Apart from the visual assessment, measurement of plasma hemoglobin in the supernatant from red cell units provides an objective measure of the extent of hemolysis during storage.
Study Design and Methods:
Packed red cells (N=50), 25 units each in triple (CPD-A1 and SAGM) and quadruple (CPD-A1 and ADSOL) blood bags were evaluated for plasma hemoglobin by the tetramethylbenzidiene (TMB) method on day 1, 7, 14, 21 and 28 of collection. The hemoglobin, hematocrit, MCV, LDH and potassium levels were also noted. Whole blood units (N=25) were used as controls.
Hemolysis increased in all the stored red cell units. Plasma hemoglobin increased significantly in the first week of storage. The hemolysis, LDH and potassium levels were found to be significantly higher in the red cell units harvested from the triple blood bags. However, on day 28 of storage, free hemoglobin in all the red cell units was much below the 0.8% hemolysis.
Hemolysis of the red cells increases due to processing and during storage and is maximum during the first week. Adequate process control and proper storage facilities should be ensured to minimize the hemolysis of red cells during processing and storage.
Component separation; red blood cell hemolysis; storage
The study was designed to find out the incidence of thrombocytopenia in leptospirosis and to correlate thrombocytopenia with other parameters like renal failure, hepatic failure and bleeding manifestation like adult respiratory distress syndrome and to assess the role of platelet transfusion.
Materials and Methods:
50 cases of leptospirosis during the month of July and August 2005 were retrospectively analyzed. Criteria for selection were Lepto Tek Dri - dot test positive cases of the clinically suspected cases of Leptospirosis. Degree of thrombocytopenia was categorized as severe, moderate and mild. Presence of thrombocytopenia was clinically correlated with parameters like renal dysfunction, hepatic dysfunction and hemorrhagic manifestations (mainly ARDS). Role of platelet transfusion was assessed with reference to presence and degree of thrombcytopenia and hemorrhagic manifestations.
Out of total 50 patients 26 were male and 24 were females. Major bleeding manifestation in the form of ARDS was seen in 15 (30%) of patients. 28 (56%) patients had thrombocytopenia and 22 (44%) patients had normal platelet counts. Total number of patients with renal dysfunction was 24 (48%). Only four (18.18%) patients with normal platelet counts had renal dysfunction while 20 (71.42%) patients with thrombocytopenia had renal dysfunction. Only two (9.09%) patients with normal platelet counts and 48 (46.42%) patients with thrombocytopenia had hepatorenal dysfunction. Total number of patients with ARDS was 15 (30%). Of these two (13.33%) had normal platelet count while 13 (86.6%) patients were thrombocytopenic. Total 47 units of platelets were transfused to 12 patients in our study. Of these seven patients with severe thrombocytopenia required total 28 units, two patients with moderate thrombocytopenia required total seven units and patients with mild thrombocytopenia were transfused total 12 units of platelets.
It is important to anticipate and recognize thrombocytopenia early in the course of leptospirosis so that appropriate steps can be taken to prevent it and to treat it with platelet transfusion when it develops
ARDS; hepatic dysfunction; leptospirosis; platelet transfusion; renal dysfunction; thrombocytopenia
This study was aimed to review and establish the practice of exchange transfusion (ET) with reconstituted blood in neonates and to observe fall of bilirubin and its comparison with related studies. Twenty-five neonates diagnosed as hemolytic disease of newborn (HDN) were selected for this study, in which exchange transfusion was carried out as one of the treatments for hyperbilirubinemia. Out of the 25 cases, 15 were of Rhesus (Rh) HDN, while ABO and other blood groups constituted 6 and 4 HDN cases respectively. First, the neonates's and mother's blood samples were subjected to relevant investigations. After that, for neonates having Rh HDN, O Rh negative cells suspended in AB plasma were given, O Rh positive cells suspended in AB plasma were given to ABO HDN; and O positive cells, which were indirect Coomb's cross-matched compatible with neonates’ and mother's serum / plasma, suspended in AB plasma were given to the neonates having HDN because of other blood group antibodies. The exchange transfusion (ET) was carried out taking all aseptic precautions by Push-Pull technique with double-volume exchange transfusion method. The average post-exchange fall in serum indirect bilirubin was (52.01%) in all 25 cases, which was found to be more significant than the previous studies. Looking into the superiority of the exchange transfusion in HDN by reconstituted blood, the reconstituted blood can be modified and supplied as per the requirement and conditions.
Exchange transfusion; hemolytic disease of newborn; hyperbilirubinemia; reconstituted blood
Aims and Background:
Like any other drug, therapeutic use of fresh frozen plasma (FFP) has its own side effects, adverse reactions and risks involved. Overall use of FFP has been on the increase in most tertiary care hospitals. Since the guidelines for FFP use in a clinical setting are not well defined, the present study aims at defining the appropriateness of use of FFP in the light of its risks and benefits as a drug.
Materials and Methods:
We carried out a prospective survey of 821 transfusion orders for 2,915 units of fresh frozen plasma components in our hospital over a 4-month period and recorded indication for transfusion and the number of components requested.
Five hundred seventy-three (69.8%) of transfusion requests affecting 2,202 (75.54%) units of FFP were appropriately indicated, while 248 (30.2%) of FFP requests were inappropriately indicated. The majority of fresh frozen plasma requests used were for surgical bleeding (22.77%) because of the deranged coagulation profile before surgery in most of the patients. It was followed by liver disease and transplantation (12.54%). Out of 821 patients, 586 were male and 235 were female.
Inappropriate requests accounted for 30.2% of the total FFP requests in patients who had normal coagulation parameters. Regular audits, appropriate training of medical staff, conducting regular CMEs are the measures being incorporated in our hospital to rationalize the use of blood components.
Appropriate; audit; fresh frozen plasma; tertiary hospital; transfusion
Hepatitis B virus (HBV) can be classified into nine immunological subtypes or eight genotypes. The most prevalent genotypes in Asia are genotypes B and C. HBV is transmitted parenteraly and can produce either asymptomatic or symptomatic disease. Although the consequences of acute hepatitis B can be severe, serious sequelae are associated with chronic infections. HBV seroprevalence ranges from intermediate (2%-7%) to high (≥8%) levels in Asia. Several strategies for the control and prevention of HBV infection have been found to be efficacious. They include vaccination and the administration of HBIG, interferon-a and nucleoside/nucleotide analogues. However, these procedures also apply selective pressures on HBV in infected individuals leading to the generation and accumulation of mutations in the S gene. Most of these mutations occur in the major hydrophilic region (MHR) of the S gene. These mutations create public health concerns as they can be responsible for reactivation of hepatitis B and occult hepatitis B infection. The inability to detect occult infections means that these individuals may become blood donors. This suggests that new strategies for donor evaluation and selection may need to be developed to protect the blood supply.
Escape mutants; genotype; hepatitis B virus; review; subtype; surface antigen
Autologous, and in some cases allogeneic, hemopoietic stem cells (HSC) are stored for varying periods of time prior to infusion. For periods of greater than 48 h, storage requires cryopreservation. It is essential to optimize cell storage and ensure the quality of the product for subsequent reinfusion.
A number of important variables may affect the subsequent quality of infused HSC and therapeutic cells (TC). This review discusses these and also reviews the regulatory framework that now aims to ensure the quality of stem cells and TC for transplantation.
Important variables included cell concentration, temperature, interval from collection to cryopreservation, manipulations performed. They also included rate of freezing and whether controlled-rate freezing was employed. Parameters studied were type of cryoprotectant utilized [dimethyl sulphoxide (DMSO) is most commonly used, sometimes in combination with hydroxyethyl starch (HES)]; and storage conditions. It is also important to assess the quality of stored stem cells. Measurements employed included the total cell count (TNC), mononuclear cell count (MNC), CD34+ cells and colony-forming units - granulocyte macrophage (CFU-GM). Of these, TNC and CD34+ are the most useful. However, the best measure of the quality of stored stem cells is their subsequent engraftment. The quality systems used in stem cell laboratories are described in the guidance of the Joint Accreditation Committee of ISCT (Europe) and the EBMT (JACIE) and the EU Directive on Tissues and Cells plus its supporting commission directives. Inspections of facilities are carried out by the appropriate national agencies and JACIE.
For high-quality storage of HSC and TC, processing facilities should use validated procedures that take into account critical variables. The quality of all products must be assessed before and after storage.
Accreditation; cryopreservation; hemopoietic stem cells; regulatory authorities
A practical workshop on ‘Immunohematology’ was conducted in conjunction with the Indian Society of Blood Transfusion and Immunohaematology annual scientific program. The participants, from many parts of India, were able to obtain valuable practice in key areas of blood group serology and by the end of the workshop were able to carry out ‘tube’ techniques for antibody detection and identification. Column agglutination methods were also demonstrated. A preliminary questionnaire was completed by participants. Results showed a wide variety in types of pretransfusion (serologic) testing being performed. Less than half of the participants had encountered hemolytic transfusion reactions. The program was rated as excellent by most participants in response to a postworkshop evaluation questionnaire, with requests for longer and more frequent workshops. Safety of blood for transfusion depends on maintenance of high standards of both microbiological and immunohematological performance by the blood bank staff.
Blood group serology; education; immunohematology
Background and objective:
The ready availability of blood in Surat city has resulted in its liberal use. Surat Raktadan Kendra and Research Centre (SRKRC) is 30 years old blood bank having license to supply blood components. In spite of publishing quarterly bulletin and organizing seminars to update clinicians’ knowledge still we have not achieved rational use of blood. Present study has evaluated the use of single unit as well as whole blood transfusion for adult surgery cases.
Materials and Methods:
A total of 8470 surgery cases in the age group of 19 years to 95 years receiving 13070 units of whole blood and 3761 units of red cell concentrate (RCC) during surgery were analyzed on the basis of incidence of single unit and whole blood transfusions, sex and Hb values using Microsoft Excel.
Analysis revealed that 38.9% cases received single unit and 77.7% whole blood transfusions. Females more frequently received single unit transfusion than males (p< 0.001). The highest incidence of single unit (62.2%) and whole blood transfusion (95.2%) was observed for urogenital surgeries. The lowest incidence (22.9%) of single unit transfusion was for cancer surgeries. There was no significant difference in the mean Hb level at which male and female cases, received single unit transfusion (p>0.5). Mean Hb concentration was about 10.0 g/dl for patients receiving single unit of whole blood and 8 g/dl for those who received single unit of RCC.
Surgery patients are receiving inappropriate transfusions. Continuous awareness programmes are needed to achieve judicious use of blood.
Whole blood; red cell concentrate; single unit of blood; judicious use of blood; surgery
By 2003, 97% autologous transplants and 65% of allogeneic transplants in Europe used mobilised peripheral blood stem cells (PBSC). Soon after their introduction in the early 1990's, PBSC were associated with faster haemopoietic recovery, fewer transfusions and antibiotic usage, and a shorter hospital stay. Furthermore, ease and convenience of PBSC collection made them more appealing than BM harvests. Improved survival has hitherto been demonstrated in patients with high risk AML and CML. However, the advantages of PBSC come at a price of a higher incidence of extensive chronic GVHD. In order to be present in the blood, stem cells undergo the process of “mobilisation” from their bone marrow habitat. Mobilisation, and its reciprocal process – homing – are regulated by a complex network of molecules on the surface of stem cells and stromal cells, and enzymes and cytokines released from granulocytes and osteoclasts. Knowledge of these mechanisms is beginning to be exploited for clinical purposes. In current practice, stem cell are mobilised by use of chemotherapy in conjunction with haemopoietic growth factors (HGF), or with HGF alone. Granulocyte colony stimulating factor has emerged as the single most important mobilising agent, due to its efficacy and a relative paucity of serious side effects. Over a decade of use in healthy donors has resulted in vast experience of optimal dosing and administration, and safety matters. PBSC harvesting can be performed on a variety of cell separators. Apheresis procedures are nowadays routine, but it is important to be well versed in the possible complications in order to avoid harm to the patient or donor. To ensure efficient collection, harvesting must begin when sufficient stem cells have been mobilised. A rapid, reliable, standardized blood test is essential to decide when to begin harvesting; currently, blood CD34+ cell counting by flow cytometry fulfils these criteria. Blood CD34+ cell counts strongly correlate with the apheresis yields. These are, in turn, predictive of the speed of haemopoietic recovery after transplantation, which has helped establish the adequate cell dose for transplantation. Following collection, PBSC may be transfused unmanipulated, processed to select specific cell subtypes, or stored for future use. Cryopreservation techniques allow long term storage of stem cells without significant loss of viability. Increasingly demanding calls for safety led to introduction of vapour phase storage, separate storage of infected material, and mandatory quality control measures at all stages of the cryopreservation process and subsequent thawing and transfusion. At the same time, safety of the personnel working in stem cell processing and storage laboratories is safeguarded by a set of regulations devised to minimize the risk of infection, injury or hypoxia. Requirements for quality and safety have been shaped into a number of documents and directives in Europe and USA, emphasising the importance of product traceability, reporting of adverse reactions, quality management systems (standard operating procedures, guidelines, training records, reporting mechanisms and records), requirements for cell reception, quarantine, process control, validation and storage. Establishments that collect, process and store stem cells must be accredited or licensed by appropriate national or international authorities on a regular basis. These regulatory measures have recently become law across the European Union.
Autologous transplant; allogeneic transplant; peripheral blood stem cells; haemopoietic growth factor
Landsteiner and his colleagues demonstrated that human beings could be classified into four groups depending on the presence of one (A) or another (B) or both (AB) or none (O) of the antigens on their red cells. The number of the blood group antigens up to 1984 was 410. In the next 20 years, there were 16 systems with 144 antigens and quite a collection of antigens waiting to be assigned to systems, pending the discovery of new information about their relationship to the established systems. The importance of most blood group antigens had been recognized by immunological complications of blood transfusion or pregnancies; their molecular structure and function however remained undefined for many decades. Recent advances in molecular genetics and cellular biochemistry resulted in an abundance of new information in this field of research. In this review, we try to give some examples of advances made in the field of ‘structure and function of the red cell surface molecules.’
Adhesion molecule; blood group antigens; complement; enzyme activity; GPI-glycophosphatidylinositol
Voluntary blood donation rates are not high in the South Asian region, except in a few countries. The reasons for this are outlined and the roadblocks for improvement of the situation noted. The need for increased planning, both regionally and nationally, is emphasized and some factors that inhibit voluntary blood donation are mentioned. There is a real need to move from a system of reliance on ‘replacement’ donors to a fully nonremunerated voluntary blood donation system, and the examples and lessons from successful countries should be carefully studied.
Voluntary blood donation; replacement donor; policy; planning; finances
Background and Objective:
While medical fraternity globally recognizes the role of platelet transfusion in the management of hospitalized dengue patients the exact indications and situations in which these are to be transfused may vary. Since there is inherent risk associated with the transfusion of blood/blood-component, it is imperative for each institution (or country) to lay their own criteria for transfusion of these blood components. The present study was conducted to lay precise criteria and transfusion trigger for platelet transfusion in our set-up.
Materials and Methods:
The present study was conducted on 225 serologically confirmed dengue patients admitted at Indraprastha Apollo Hospitals between 1st of August to 30th of November 2005. Clinical data, reports of hematological investigation, platelets requirements and data obtained from daily follow-up were analyzed. The clinicians followed the guidelines issued by the Directorate of Health services, NCT of Delhi.
In the serologically confirmed cases, the prevalence of thrombocytopenia (count less than 100,000/cumm) was 84.88% on admission and bleeding was recorded in 22 (9.7%) patients. About 96 (42.6%) patients of dengue cases received platelet transfusion. Among them 47 (20.88%) patients had a platelet count < 20,000/cumm, 43 (19.11%) had a platelet count in the range of 21-40,000/cumm while 6 (2.66%) patients had the platelet count in between 41 and 50,000/cumm. Out of 49 patients with a platelet count >20,000/cumm, 18 patients had haemorrhagic manifestations such as petechiae, gum-bleeding, epistaxis, etc., which necessitates the use of platelet transfusion. However, 31 patients received inappropriate platelet transfusion.
This study suggests that bleeding occurs more often in patients with severe thrombocytopenia. High-risk patients having platelet count < 20,000/cumm and risk of bleeding require urgent platelet transfusion. Patients with platelet count 21-40,000/cumm are in moderate risk and require platelet transfusion only if they have any haemorrhagic manifestations and other superadded conditions.
Dengue patients; thrombocytopenia; platelet transfusion
To assess the appropriate utilization of platelet transfusions [random donor platelets (RDP) and single donor platelets (SDP)]; a six-month retrospective audit was carried out in a tertiary care hospital.
Materials and Methods:
A six-month retrospective platelet audit was carried out from May to October 2005 to estimate its preparation, appropriate utilization and wastage rate. Patient's demographics, transfusion triggers and episodes and ABO and Rh (D) group specific or non-group specific transfusions were also assessed.
About 5525 units of platelets [PRP-PC, 3,813 (69%); BC-PC, 983 (17.8%); PRP, 648 (11.7%) and SDP 81 (1.5%)] were prepared and transfused to 853 patients (RDP to 814 patients and SDP to 39 patients) in 2,093 transfusion episodes. Adult and pediatric hemato-oncology were the main user specialties utilizing 39.1 and 87.6% of the RDPs and SDPs prepared. Of the patients receiving RDPs, 95% were transfused ABO and Rh (D) group specific platelets whereas 100% SDPs transfusions were of group specific platelets. 88% of prophylactic platelet transfusions were appropriate as per the recommended BCSH guidelines. However, 12% of the prophylactic platelets were transfused inappropriately in cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB) surgeries with normal platelet counts and no evidence of bleeding related to platelets. Out of 5,444 RDPs prepared 1,585 (29.11%) units were not utilized.
Regular audit of blood and blood components is a must so that necessary remedial measures can be taken to maximize appropriate and judicious utilization of each component.
Appropriate utilization; platelet transfusion; transfusion audit