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1.  Spinal Musculoskeletal Injuries Associated with Swimming 
Objectives: To review the biomechanics of the swimming stroke and examine common injuries which occur in swimming. A review of diagnosis and management strategies of these injuries is also performed.
Background: Most injuries and complaints encountered in swimming athletes occur because of repetitive microtrauma or overuse, with many injuries originating from faulty technique and poor swimming biomechanics. As a result, assessment of an injured athlete requires the practitioner to have an understanding of the four swimming strokes and hydrodynamics.
Methods: A Literature search of the MEDLINE and MANTIS databases was performed on all swimming related articles.
Results: Twenty seven journal articles and 7 text books were chosen that satisfied the search criteria and related to the aims of this review.
Discussion: The correct swimming technique is discussed and predisposing factors to injury in the stroke are identified. Specific injury sites are examined and pathologies to these areas are detailed.
Conclusion: The shoulder, neck and back are the injuries considered in this review. These regions are considered in the total training program of the athlete to identify other factors, such as weight training or other dry land programs that may be contributing to injury. However, whilst rest or reduced training may be necessary for recovery, every effort must be made to keep the swimmer “in the water” as cessation of training may lead to a rapid detraining effect and loss of competitive advantage.
PMCID: PMC2051327  PMID: 17987215
Swimming; analysis and movement; wounds and injuries; review literature; chiropractic
2.  Spinal Musculoskeletal Injuries Associated with Swimming Quiz 
PMCID: PMC2051325
Swimming; analysis and movement; wounds and injuries; review literature; chiropractic
Background: Australian Rules Football is one of the most popular sports in Australia. Successful injury prevention relies on injury surveillance to establish the extent of injuries, to monitor injury patterns and to evaluate prevention strategies. Despite the popularity of participation at the community level, few injury surveillance studies have been published, so a detailed review of the literature is vital. There is limited information available outside of the elite level. Injury statistics for any professional sport may not necessarily be translatable to community sport level.
Objective: To document the most prevalent injuries at the elite, junior elite, amateur and junior level and determine if incidences differ across levels of play. Aetiology and significant risk factors for injuries are emphasized and prevention and treatment discussed.
Discussion: Injuries on average are more common at the elite level compared with other levels of participation. The type of injury varies slightly, with non contact injuries, particularly muscle strains, being the most common. Of these, the hamstring strain is the most common. Aetiology and risk factors vary between levels of play due to a time basis, physical development, speed of play and skill level. Recurrence rates are a concern for clubs and players, although rates are decreasing at the elite level, indicating better treatment and conservative management of injured players.
PMCID: PMC2051317  PMID: 17987211
Australian Rules Football; AFL; injuries
Although rare, vertebrobasilar stroke is the best known of the possible side effects of cervical manipulation. Due to the serious sequelae that may result from cervical manipulation, chiropractors and osteopaths must take the appropriate steps to ensure the risk is minimised. This article outlines how the astute practitioner can minimise this risk. Practitioners must decide on the options for treatment of a patient with neck problems. Practitioners must also advise the patient of these options as part of an appropriate informed consent.
PMCID: PMC2051301  PMID: 17987199
Chiropractic; stroke; manipulation
Much research has investigated shoulder pain which inhibits the performance of elite swimmers. An ever increasing understanding of the epidemiology and aetiology of what has been termed 'swimmer's shoulder' has enabled better treatment, rehabilitation and prevention programs to be implemented. This paper reviews the current research relevant to 'swimmer's shoulder' and the methods of treatment being employed to treat the problem.
PMCID: PMC2051095  PMID: 17987196
Shoulder; pain; elite swimmer; chiropractic
Acute pain in peripheral joints is not a common presenting symptom for chiropractors or osteopaths. However, chiropractors or osteopaths may be asked to assess peripheral joints when patients present with other conditions such as back pain.
This paper reviews the literature on bacterial arthritis as a specific type of infectious arthritis. Information was obtained from Medline and internet search using the keyword: “bacterial arthritis”. The most common presenting symptoms are described, with specific reference for chiropractors and osteopaths in clinical presentation of patients' with this condition.
PMCID: PMC2051089  PMID: 17987191
Bacterial arthritis; chiropractic
Chiropractors and other healthcare practitioners primarily concerned with the treatment and diagnosis of disorders of the musculoskeletal system are often presented with patients complaining of extremity joint pain. The signs and symptoms of Ross River and Barmah Forrest arbovirus infections can often be confused with a number of other conditions including local joint infection, rheumatoid diseases and other systemic diseases causing arthralgic or myalgic symptoms. This paper presents a review of the often debilitating conditions caused by the Ross River and Barmah Forest arboviruses. These increasingly common viruses can produce symptoms of arthralgia, fever, myalgia, rash and headache. A systematic review of the structure of these viruses, their epidemiology, clinical manifestations, treatment and prevention are presented.
PMCID: PMC2050807  PMID: 17987162
Ross River arbovirus; Barmah Forrest arbovirus; arthralgia; myalgia; fever; musculoskeletal pain; joint pain
The Subclavian Steal Syndrome is a condition that results from the stenosis or occlusion of the subclavian artery proximal to the origin of the vertebral artery. The blockage causes the reversal of the normal direction of blood flow in the vertebral artery which is termed the "steal", because it steals blood from the cerebral circulation. Blood is drawn from the contralateral vertebral, basilar or carotid artery regions into the low-pressure ipsilateral upper limb vessels. Although a relatively uncommon disease, it represents a condition which mimics many conditions often treated by chiropractors and osteopaths. The term subclavian steal syndrome is applied when reversed vertebral artery flow causes cerebral ischaemia with associated symptoms of vertebrobasilar hypoperfusion and/or symptoms of brainstem or arm ischaemia. This syndrome exists as an important consideration in the differential diagnosis of cerebral and brachial ischaemia.
PMCID: PMC2050636  PMID: 17989762
Chiropractic; osteopathy; dizziness; vertebrobasilar ischaemia; subclavian steal; artery
Chiropractors claim to be able to influence sites far removed from the point of application of spinal adjustment. Little scientific research has, however, been conducted showing conclusively that the spine and associated structures have an influence on distal function. Demonstration of such influence on distal tissues would aid in the scientific validation of Chiropractic by other health professionals and facilitate treatment of peripheral injuries such as hamstring strains. This study aimed to investigate the effect of a manipulation of the sacroiliac joint on the mechanical function of the hip joint. The results demonstrate that the sacroiliac joint manipulation did not statistically alter the range of motion of the hip joint.
PMCID: PMC2050632  PMID: 17987153
Chiropractic; manipulation; hip; sacroiliac joint; range of motion
A case of heel pain is presented. The clinical presentation implicates the pathological processes of acute retrocalcaneal bursitis, Achilles tendinosis, partial rupture of the tendon possibly as a result of repetitive corticosteroid injection, and subsequent calf atrophy and functional disability. Finally, aspects of predisposing factors, biomechanics, pathology, and clinical management of Achilles tendon disorders are reviewed in the discussion.
PMCID: PMC2050628  PMID: 17987151
Achilles tendon; pain; management
Background: Injury to the ankle joint is the most common peripheral joint injury. The sports that most commonly produce high ankle injury rates in their participating athletes include: basketball, netball, and the various codes of football.
Objective: To provide an up to date understanding of manual therapy relevant to lateral ligament injury of the ankle. A discussion of the types of ligament injury and common complicating factors that present with lateral ankle pain is presented along with a review of relevant anatomy, assessment and treatment. Also included is a discussion of the efficacy of manual therapy in the treatment of ankle sprain.
Discussion: A detailed knowledge of the anatomy of the ankle as well as the early recognition of factors that may delay the rate of healing are important considerations when developing a management plan for inversion sprains of the ankle. This area appears to be under-researched however it was found that movement therapy and its various forms appear to be the most efficient and most effective method of treating uncomplicated ankle injury. Future investigations should involve a study to determine the effect chiropractic treatment (manipulation) may have on the injured ankle.
PMCID: PMC2051062  PMID: 17987171
Ankle; sport; injury; treatment; chiropractic
Spondylolysis is a common nemesis of the professional cricket fast bowler. This case study demonstrates a series of clinical presentations beginning with spondylolysis in the same professional fast bowler over a one year period. The initial presentation of the injury received chiropractic evaluation and successful management. The second presentation of the patient eight months later was an aggravation of the first injury, but the second presentation did not respond to chiropractic management. Highlighted is the subsequent clinical presentation of the fast bowler two hours prior to sustaining a fracture of the opposite pedicle (left) and the presentation one hour post fracture. The goals of appropriate conservative management are discussed. The role of aberrant intersegmental spinal and sacroiliac joint mobility in the aetiology of spondylolysis is also discussed.
PMCID: PMC2050621  PMID: 17987145
Spondylolysis; spondylolisthesis; sacroiliac joint; chiropractic; manipulation; cricket; biomechanics

Results 1-13 (13)