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1.  Lumbar Spinal Stenosis Due to a Large Calcified Mass in the Ligamentum Flavum 
Asian Spine Journal  2013;7(3):236-241.
We describe a rare case of lumbar spinal stenosis due to a large calcified mass in the ligamentum flavum. This patient presented with a 12-month history of severe right leg pain and intermittent claudication. A computed tomography scan was performed, revealing a large calcified mass on the ligamentum flavum at the right-hand side of the lumbar spinal canal. We performed a laminotomy at the L4/5 level with resection of the calcified mass from the ligamentum flavum. The findings of various analyses suggested that the calcified mass consisted mostly of Ca3(PO4)2 and calcium phosphate intermixed with protein and water. The calcified mass in the ligamentum flavum was causing lumbar spinal stenosis. Surgical decompression by resection of the mass was effective in this patient. The calcified material was composed mainly of elements derived from calcium phosphate. Degenerative changes in the ligamentum flavum of the lumbar spine may have been involved in the production of this calcified mass.
doi:10.4184/asj.2013.7.3.236
PMCID: PMC3779778  PMID: 24066222
Spinal stenosis; Calcification; Ligamentum flavum; Calcium phosphate
2.  Minimum 10-Year Follow-up Study of Anterior Lumbar Interbody Fusion for Degenerative Spondylolisthesis: Progressive Pattern of the Adjacent Disc Degeneration 
Asian Spine Journal  2012;6(2):105-114.
Study Design
Retrospective study.
Purpose
The aims of the current study are to evaluate the minimum 10-year follow-up clinical results of anterior lumbar interbody fusion (ALIF) for degenerative spondylolisthesis.
Overview of Literature
ALIF has been widely used as a treatment regimen in the management of lumbar spondylolisthesis. Still much controversy exists regarding the factors that affect the postoperative clinical outcomes.
Methods
The author performed a retrospective review of 20 patients with degenerative spondylolisthesis treated with ALIF (follow-up, 16.4 years). The clinical results were assessed by the Japanese Orthopaedic Association (JOA) score for low back pain, vertebral slip and disc height index on the radiographs.
Results
The mean preoperative JOA score was 7.1 ± 1.8 points (15-point-method). At 1 year, 5 years, and 10 years or more after surgery, the JOA scores were assessed as 12.4 ± 2.2 points, 12.7 ± 2.6 points, 12.0 ± 2.5 points, respectively (excluding the data of reoperated cases). The adjacent disc degeneration developed in all cases during the long-term follow-up. The progressive pattern of disc degeneration was divided into three types. Initially, disc degeneration occurred due to disc space narrowing. After that, the intervertebral discs showed segmental instability with translation at the upper level. But the lower discs showed osteophyte formation, and occasionally lead to the collapse or spontaneous union.
Conclusions
The clinical results of the long-term follow-up data after ALIF became worse due to the adjacent disc degeneration. The progressive pattern of disc degeneration was different according to the adjacent levels.
doi:10.4184/asj.2012.6.2.105
PMCID: PMC3372545  PMID: 22708014
Spondylolisthesis; Lumbar regions; Intervertebral disc disease
3.  Vertebroplasty Using Calcium Phosphate Cement for Osteoporotic Vertebral Fractures: Study of Outcomes at a Minimum Follow-up of Two Years 
Asian Spine Journal  2012;6(1):34-42.
Study Design
A case-series study.
Purpose
To assess the long-term clinical and radiographic outcomes after vertebroplasty using calcium phosphate cement (CPC) for treatment of osteoporotic vertebral fractures (OVF).
Overview of Literature
Vertebroplasty has become common for the treatment of OVF. However, few studies have reported the clinical application of CPC to vertebroplasty.
Methods
We reviewed 86 consecutive patients undergoing 99 vertebroplasties using CPC. Following repositioning and curettage of the pathological soft tissue of the vertebral body (VB), vertebroplasty using CPC was performed in patients with osteoporotic burst fracture and pseudoarthrosis (procedure A). Vertebroplasty was also performed in patients with osteoporotic compression fractures (procedure B). Back pain and lower back pain were evaluated using the visual analogue scale (VAS). The VB deformity index was measured in a lateral radiograph as the ratio of the VB's height to its longitudinal diameter.
Results
The mean age at time of surgery was 77 years old. The mean duration of follow-up was forty-four months. All patients reported decreased pain according to the VAS immediately after vertebroplasty, and pain relief was maintained at the last follow-up in all patients without new OVFs. Complete bone union was observed in all cases by six months after surgery. The mean recovery rate of deformity index was 5.9% in procedure A and 0.02% in procedure B at the final follow-up visit.
Conclusions
Vertebroplasty using CPC gave a satisfactory outcome and no delayed complications in elderly patients with osteoporotic vertebral fractures at follow-up times of at least two years.
doi:10.4184/asj.2012.6.1.34
PMCID: PMC3302913  PMID: 22439086
Osteoporosis; Vertebral fracture; Biodegradable bone cement substitutes; Calcium phosphate cement; Vertebroplasty
4.  Multi-focal Myxopapillary Ependymoma in the Lumbar and Sacral Regions Requiring Cranio-spinal Radiation Therapy: A Case Report 
Asian Spine Journal  2011;5(1):68-72.
Ependymomas are uncommon tumors that arise in the brain, spinal cord or cauda equina. Myxopapillary ependymomas is located exclusively in the conus medullaris or cauda equina, or film terminale region. In most myxopapillary ependymomas, the histological examination reveals low mitotic activity that is associated with a low MIB-1 labeling index (LI). The prognosis is generally favorable, when the appropriate treatment, including a total resection, is performed. The authors encountered a 39-year-old man with multifocal type of myxopapillary ependymomas compressing the cauda equina from the L2 to L3 level and L5-S1 level. A subtotal resection of the tumor was carried out. The histological examination revealed extremely high mitotic activity with a MIB-1 LI of 9.1%. Therefore, cranio-spinal radiation was added after surgery. The postoperative course was uneventful over the 3.5 year follow-up period.
doi:10.4184/asj.2011.5.1.68
PMCID: PMC3047901  PMID: 21386949
Myxopapillary ependymoma; Lumbar and sacral regions; Cranio-spinal radiation therapy; MIB-1 index; Tumor recurrence
5.  Postoperative Meningitis in Patients with Cervical Cord Tumor: A Case Report 
Asian Spine Journal  2010;4(2):136-140.
Postoperative meningitis after spinal surgery is a rare complication that can result in a life-threatening condition. Linezolid (LZD) is an oxazolidinone which has been approved in Japan for infections caused by methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus. The authors encountered a case of postoperative meningitis with cerebrospinal fluid leakage (liquorrhoea) that occurred after resection of a cervical cord tumor. The infection was caused by methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus epidermidis(MRSE). Debridement and suture of the dura matter was carried out. LZD was given intravenously. The infection was cured without any sequelae. Based on this result, we concluded that LZD might be considered as one of the first choices for the treatment of postsurgical meningitis caused by MRSE.
doi:10.4184/asj.2010.4.2.136
PMCID: PMC2996627  PMID: 21165319
CSF leakage; Postoperative meningitis; Surgical site infection; Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus epidermidis; Linezolid

Results 1-5 (5)