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1.  Delayed Infrarenal Aortic Pseudoaneurysm Treated by Endovascular Stent Graft in Pyogenic Spondylitis 
Asian Spine Journal  2013;7(4):345-350.
A 61-year-old male patient with pyogenic spondylodiscitis and epidural and psoas abscesses underwent posterior decompression, debridement, and instrumented fusion, followed by anterior debridement and reconstruction. Sudden onset flank pain was diagnosed 7 weeks postoperatively and was determined to be a pseudoaneurysm located at the aorta inferior to the renal artery and superior to the aortic bifurcation area. An endovascular stent graft was applied to successfully treat the pseudoaneurysm. Postoperative recovery was uneventful and infection status was stabilized.
PMCID: PMC3863662  PMID: 24353853
False aneurysm; Endovascular procedure; Stents; Spondylitis
2.  Revisional Percutaneous Full Endoscopic Disc Surgery for Recurrent Herniation of Previous Open Lumbar Discectomy 
Asian Spine Journal  2011;5(1):1-9.
Study Design
A retrospective study.
To determine the feasibility and effectiveness of revisional percutaneous full endoscopic discectomy for recurrent herniation after conventional open disc surgery.
Overview of the Literature
Repeated open discectomy with or without fusion has been the most common procedure for recurrent lumbar disc herniation. Percutaneous endoscopic lumbar discectomy for recurrent herniation has been thought of as an impossible procedure. Despite good results with open revisional surgery, major problems may be caused by injuries to the posterior stabilized structures. Our team did revisional full endoscopic lumbar disc surgery on the basis of our experience doing primary full endoscopic disc surgery.
Between February 2004 and August 2009 a total of 41 patients in our hospital underwent revisional percutaneous endoscopic lumbar discectomy using a YESS endoscopic system and a micro-osteotome (designed by the authors). Indications for surgery were recurrent disc herniation following conventional open discectomy; with compression of the nerve root revealed by Gadolinium-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging; corresponding radiating pain which was not alleviated after conservative management over 6 weeks. Patients with severe neurologic deficits and isolated back pain were excluded.
The mean follow-up period was 16 months (range, 13 to 42 months). The visual analog scale for pain in the leg and back showed significant post-treatment improvement (p < 0.001). Based on a modified version of MacNab's criteria, 90.2% showed excellent or good outcomes. There was no measurable blood loss. There were two cases of recurrence of and four cases with complications.
Percutaneous full-endoscopic revisional disc surgery without additional structural damage is feasible and effective in terms of there being less chance of fusion and bleeding. This technique can be an alternative to conventional repeated discectomy.
PMCID: PMC3047892  PMID: 21386940
Endoscopic discectomy; Interlaminar discectomy; Transforaminal discectomy; Percutaneous discectomy; Recurrent disc herniation; Lumbar spine
3.  The Trajectory of Iliac Screw in the Axial Plane in 200 Korean Patients 
Asian Spine Journal  2010;4(1):39-43.
Study Design
A retrospective radiographic analysis.
To estimate the accurate trajectory in the axial plane for iliac screw insertion in 200 Korean patients using radiographic images.
Overview of Literature
Several complications have been encountered after fusion to the lumbosacral junction, including pseudarthrosis, S1 screw loosening, and sacral fractures. Iliac screw fixation is considered an efficient method for augmenting sacral screw fixation but there are few reports on the trajectory of iliac screw insertion. The trajectory in the sagittal plane can be visualized by intraoperative fluoroscopy. However, there is no method to check the accuracy of the trajectory in the axial plane during surgery.
Between January 2007 and February 2009, 200 patients (107 men and 93 women) who underwent L-spine computed tomography were enrolled in this study. The mean age of the patients was 55.6 ± 18.3 years (range, 13 to 92 years). The spino-iliac angle (SIA) was measured on the axial image at the S1 level, which was defined as the angle between a vertical line through the center of the spinous process and an oblique line that passed through the center of the outer and inner cortices of the ilium.
The group mean SIA was 30.1° ± 7.8°; 30.1° ± 7.7° for men and 29.9° ± 81.1° for women. There was no significant difference according to gender or age (p > 0.05).
The SIA for the axial trajectory of iliac screws is approximately 30° in Korean patients.
PMCID: PMC2900167  PMID: 20622953
Iliac screw; Axial trajectory; Lumbosacral fusion

Results 1-3 (3)