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1.  CLINICAL ACTIVITIES AUDIT 
Introduction: Continuing professional education activities such as professional conferences and passive dissemination of literature appear to have no little or no impact on changing clinicians’ practice. A clinical activities audit was carried out with a group (44) of chiropractors and osteopaths as part of the Chiropractic and Osteopathic College of Australasia’s continuing professional development program to determine whether it was likely to generate improvement in practice.
Methods: The participants gathered data relating to six audit criteria on ten patient records in round 1 and ten in round 2 (six months later). Each participant received a learning guide relating to useful clinical tools for pain and disability measurement immediately after completing the first round. The audit criteria relate to: methods used to assess the site and severity of pain, methods used to assess disability, other investigations performed or ordered, referrals made and outcome measures used for pain and disability. The data were analysed to determine whether the participants increased their use of objective pain and disability and outcome measures over the course of the audit.
Results: Results of the first round of audit were compared with those of the second round. Practitioners’ use of objective measures of pain and disability and outcome measures was significantly higher in the second round of audit.
Conclusion: This indicates that this clinical activities audit is a useful tool for improving practice.
PMCID: PMC2051303  PMID: 17987202
Clinical audit; pain and disability measurement; chiropractic; osteopathic
2.  CLINICAL ACTIVITIES AUDIT 
PMCID: PMC2051298  PMID: 17987204
Clinical audit; pain and disability measurement; chiropractic; osteopathic; clinical challenge
3.  EVALUATING THE EFFECTIVENESS OF CARE IN NECK AND BACK PAIN 
Background: Objective outcome measures reflecting the level of effectiveness of care is a clinical imperative for practitioners dealing with neck and back pain. It is widely recognised that there is no relationship between physical pathology, pain and disability. Traditional measures of function such as range of motion and strength, on their own, are no longer sufficient when assessing treatment outcomes.
Objective: Five patient-based objective outcome tools for measuring pain and four for measuring disability are outlined with a view to encouraging their use when managing back and neck pain.
Discussion: All of the outcome measures presented in this review have a high clinical utility when managing patients with neck and back pain. That is, they have been shown to be valid and reliable as well as being easy to administer and score.
PMCID: PMC2051064  PMID: 17987170
Outcome measures; back pain; neck pain; disability

Results 1-3 (3)