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1.  Gradual Neurologic Deterioration Post Kyphoscoliosis Correction Surgery: A Case Report 
Asian Spine Journal  2012;6(2):140-144.
A 13-year-9-month-old female child presented with congenital kyphoscoliosis along with progressive paraparesis. Radiographs confirmed kyphoscoliosis and magnetic resonance imaging revealed a stretched and flattened spinal cord over the kyphotic deformity and a T7 hemivertebra. She underwent a posterior correction of the curve along with posterior decompression and a posterior to anterior excision of T7 hemivertebra to relieve her of the deteriorating neurology. While carrying out the excision of T7 hemivertebra, her trans cranial electrical motor evoke potential dropped. Consequently, she was administered a mega dose steroid therapy. After a positive wake-up test, the excision was discontinued and surgery was concluded by in situ fixation of the deformity with short rods. Thereafter, a gradual deterioration in the neurologic status was observed and patient became paraplegic on the fourth post operative day. In this case report, we try to analyze various causes for gradual deterioration in neurologic status.
doi:10.4184/asj.2012.6.2.140
PMCID: PMC3372550  PMID: 22708019
Kyphosis; Paraparesis; Paraplegia; Motor evoked potentials
2.  Comparison between Operated Muscular Dystrophy and Spinal Muscular Atrophy Patients in terms of Radiological, Pulmonary and Functional Outcomes 
Asian Spine Journal  2010;4(2):82-88.
Study Design
Retrospective comparative study.
Purpose
To study and compare the surgical outcomes of muscular dystrophy (MD) and spinal muscle atrophy (SMA).
Overview of Literature
There are few reports that have evaluated and compared the surgical outcomes of MD and SMA patients.
Methods
The patients (n = 35) were divided into two groups: a MD group with 24 patients and a SMA group with 11 patients. The average follow-up period was 21 months. All patients were operated for scoliosis correction using posterior instrumentation and fusion. In the immediate postoperative period, all efforts were made to reduce the pulmonary complications using non-invasive positive pressure ventilation and a coughing assist devices. The patients were evaluated by radiograph in terms of the Cobb's angle, pelvic obliquity, T1 translation, thoracic kyphosis and lumbar lordosis. The pulmonary function and self-image satisfaction were also assessed.
Results
There was a lower correction rate in the MD group (41.5%) than in the SMA group (48.3%), even though the curves were smaller in the MD group. The correction in the pelvic obliquity was significantly better in the SMA group (p = 0.03). The predicted vital capacity showed a 4% reduction in the MD group 1 year after surgery, while the SMA group showed a 10% reduction. The peak cough flow and end tidal PCO2 did not deteriorate and were well maintained. The average score for the improvement in self-image satisfaction postoperatively was 3.96 and 4.64 for the MD and SMA groups, respectively. The total complication rate was 45.7%; 14.3% of which were respiratory-related.
Conclusions
Surgical intervention for MD and SMA may be performed safely in patients with a very low forced vital capacity (< 30%) through aggressive preoperative and postoperative rehabilitation efforts.
doi:10.4184/asj.2010.4.2.82
PMCID: PMC2996632  PMID: 21165310
Muscular dystrophy; Spinal muscular atrophy; Neuromuscular scoliosis; Surgical correction; Pulmonary function
3.  Incidence and Risk Factors Associated with Superior Mesenteric Artery Syndrome following Surgical Correction of Scoliosis 
Asian Spine Journal  2008;2(1):27-33.
Study Design
Retrospective study.
Purpose
To more accurately determine the incidence and clarify risk factors.
Overview of Literature
Superior mesenteric artery syndrome is one of the possible complications following correctional operation for scoliosis. However, when preliminary symptoms are vague, the diagnosis of superior mesenteric artery syndrome may be easily missed.
Methods
We conducted a retrospective study using clinical data from 118 patients (43 men and 75 women) who underwent correctional operations for scoliosis between September 2001 and August 2007. The mean patient age was 15.9 years (range 9~24 years). The risk factors under scrutiny were the patient body mass index (BMI), change in Cobb's angle, and trunk length.
Results
The incidence of subjects confirmed to have obstruction was 2.5%. However, the rate increased to 7.6% with the inclusion of the 6 subjects who only showed clinical symptoms of obstruction without confirmative study. The BMI for the asymptomatic and symptomatic groups were 18.4±3.4 and 14.6±3, respectively. The change in Cobb's angle for the asymptomatic and symptomatic groups were 24.8±13.6° and 23.4±9.1°, respectively. The change in trunk length for the asymptomatic and symptomatic groups were 2.3±2.1 cm and 4.5±4.8 cm, respectively. Differences in Cobb's angle and the change in trunk length between the two groups did not reach statistical significance, although there was a greater increase in trunk length for the symptomatic group than for the asymptomatic group.
Conclusions
Our study shows that the incidence of superior mesenteric artery syndrome may be greater than the previously accepted rate of 4.7%. Therefore, in the face of any early signs or symptoms of superior mesenteric artery syndrome, prompt recognition and treatment are necessary.
doi:10.4184/asj.2008.2.1.27
PMCID: PMC2857491  PMID: 20411139
Scoliosis; Superior mesenteric artery syndrome; Body mass index; Trunk length
4.  Delayed Onset Neurological Deterioration due to a Spinal Epidural Hematoma after a Spine Fracture 
Asian Spine Journal  2007;1(2):98-101.
There are no reports of a 7-day delay in the onset of neurological deterioration because of a spinal epidural hematoma (SEH) after a spinal fracture. A hematoma was detected from the T12 to L2 area in a 36-year-old male patient with a T12 burst fracture. On the same day, the patient underwent in situ posterior pedicle instrumentation on T10-L3 with no additional laminectomy. On the seventh postoperative day, the patient suddenly developed weakness and sensory changes in both extremities, together with a sharp pain. A MRI showed that the hematoma had definitely increased in size. A partial laminectomy was performed 12 hours after the onset of symptoms. Two days after surgery, recovery of neurological function was noted. This case shows that spinal surgeons need to be aware of the possible occurrence of a delayed aggravated SEH and neurological deterioration after a spinal fracture.
doi:10.4184/asj.2007.1.2.98
PMCID: PMC2857477  PMID: 20411132
Spinal epidural hematoma; Spine fracture; Neurology

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