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1.  Changes of Sagittal Spinopelvic Parameters in Normal Koreans with Age over 50 
Asian Spine Journal  2010;4(2):96-101.
Study Design
A prospective comparative study.
Purpose
To describe the changes in the spinopelvic parameters on normal Koreans more than 50 years of age.
Overview of Literature
There are differing opinions regarding the changes in the thoracic kyphosis, lumbar lordosis, C7 plumb with age in the elderly population.
Methods
Sagittal standing radiographs of the whole spine including the pelvis in 132 Korean adult male volunteers more than 50 years of age were evaluated prospectively. Volunteers with a history of spine operation, spinal disease, pain in their back or legs, scoliosis, spondylolisthesis, monosegment disc space narrowing, or compression fracture in radiographs were excluded. The following parameters were included: thoracic kyphosis (T5 upper end plate [UEP]-T12 lower end plate [LEP]), thoracolumbar kyphosis (T10 UEP-L2 LEP), lumbar lordosis (T12 LEP-S1 UEP), lower lumbar lordosis (L4 UEP-S1 UEP), sacral slope, pelvic incidence, and the distances from the C7 plumb to the posterosuperior endplate of S1. These parameters in the 6th, 7th and 8th decade groups were compared and the changes in these parameters according to age were examined.
Results
The thoracic kyphosis demonstrated significant differences in the in the three age groups (p = 0.019), and increased with age (r = 0.239, p < 0.006). The other parameters did not show any significant difference or correlation.
Conclusions
Similar global sagittal balances and spinopelvic parameters may be observed in Korean males older than 50 years, with a trend towards increasing thoracic kyphosis with age.
doi:10.4184/asj.2010.4.2.96
PMCID: PMC2996634  PMID: 21165312
Spine; Pelvis; Aged; Sagittal parameters
2.  Comparison of Apical Axial Derotation between Adolescent Idiopathic and Neuromuscular Scoliosis with Pedicle Screw Instrumentation 
Asian Spine Journal  2008;2(2):74-80.
Study Design
A retrospective study.
Purpose
To compare outcomes of apical derotation with pedicle screws in idiopathic and neuromuscular scoliosis (NMS).
Overview of Literature
No information about apical derotation in NMS with pedicle screws is available.
Methods
We performed deformity correcting surgery using pedicle screw constructs on 12 adolescent idiopathic scoliosis (AIS) patients (mean age 14.1 years) and 16 NMS patients (mean age 16.5 years). Preoperative, postoperative, and final follow-up radiographs were analyzed for Cobb's angle and pelvic obliquity, while apical rotation was measured on CT scans using the Aaro-Dahlborn method.
Results
For AIS, the mean preoperative Cobb's angle, pelvic obliquity, and apical rotation values were 57.3°, 2.8°, and 20.4°, respectively, and postoperatively they were 16.8°, 1.1° and 14.7°, respectively, showing significant correction. For NMS, the mean preoperative Cobb's angle, pelvic obliquity, and apical rotation values were 75.6°, 13.7°, and 42.9°, respectively, and postoperatively they were 27.1°, 5.8°, and 34.1°, respectively, also showing significant correction. There were no significant differences between AIS and NMS patients Cobb's angle p=0.306, pelvic obliquity p=0.887 and apical derotation p=0.113°. There were no differences in curve severity in the three groups (AIS, NMS >80°and NMS <80°); or the correction of apical rotation (p=0.25), although less correction was achieved in the Cobb's angle in the >80 NMS group (p=0.04).
Conclusions
Apical axial derotation can be achieved with posterior only pedicle screw fixation in NMS without anterior release, with comparable results in idiopathic scoliosis.
doi:10.4184/asj.2008.2.2.74
PMCID: PMC2852093  PMID: 20404960
Idiopathic scoliosis and neuromuscular scoliosis; Posterior only pedicle screw fixation; Computed tomography scan; Apical derotation
3.  Muscle Imbalance in Volleyball Players Initiates Scoliosis in Immature Spines: A Screening Analysis 
Asian Spine Journal  2008;2(1):38-43.
Study Design
Retrospective comparative study using radiographs and clinical findings.
Purpose
To test the hypothesis that asymmetric loading of immature spines in young athletes initiates scoliosis.
Overview of Literature
Scoliosis in athletes has been reported in the literature, but its causative factors have not been investigated.
Methods
We compared the incidence, type and magnitude of scoliotic curves in volleyball players with those in the non-player population. One hundred sixteen adolescent volleyball players were grouped for selective screening. Data regarding their playing duration, handedness, age, height, and menarchal status (in girls) were recorded, along with clinical examination and radiological investigation when necessary. We analyzed data from 46,428 non-player school children, and their data were compared to athletes to determine differences.
Results
Volleyball players had a statistically significant increase in the incidence of scoliotic spinal curves. Playing hand dominance was related to the curve direction. Cobb angle had no significant correlation with the duration of playing.
Conclusions
There is a five-fold increase in the incidence of mild scoliosis in volleyball players. A high percentage (41%) of asymmetry was present on the Adams forward bending test, as compared to controls. The curves were either thoracic or thoracolumbar.
doi:10.4184/asj.2008.2.1.38
PMCID: PMC2857490  PMID: 20411141
Volleyball players; Asymmetric loading; Column buckling; Scoliosis; Etiology

Results 1-3 (3)