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4.  A Clinical Model for the Diagnosis and Management of Patients with Cervical Spine Syndromes Quiz 
PMCID: PMC2051328
Cervical spine; chiropractic; conservative management; neck pain; headache; rehabilitation
5.  Spinal Musculoskeletal Injuries Associated with Swimming 
Objectives: To review the biomechanics of the swimming stroke and examine common injuries which occur in swimming. A review of diagnosis and management strategies of these injuries is also performed.
Background: Most injuries and complaints encountered in swimming athletes occur because of repetitive microtrauma or overuse, with many injuries originating from faulty technique and poor swimming biomechanics. As a result, assessment of an injured athlete requires the practitioner to have an understanding of the four swimming strokes and hydrodynamics.
Methods: A Literature search of the MEDLINE and MANTIS databases was performed on all swimming related articles.
Results: Twenty seven journal articles and 7 text books were chosen that satisfied the search criteria and related to the aims of this review.
Discussion: The correct swimming technique is discussed and predisposing factors to injury in the stroke are identified. Specific injury sites are examined and pathologies to these areas are detailed.
Conclusion: The shoulder, neck and back are the injuries considered in this review. These regions are considered in the total training program of the athlete to identify other factors, such as weight training or other dry land programs that may be contributing to injury. However, whilst rest or reduced training may be necessary for recovery, every effort must be made to keep the swimmer “in the water” as cessation of training may lead to a rapid detraining effect and loss of competitive advantage.
PMCID: PMC2051327  PMID: 17987215
Swimming; analysis and movement; wounds and injuries; review literature; chiropractic
6.  Spinal Musculoskeletal Injuries Associated with Swimming Quiz 
PMCID: PMC2051325
Swimming; analysis and movement; wounds and injuries; review literature; chiropractic
7.  Searching for the Evidence 
Background: Chiropractic and Osteopathy are categorised within the family of Complementary and Alternative Medicine (CAM) by most indexers and database managers. CAM therapies can be difficult to search because relevant resources are spread over a number of databases.
Objective: This paper aims to introduce basic searching skills for six databases which offer CAM literature.
Methods: Six readily available databases which can be used by a busy clinician to remain informed about best practice were chosen. The databases were searched and compared using two clinical scenarios as sample searches.
Discussion: Evidence-based practice demands that practitioners maintain their information gathering skills, but no one source provides all the answers. We are lured by the thought that everything is available on the web easily and speedily, but may sacrifice quality for ease and speed of retrieval.
PMCID: PMC2051324  PMID: 17987213
Databases; bibliographic; complementary therapies; information storage and retrieval
8.  A Clinical Model for the Diagnosis and Management of Patients with Cervical Spine Syndromes 
Background: Disorders of the cervical spine are common and often disabling. The etiology of these disorders is often multifactorial and a comprehensive approach to both diagnosis and management is essential to successful resolution.
Objective: This article provides an overview of a clinical model of the diagnosis and management of patients with disorders related to the cervical spine. This model is based in part on the scientific literature, clinical experience, and communication with other practitioners over the course of the past 20 years.
Discussion: The clinical model presented here involves taking a systematic approach to diagnosis, and management. The diagnostic process is one that asks three essential questions. The answers to these questions then guides the management process, allowing the physician to apply specific methods that address the many factors that can be involved in each individual patient. This clinical model allows the physician to individualize the management strategy while utilizing principles that can be applied to all patients. At times, the management strategy must be multidisciplinary, and cooperation with other physicians and therapists is often necessary for effective patient care.
This model is currently being used by the author in practice, as well as forming the basis upon which further research can be conducted to refine or, if necessary, abandon any of its aspects, as the evidence dictates.
It is the purpose of this paper to present this clinical model and the clinical and scientific evidence, or lack thereof, of its components.
PMCID: PMC2051323  PMID: 17987214
Cervical spine; chiropractic; conservative management; neck pain; headache; rehabilitation
9.  Searching for the Evidence Quiz 
PMCID: PMC2051322
Databases; bibliographic; complementary therapies; information storage and retrieval
10.  Editorial Note 
Australasian Chirpractic & Osteopathy has re-ordered its Volume and Issue numbers. It has skipped from Volume 11, Issue number 2, July 2003, to Volume 12, Issue 1, July 2004. This re-ordering was necessary after an unusual and unexpected set of editorial delays. ACO apologises for this change but advises subscribers that there will be no loss in the number of issues they receive.
PMCID: PMC2051315
14.  Spine Cancer 
Background: Spine pain is a common presenting complaint of patients who visit physicians and although spine cancer accounts for a very small percentage of cases of back pain, metastasis is a relatively common cause of spine pain in the elderly. The presentation of patients with spine cancers is highly variable, and in many cases the clinical findings of benign and cancerous causes of spine pain can be similar, often confounding the clinical picture. This can create difficulties in interpreting the clinical data available to the physician, particularly with a disease with such a devastating prognosis.
Objective: This manuscript discusses the more common causes of malignant lesions of the spine, including an overview of the incidence/prevalence data and clinical features of both primary and secondary malignancies. It also provides the reader with a clinical overview of patients with spine cancer.
Discussion: It is important to appreciate the myriad epidemiologic and clinical features of primary and secondary spine cancers. Patients with malignant skeletal lesions may be asymptomatic in the area of cancerous bone disease and, as a consequence, these lesions can be overlooked. This may result in dismal consequences for the patient, given the generally poor prognosis associated with spine cancers. Knowledge of the features discussed in this paper will assist the clinician in appropriately raising his/her index of suspicion for spine cancer in suitable clinical circumstances.
PMCID: PMC2051311  PMID: 17987205
Spine; pain; cancer; review
15.  Treatment of Frozen Shoulder Using Distension Arthrography (Hydrodilatation) 
Frozen shoulder (adhesive capsulitis) is a common, painful and disabling condition which is typically slow to resolve. Patients with this condition will be seen in every musculoskeletal practitioner’s clinic on a regular basis. There is a wide variety of treatment modalities available, some more effective than others. This article reviews the literature on the aetiology and natural history of the condition, and the common treatments provided. The literature on hydraulic arthrographic capsular distension (hydrodilatation) is reviewed and six cases referred for this treatment from a chiropractic clinic are presented.
PMCID: PMC2051310  PMID: 17987207
Frozen shoulder; hydrodilatation; case series
17.  Risk Management for Chiropractors and Osteopaths. Informed consent 
Obtaining the informed consent of a patient before undertaking chiropractic or osteopathic treatment is a common law requirement in Australia. This paper outlines the essential elements of informed consent and provides some practice tips on streamlining the process.
PMCID: PMC2051308  PMID: 17987206
Chiropractic; osteopathy; informed consent; risk management

Results 1-18 (18)