACTIC 
PMCID: PMC2051085  PMID: 17987190
News; chiropractic; AMA

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