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1.  Effects of plasma viscosity modulation on cardiac function during moderate hemodilution 
Previous studies have found that increasing plasma viscosity as whole blood viscosity decrease has beneficial effects in microvascular hemodynamics. As the heart couples with systemic vascular network, changes in plasma and blood viscosity during hemodilution determine vascular pressure drop and flow rate, which influence cardiac function. This study aimed to investigate how changes in plasma viscosity affect on cardiac function during acute isovolemic hemodilution.
Materials and Methods
Plasma viscosity was modulated by hemodilution of 40% of blood volume with three different plasma expanders (PEs). Dextran 2000 kDa (Dx2M, 6.3 cP) and dextran 70 kDa (Dx70, 3.0 cP) were used as high and moderate viscogenic PEs, respectively. Polyethylene glycol conjugated with human serum albumin (PEG-HSA, 2.2 cP) was used as low viscogenic PE. The cardiac function was assessed using a miniaturized pressure-volume conductance catheter.
After hemodilution, pressure dropped to 84%, 79%, and 78% of baseline for Dx2M, Dx70 and PEG-HSA, respectively. Cardiac output markedly increased for Dx2M and PEG-HSA. Dx2M significantly produced higher stroke work relative to baseline and compared to Dx70.
Acute hemodilution with PEG-HSA without increasing plasma viscosity provided beneficial effects on cardiac function compared to Dx70, and similar to those measured with Dx2M. Potentially negative effects of increasing peripheral vascular resistance due to the increase in plasma viscosity were prevented.
PMCID: PMC2937285  PMID: 20859509
Cardiac function; hemodilution; plasma expander; plasma viscosity
2.  A new donor system for the patients with thalassemia: “Blood mother and blood father” 
Donor recruitment programs differ in countries depending on local conditions and causes. Regularly voluntary blood donation rate should be 5% of the population but it is extremely low in Turkey. In 1998, “Thalassemia flowers don’t fade” campaigning was started to get regular voluntary blood for patients with thalassemia. We would like to present results of our campaigning.
Materials and Methods:
The Thalassemia center was established in Antalya on the 1st June 1994 by Ministry of Health, Turkey, because the incidence of thalassemia is very high in the Antalya region. A total of 388 patients with thalassemia were followed up regularly in the center. The annually blood requirement was approximately 5000 units per year. In 1998, a new program of blood donation for patients with thalassemia called “BLOOD MOTHER and BLOOD FATHER” was started with the support of Governor of Antalya and health management system in Antalya.
Between year 1998 and 2006, a total 3000 voluntary blood donors between age 18 and 65 years, of which 2160 males (72%) and 840 were females (28%), had participated in this program.
“Blood Mother and Blood Father” campaign was successful donor recruitment program for thalassemic care. After 2006, this program is now adopted and run by Turkish Red Crescent and Thalassemia Federation of Turkey for all thalassemics in Turkey.
PMCID: PMC2937286  PMID: 20859510
Donors; thalassemia
3.  Pre-donation deferral of blood donors in South Indian set-up: An analysis 
It is well known that quite a large number of apparently healthy donors are not able to donate blood successfully because of varied reasons.
We want to analyze the rate and various reasons for deferrals.
Materials and Methods:
A retrospective analysis of records of the donors, for 3 years, from January 2005 to December 2007 was done, in order to find out the rate and causes of deferral in four categories of age groups, both in male and female, in our Transfusion Medicine Centre, Bangalore, India.
There were 16,706 donors, of which 976 donors were deferred (5.84%) for various reasons. Of the 16,706 donors registered for donation, females constituted only 11.27%. And deferral rate was about five times more for female (19.85%) compared to male (4.06%). The three most common reasons for deferral in female were low hemoglobin levels, low body weight, and hypotension. The deferral rate was higher in the age group of 18-25 years and most common cause was low hemoglobin level. In male, the three most common reasons for deferral were hypertension, under weight, and low hemoglobin levels. The deferral rate varied from 4 to 15% as reported in the literature. The most common cause of deferral in our study and in several studies available in the literature is the same.
PMCID: PMC2937287  PMID: 20859511
Blood donor; deferral; permanent; temporary
4.  Whole blood donor deferral analysis at a center in Western India 
Deferrals lead to loss of precious whole blood donors (WBD) and blood units available for transfusion purposes. Knowledge of rate and causes of donor deferral can guide the recruitment strategy for WBD.
To find the incidence and causes of deferral in Indian WBD and apply relevant findings to modify recruitment strategy for blood donors.
Materials and Methods:
Data for WBD presenting for donation in a blood center and outdoor camps over one and half year were analyzed retrospectively. National guidelines were used for selection and deferral of WBD.
736 (11.6%) WBD were deferred out of 6357 presenting for donation during the study period. Most (69.8%) of the donors were deferred on physical examination and hemoglobin (Hb) testing. Most common reasons for deferral were low Hb (55.8%), abnormal blood pressure (11.1%), medication (6.9%) and underweight donors (2.9%). Significantly more volunteers were deferred than relative donors (13.97% vs 5.80%; P<0.000). Females were found to have higher deferral rate than males (53.5% vs 6.9%; P=0.000) and higher odds ratio for deferral (15.4). Donors older than 40 years of age had significantly higher chance of being deferred (P<0.05).
Discussion and Conclusion:
It is important to determine the rate and causes of WBD deferral to guide the recruitment and retention efforts at local, regional, and national level.
PMCID: PMC2937288  PMID: 20859512
Anemia in blood donors; blood donor deferral; deferral criteria; deferral reasons; donor rejection; hypertension in blood donors; medication history in blood donors
5.  The evaluation of iron deficiency and anemia in male blood donors with other related factors 
Aims and Background:
Iron deficiency is one of the most common nutritional disorders worldwide and blood donation may cause iron depletion. Limited studies with large sample size have been done on male donors. The aim of this study is to determine the prevalence of iron deficiency and iron deficiency anemia among male donors in the Kurdistan Organization of Blood Transfusion in Iran.
Materials and Methods:
This was a cross-sectional study. Sample size was 1184 blood donors selected by systematic random sampling. Hemoglobin, serum iron, serum ferritin, total iron banding capacity (TIBC) and transferin saturation were measured in donors. Iron depletion, lack of iron stores, iron deficiency, iron deficiency anemia and anemia were evaluated among them. Data was analyzed with SPSS software and X2, one-way ANOVA, and LSD test.
Iron deficiency, anemia, iron deficiency anemia, iron depletion and lack of iron resources were seen in 2.3, 4.08, 2.14, 22.76 and 4.66 percent respectively. There was a significant relationship of iron deficiency and iron deficiency anemia with instances of donation and interval from last donation (P < 0.05). A significant relationship was seen between iron deficiency and iron deficiency anemia among blood donors with more than ten times blood donation (P < 0.05).
This study showed regular male donors require especial attention. Therefore, serum ferritin is recommended as a more adequate index to use for iron deficiency screening and planning purposes for iron supplementation among them.
PMCID: PMC2937289  PMID: 20859513
Blood donors; iran; iron deficiency anemia; iron deficiency; males
6.  An audit of fresh frozen plasma usage and effect of fresh frozen plasma on the pre–transfusion international normalized ratio 
To audit the usage of fresh frozen plasma (FFP) and to study the effect of FFP on the pre-transfusion international normalized ratio (INR).
Materials and Methods:
Medical records of 100 consecutive patients who received FFP in our institute were retrospectively studied. FFP usage was classified as appropriate or inappropriate based on the guidelines by the National Health and Medical Research Council and The Australasian Society for Blood Transfusion. Pre-and post-transfusion INR were recorded and the effect of FFP on the pre-transfusion INR was studied in patients who appropriately received FFP. Relationship between the pre-transfusion INR and improvement in the INR per unit of FFP was studied using Pearson’s correlation.
Total 325 units were issued for the 100 patients (37 males and 63 females, mean age 33 years, range 1-65 years). Obstetrics and gynecology and medicine departments requested most units of FFP. Total 197 units (60.6%) in 67 patients were appropriately transfused and 128 units (39.4%) in 33 patients were inappropriately used. Mean improvement in the pre-transfusion INR per unit of FFP was 0.79 (median 0.53, range 0-3.5, SD 0.94). A significant improvement in the pre-transfusion INR per unit of FFP was seen in 64.9% patients. A linear relationship was noted between the pre-transfusion INR and improvement in INR per unit of FFP (r=0.89, degree of freedom 55).
Proportion of inappropriate FFP usage remains high. A significant improvement in INR is more likely with a high pre-transfusion INR. The improvement in INR per unit of FFP is also more with higher pre-transfusion INR.
PMCID: PMC2937290  PMID: 20859514
Audit; effect on INR; fresh frozen plasma
8.  Transfusion-related acute lung injury 
PMCID: PMC2937292  PMID: 20859517
9.  HB E/β°Thalassemia can present with normal phenotype 
PMCID: PMC2937293  PMID: 20859516
12.  Heparin induced thrombocytopenia-type 2 
PMCID: PMC2937296  PMID: 20859521
13.  Weak D prevalence among Indian blood donors 
PMCID: PMC2937297  PMID: 20859520
15.  Transfusion transmitted infections: How many more? 
PMCID: PMC2937299  PMID: 20859502
16.  Transfusion-transmitted parasitic infections 
The transmission of parasitic organisms through transfusion is relatively rare. Of the major transfusion-transmitted diseases, malaria is a major cause of TTIP in tropical countries whereas babesiosis and Chagas’ disease pose the greatest threat to donors in the USA In both cases, this is due to the increased number of potentially infected donors. There are no reliable serologic tests available to screen donors for any of these organisms and the focus for prevention remains on adherence to donor screening guidelines that address travel history and previous infection with the etiologic agent. One goal is the development of tests that are able to screen for and identify donors potentially infectious for parasitic infections without causing the deferral of a large number of non-infectious donors or significantly increasing costs. Ideally, methods to inactivate the infectious organism will provide an element of added safety to the blood supply.
PMCID: PMC2937300  PMID: 20859503
Parasites; transfusion; transmitted
17.  Transfusion-associated immunomodulation: Quantitative changes in cytokines as a measure of immune responsiveness after one time blood transfusion in neurosurgery patients 
Very few studies in humans have investigated the laboratory evidences suggestive of transfusion-associated immunologic changes. In this prospective study, we examined the effects of perioperative blood transfusion on immune response, by measuring various cytokines production, namely, interferon-gamma (IFN-γ), interleukin-10 (IL-10), and Fas Ligand (FasL). A total of 40 patients undergoing neurosurgery were randomly allocated into four groups: (a) no transfusion, (b) allogeneic non-leukofiltered transfusion, (c) prestorage leukofiltered transfusion, (d) autologous transfusion. Samples were collected before operation (day 0) and postoperative days (post-op) 1, 7, and 14. IFN-γ and IL-10 production capacity was measured in supernatant after whole blood culture and serum FasL levels in patients’ sera using commercially available ELISA kits. Change in ratios (cytokine value after PHA stimulation/control value) of IFN-γ and IL-10 and percentage change from baseline for serum FasL levels across different transfusion groups during the sampling period were calculated. There was an increase in IL-10 production in patients receiving allogeneic non-leukofiltered transfusion on days 1 and 7 (mean ratio 2.22 (± 2.16), 4.12 (± 1.71), 4.46 (± 1.97) on days 0, 1, and 7, respectively). Similarly there was a significant (P<0.05) decrease in IFN-γ production in patients who received allogeneic non-leukofiltered red cell transfusion on post-op days 1, 7, and 14 (mean ratio 6.88 (± 4.56), 2.53 (± 0.95), 3.04 (± 1.38) and 2.58 (± 1.48) on day 0, 1, 7, and 14, respectively). Serum FasL production was increased across all patients till 7th day except for ‘no transfusion’ group and this increase was most significant in the non-leukofiltered group. We conclude that one time transfusion leads to quantitative changes in levels of these cytokines largely through interplay of Th2/Th1 pathways in allogeneic nonleukofiltered blood transfusion; however, soluble mediators like FasL which are also present in autologous and leukofiltered blood products may contribute toward minor immunologic effect in these settings.
PMCID: PMC2937301  PMID: 20859504
Cytokines production; immunologic changes; leukofiltration; soluble mediators; transfusion
18.  Standardization of B19 IgG ELISA to study the seroepidemiology of parvovirus B19 in North Indian voluntary blood donors 
Backgound and Objectives:
Parvovirus B19 (B19) being a non-enveloped DNA virus is hence thermo-stable to the current methods of viral inactivation. Therefore transfusion of blood or its component from a viremic donor to non-immune recipients may result in transfusion-transmitted B19 infection with occasional sinister complications. The serologically naïve blood donor population in our country has not been studied. Hence a study was designed to find the sero-status of B19 virus in normal voluntary blood donor population (relatives of recipients) as an indirect measure of the susceptibility to B19 in north Indians together with seroepidemiology of B19.
An in-house anti-B19 IgG ELISA was standardized using cloned, baculovirus expressed, and purified VP1/VP2 capsid proteins as antigen. Anti-B19 IgG antibodies in sera (diluted 1:400) of 1000 healthy voluntary blood donors (18-60 years; mean 30.5 years) were analyzed and their epidemiologic data were documented.
A total of 399 (39.9%) donors were seropositive for B19 virus. Seroprevalence was higher in males than females (44% vs 27%) and it increased with increasing age (P<0.01). Socioeconomically, B19 IgG antibody positivities were 61.8%, 61.1%, and 44.4% in low, medium, and high income groups respectively with unskilled laborers having higher seroprevalence in low (48.5%) and middle (58.7%) income group (P<0.05). Housing conditions revealed B19 seroprevalence as 42.6% in donors living in small houses compared to 20.4% in larger houses (P<0.01) but no difference with religion.
Seroprevalence to B19 in normal voluntary blood donors was low leaving a large proportion of north Indians susceptible to B19 infection.
PMCID: PMC2937302  PMID: 20859505
Antibodies; blood donors; ELISA; erythrovirus; parvovirus B19; seroprevalence
19.  Seroprevalence of HBV and HCV in blood donors: A study from regional blood transfusion services of Nepal 
Background and Objective:
Hepatitis B and hepatitis C are significant health problems that might involve the late sequel of liver cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma. A high prevalence of hepatitis B virus (HBV) and hepatitis C virus (HCV) in blood donors poses an increased risk of window period transmission through blood transfusion. The present study aimed to know the seroprevalence of hepatitis B virus (HBV) and hepatitis C virus (HCV) among blood donors in regional blood transfusion services of Nepal.
Materials and Methods:
This was a retrospective study conducted among blood donors in Banke (5,211), Morang (5,351), and Kaski (5,995) blood transfusion services. Serum samples were tested for hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) and anti-HCV antibodies using rapid enzyme immunoassays. The donors information was collected via the donor record register through their respective blood transfusion services. The software “Winpepi ver 3.8” was used for statistical analysis.
The seroprevalence rate of HBV was highest in the Banke (1.2%) followed by Biratnagar (0.87%) and Kaski (0.35%) (P < 0.0001). The seroprevalence of HCV was highest in the Morang (0.26%) followed by Kaski (0.16%) and Banke (0.11%) (P > 0.05). The seroprevalence of HBV was significantly higher than HCV in all three blood transfusion services. The burden of HBV as well as HCV seems to be higher in male donors (P > 0.05).
The study revealed that the seroprevalence of HBV was alarmingly higher in two of the three blood transfusion services. Implementation of community-based preventive measures and improved strategies for safe blood supply might prove useful to decrease the seroprevalence.
PMCID: PMC2937303  PMID: 20859506
Blood donors; hepatitis B virus; hepatitis C virus; Nepal; seroprevalence
20.  Study on effectiveness of transfusion program in thalassemia major patients receiving multiple blood transfusions at a transfusion centre in Western India 
Children suffering from beta-thalassemia major require repeated blood transfusions which may be associated with dangers like iron overload and contraction of infections such as HIV, HCV, and HBsAg which ultimately curtail their life span. On the other hand, inadequate transfusions lead to severe anemia and general fatigue and debility.
Materials and Methods:
Data were obtained from 142 beta-thalassemia major patients aged 3 years or more receiving regular blood transfusions at a transfusion centre in Western India from 1 April 2009 to 30 June 2009. The clinical data and laboratory results were subsequently analyzed.
Of the 142 patients, 76 (53.5%) were undertransfused (mean Hb <10 gm%). 96 (67%) of the patients were taking some form of chelation therapy but out of them only 2 (2%) were adequately chelated (S. ferritin <1000 ng/ml). 5 (3.5%) of the patients were known diabetics on insulin therapy. 103 (72%) of the patients were retarded in terms of growth. The prevalence of transfusion-transmitted infections (TTIs) such as HCV, HIV, and HBsAg was respectively 45%, 2%, and 2%, with the prevalence of HCV being significantly more than the general population. The HCV prevalence showed positive correlation with the age of the patients and with the total no of blood transfusions received. As many as 15% (6 out of 40) children who were born on or after 2002 were HCV positive despite the blood they received being subjected to screening for HCV.
The study suggests the need to step up the transfusions to achieve hemoglobin goal of 10 gm% (as per the moderate transfusion regimen) and also to institute urgent and effective chelation measures with the aim of keeping serum ferritin levels below 1000 ng/ml to avoid the systemic effects of iron overload. In addition, strict monitoring of the children for endocrinopathy and other systemic effects of iron overload should be done. Rigid implementation of quality control measures for the ELISA kits used to detect HCV in donor blood needs to be done urgently. Alternately, more sensitive and specific measures (like NAT testing) should be employed for detection of HCV. In the absence of a definitive cure accessible and available to all patients, strict implementation of the above suggested measures will go a long way in improving the quality (and quantity) of life in patients of beta-thalassemia major.
PMCID: PMC2937304  PMID: 20859507
Beta-thalassemia major; chelation; HCV positivity; iron overload
21.  Clinical and cytogenetic analysis of human anemias from Jammu region of Jammu and Kashmir state 
Anemias are the blood disorders characterized by reduction in the number of circulating red blood cells, the amount of hemoglobin, or the volume of packed red cells in blood. Chromosomal aberrations have often been reported from the bone marrow as well as cultured lymphocytes of the anemic patients.
The aims of the study were to find out the commonest type of anemia occurring in the population of Jammu, India and to find out the chromosomal changes involved in the disorder.
Material and Methods:
Present study has been carried out on the bone marrow samples from 53 clinically diagnosed anemic patients. Cytogenetic study was carried out on slides prepared from these samples. Noncytogenetic factors like age, sex, religion, blood groups, family history of anemia, socioeconomic status, etc. have also been included in the study.
Megaloblastic anemia was found to be the commonest type of anemia. Centromere stretching, chromatid breaks, gaps, and elongation of chromosomes were recorded in patients with megaloblastic anemia and combined deficiency anemia. However, structural changes and numerical changes were totally absent.
The commonest anemia among the people of Jammu region is megaloblastic anemia and its prevalence is increasing every year. Also, megaloblastic anemia is always associated with reversible cytogenetic changes.
PMCID: PMC2937305  PMID: 20859508
Anemia; centromere stretching; chromatid breaks; chromosomal aberrations; megaloblastic anemia
24.  Development of blood transfusion service in Sultanate of Oman 
Sultanate of Oman is geographically situated in south-west of Asia, having common borders on western side by the land with United Arab Emirates, Saudi Arabia and Yemen and with the Arabian Sea and the Gulf of Oman in the east and the north respectively. The country enjoys one of the best health care facilities including blood transfusion services in the region.
Study design:
Information was collected through informal personal interviews, digging out the past records, and the report presentations at various forums.
A modest start by providing blood units through import, the country is now self-reliant on procuring blood units from voluntary non-remunerate blood donors within the sultanate. A steady growth of blood banks is witnessed in every aspect of blood banking including blood collection, blood processing and supply. Various modalities are adapted in promoting voluntary blood donation programme.
Sultanate of Oman has created one of the best blood transfusion services in the region in providing safe blood for transfusion through voluntary donation, a use of blood components and irradiating blood products.
PMCID: PMC2847343  PMID: 20376265
Blood transfusion services; voluntary blood donation; national blood transfusion services; Sultanate of Oman
25.  Prevalence of glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase deficiency and sickle cell trait among blood donors in Riyadh 
Background and Aims:
Blood donation from glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD)-deficient and sickle cell trait (SCT) donors might alter the quality of the donated blood during processing, storage or in the recipient's circulatory system. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of G6PD deficiency and SCT among blood donors coming to King Khalid University Hospital (KKUH) in Riyadh. It was also reviewed the benefits and risks of transfusing blood from these blood donors.
Materials and Methods:
This cross-sectional study was conducted on 1150 blood samples obtained from blood donors that presented to KKUH blood bank during the period April 2006 to May 2006. All samples were tested for Hb-S by solubility test, alkaline gel electrophoresis; and for G6PD deficiency, by fluorescent spot test.
Out of the 1150 donors, 23 (2%) were diagnosed for SCT, 9 (0.78%) for G6PD deficiency and 4 (0.35%) for both conditions. Our prevalence of SCT and G6PD deficiency is higher than that of the general population of Riyadh.
We recommend to screen all units for G6PD deficiency and sickle cell trait and to defer donations from donors with either of these conditions, unless if needed for special blood group compatibility, platelet apheresis or if these are likely to affect the blood bank inventory. If such blood is to be used, special precautions need to be undertaken to avoid complications in high-risk recipients.
PMCID: PMC2847342  PMID: 20376264
Blood transfusion; glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase deficiency; sickle cell trait

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