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1.  Blood transfusion in borderless South Asia 
doi:10.4103/0973-6247.83234
PMCID: PMC3159238  PMID: 21897587
2.  Attitude to blood donation in Saudi Arabia 
Background and Objectives:
The blood donor system in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia depends on a combination of voluntary and involuntary donors. The aim of this study is to explore the attitudes, beliefs and motivations of Saudis toward blood donation.
Materials and Methods:
The study was conducted at the Donor Centers at King Khalid University Hospital (KKUH) Blood Bank and King Saud University Students Health Center, Riyadh. A self-administered questionnaire was distributed to donors (n = 517) and nondonors (n = 316), between February and June 2008. All were males.
Results:
Ninety-nine percent of the respondents showed positive attitude toward blood donations and its importance for patients care, and object the importation of blood from abroad. Blood donors: Ninety-one percent agree that that blood donation is a religious obligation, 91% think no compensation should be given, 63% will accept a token gift, 34% do not object to donating six times/year and 67% did not mind coming themselves to the donor center to give blood. Nondonors: Forty-six percent were not asked to give blood and those who were asked mentioned fear (5%) and lack of time (16%) as their main deterrents. Reasons for rejection as donors include underweight and age (71%) and health reasons (19%). Seventy-five percent objected to money compensation but 69% will accept token gifts and 92% will donate if a relative/friend needs blood.
Conclusion:
These results reflect an encouraging strong positive attitude toward blood donation. Further future planning with emphasis on educational/publicity programs and careful organization of donor recruitment campaigns could see the dream of total voluntary nonremunerated blood donations should not take long to be true.
doi:10.4103/0973-6247.83235
PMCID: PMC3159239  PMID: 21897588
Attitude to blood donation; donor compensation; donor motivation; Saudi blood donors
3.  Study of the effect of iron overload on the function of endocrine glands in male thalassemia patients 
Background:
Iron overload is an important issue in the state of thalassemic patients due to the harmful effect of high concentration of iron deposited in different tissues in human body including endocrine glands. In the present work, an attempt is carried out to estimate the effect of iron overload in thalassemic patients on the function of endocrine glands through the estimation of their ability to secrete adequate amounts of certain hormones.
Materials and Methods:
Seventy eight male children with beta-thalassemia, in the age-group of 4–11 years, were enrolled for this research. These children were being treated with frequent transfusions and long-term iron chelation therapy. Thirty age and sex matched children without thalassemia constituted the control group. Ferritin and different hormones were estimated by ELISA technique.
Results:
The results showed a mild reduction in the function of endocrine glands through the decrease in the level of some hormones. These changes due mainly to the hypoxia and precipitation of iron in certain glands and overlapping with the synthesis or secretion of the hormones.
Conclusion:
There is a different hormonal disturbances in beta thalassemia patients. Reduction of total body iron store is an important goal of the treatment of thalassemia and measuring the hormones concentration is necessary for the follow up of the thalassemic patients especially during puberty.
doi:10.4103/0973-6247.83236
PMCID: PMC3159240  PMID: 21897589
Glands; hormones; iron overload; thalassemia
4.  Evaluation of new cases of HCV infection in thalassaemia patients for source of infection 
Background:
Screening tests on blood bags is important step for blood safety. In Iran, screening for HCV started from 1996. We decided to determine the new cases of hepatitis C in our thalassemic patients, after screening of blood bags was initiated and trace backing from recipients to find their donors.
Materials and Methods:
The study was done on patients with complete files for HCVAb test results. Only cases that had a positive HCVAb result following a negative result were considered as new cases. For trace backing, we recorded the blood transfusions’ date and the blood bags’ number from last negative test results (HCVAb) to the first positive test result. These data were sent to the transfusion center. The suspected donors were contacted and asked to be tested again in the transfusion center.
Results:
A total of 395 patients were studied; 229 (58%) males and 166 (42%) females. Mean age was 27.5 years. We had 109 HCV (27.5%) positive cases of whom 21 were infected after 1996. We traced the last five cases contaminated during 2003 and 2004. These five patients had 13, 10, 13, 12, and 6 donors, respectively (totally 54 donors were found). We proved the healthy state in 68.5% (37 of 54) of our donors population. Of them, 81% were repeated donors and 17 of 54 donors (31.5%) could not be traced (because of change in addresses). We did not have any HCV new cases after 2004.
Conclusion:
We could not prove HCV transmission from donors as the source of infection. Although parenteral transmission is always on top of the list in HCV infection, the possibility of hospital and/or nursing personnel transmission and/or patient-to-patient transmission such as use of common instruments like subcutaneous Desferal® infusion pumps; which the patients used for iron chelation therapy, should also be kept in mind.
doi:10.4103/0973-6247.83237
PMCID: PMC3159241  PMID: 21897590
Hepatitis C; thalassemia; transfusion-transmitted infections
5.  Seroprevalence of subclinical HEV infection in asymptomatic, apparently healthy, pregnant women in Dakahlya Governorate, Egypt 
Background and Aim:
Hepatitis E virus (HEV) is a major public health problem in the developing countries. HEV infection in pregnant women is more common and fatal in the third trimester. The present study was designed to determine the seroprevalence of subclinical HEV infection in asymptomatic pregnant women.
Materials and Methods:
A total of 116 asymptomatic pregnant women divided into 2 groups: Group 1 included 56 pregnant women with HCV positive serology and group 2 included 60 pregnant women with negative HCV serology were included in this study. Prevalence of anti-HEV antibodies and anti-HCV were determined by an enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) kit.
Results:
The overall prevalence of anti-HEV IgG was highly significant among pregnant women with chronic HCV infection 40/56 (71.42%) than pregnant women free from chronic HCV infection 28/60 (46.7%) (P = 0.006). Chronic HCV infection in pregnant women appeared to be a risk factor associated with HEV IgG seropositivity (OR = 2.86, CI = 1.24-6.6). The seropositivity of anti-HEV IgG was significantly high in rural areas than urban areas (62.5% vs. 37.5%) in group 1 and (78.58% vs. 21.42%) in group 2 (P = 0.15) and OR = 2.2, CI = 0.65-7.7). A decrease in albumin level (P = 0.047) and an increase in bilirubin (P = 0.025), ALT (P = 0.032), and AST (P = 0.044) in pregnant women with positive HCV and IgG anti-HEV than the second group with negative HCV serology.
Conclusions:
The seroprevalence of anti-HEV IgG in pregnant women is high in Egypt especially in rural areas. With chronic HCV coinfection, a marked increase in anti-HEV IgG seropositivity and significant worsening of the biochemical liver indices were noted. Increased public awareness about the sound hygienic measures for a less prevalence of HEV is strongly advised. The need for HEV vaccination for those at risk, especially pregnant ladies, should be considered.
doi:10.4103/0973-6247.83238
PMCID: PMC3159242  PMID: 21897591
Chronic HCV infection; hepatitis E virus; pregnancy
6.  Serological study on parvovirus B19 infection in multitransfused thalassemia major patients and its transmission through donor units 
Background:
Human parvovirus B19 (B19) virus is a newly recognized agent for transfusion transmitted diseases. Beta-thalassemia major patients receive a hypertransfusion regimen, hence, are prone to acquire B19 infection; moreover, B19 escapes viral inactivation methods and donor units are not tested for B19, but there are just a couple of studies globally and none from the Asian continent. Hence, a study was designed to find the frequency of B19 infection and its transmission in multitransfused thalassemia patients.
Materials and Methods:
Ninety multitransfused beta-thalassemia major (thalassemia) patients, 32 controls (age, sex matched) without any history of transfusion were enrolled. Besides the donor units were tested in B19 un-infected patients. B19 specific IgG and IgM antibodies in the sera were analyzed by ELISA (in-house), using B19 VPI and VP2 recombinant and purified antigens; additionally HBsAg and anti-HIV and anti-HCV antibodies were tested for coexisting infections.
Results:
Seventy-three (81%) thalassemia patients tested positive for anti-B19 IgG antibodies as compared to seven (21%) in the controls group (P < 0.01), while anti-B19 IgM antibodies were detected in 37 (41.1%) compared to two (6.2%) in the controls (P < 0.01). Mean age of the thalassemia patient was eight years (range 2 – 18 years) and B19 infection was highest in the six-to-ten year range. Seropositivity increased with the number of transfusions. Two of the four HBsAg positive and five of the seven anti-HCV IgM antibody-positive patients also had anti-B19 IgM. After a six-month follow-up, four (25%) of the 16 seronegative patients seroconverted and anti-B19 IgM antibodies were detected in their donor units.
Conclusions:
Most of multitransfused thalassemics were B19 seropositive or had anti-B19 IgM; in the remaining uninfected group, B19 got transmitted through infected / IgM-positive donor units.
doi:10.4103/0973-6247.83239
PMCID: PMC3159243  PMID: 21897592
B19; blood transfusion; parvovirus; seroconversion; thalassemia
7.  Distribution of Hepatitis B virus genotypes among healthy blood donors in eastern part of North India 
Aim:
We evaluated the distribution HBV genotypes among non-remunerated healthy blood donors in eastern North India.
Materials and Methods:
During screening of donated blood, 176 consecutive HBsAg positive, samples comprised the study. HBV-DNA was quantitative detected in 150 samples by PCR. HBV genotype was determined by identifying genotype-specific DNA band using nested PCR.
Results:
Majorities were of age group 31-40 yrs (65.3%). Males (92.7%) outnumbered females (7.3%) and were HbeAg-negative HBsAg carriers. Over all, genotype-A was the most prevalent (54%) followed by D (21.3%). We did not find genotype-G and H. Districts under study, divided into four zones: Zone–I genotype-A was most common (62.3%) followed by D (18.8%); Zone–II genotype–C (41.2%) was more frequent followed by D (20.6% and A (17.7%). Zone–III in adjoining Bihar state close to Zone–I, A was more prevalent (81.8%) followed by B and C (9.1%). In Zone-IV adjoining Zone- II had genotype-A (100%) only. Genotype–D had more sporadic distribution. Genotype-E and F were prevalent in Zone I and II (3/150, 2%).
Conclusions:
Among blood donors HBV genotype-A followed by D was the most prevalent in eastern North India. Genotype–A had pattern of distribution signifying common focus, while D was more sporadic and C had single large pocket (Zone-II) probably common focus but restricting to particular area. Evidences are suggestive of association of HBV genotype in liver dysfunction. An effective treatment and preventive strategies based of genotypes will reduce the disease burden and increase the blood safety.
doi:10.4103/0973-6247.83240
PMCID: PMC3159244  PMID: 21897593
Hepatitis B virus; HBV in blood donor; HBV in India; Hepatitis B virus genotype; PCR genotyping
8.  The Rh allele frequencies in Gaza city in Palestine 
Background:
The Rh blood group system is the second most clinically significant blood group system. It includes 49 antigens, but only five (D, C, E, c and e) are the most routinely identified due to their unique relation to hemolytic disease of the newborn (HDN) and transfusion reactions. Frequency of the Rh alleles showed variation, with regard to race and ethnic.
Objectives:
The purpose of the study was to document the Rh alleles’ frequencies amongst males (M) and females (F) in Gaza city in Palestine.
Materials and Methods:
Two hundred and thirty-two blood samples (110 M and 122 F) were tested against monoclonal IgM anti-C,anti-c, anti-E, anti-e and a blend of monoclonal/polyclonal IgM/IgG anti-D. The expected Rh phenotypes were calculated using gene counting method.
Results:
The most frequent Rh antigen in the total sample was e, while the least frequent was E.The order of the combined Rh allele frequencies in both M and F was CDe > cDe > cde > CdE > cDE > Cde > CDE. A significant difference was reported between M and F regarding the phenotypic frequencies (P < 0.05). However, no significance (P > 0.05) was reported with reference to the observed and expected Rh phenotypic frequencies in either M or F students.
Conclusion:
It was concluded that the Rh antigens, alleles and phenotypes in Gaza city have unique frequencies, which may be of importance to the Blood Transfusion Center in Gaza city and anthropology.
doi:10.4103/0973-6247.83241
PMCID: PMC3159245  PMID: 21897594
Rh allele frequency; Rh antigens; Rh frequency; Rh phenotypes; Rh system
9.  Type and screen policy in the blood bank: Is AHG cross-match still required? A study at a multispecialty corporate hospital in India 
Background:
Antibodies against only about 25–28 blood group antigens are known to cause hemolytic reactions (HTRs), and red cell antibody screening should detect such clinically significant antibodies. An extension of the antibody screening test is the ‘type and screen’ done to detect clinically significant antibodies, omiting the anti-human globulin (AHG) cross-match.
Aim:
The aim of this study was to find out if the type and screen procedure is a safe method for pre-transfusion testing when compared to the AHG cross-match currently in use in India.
Materials and Methods:
We evaluated data from 45373 patients for whom a total of 61668 units of packed red blood cells (PRBC) were cross-matched in the AHG phase using DiaMed® ID cards. An antibody screen was carried out in all the patients using the DiaMed® ID-DiaCell I+II+III. The AHG cross-match was also carried out for all recipients, irrespective of the result of the antibody screen. The results were compared to see if there were any cases where the antibody screening was negative but the AHG cross-match showed incompatibility.
Results:
Not a single case was found where the antibody screen was negative and AHG cross-match showed incompatibility. In 68 cases the antibody screening was positive. Out of the 68 cases, AHG cross-match was incompatible with at least one unit of PRBC in 41 cases.
Conclusion:
The screening cell panel adequately detected the clinically significant antibodies in the Indian population in our study. The type and screen policy can be safe, efficient, cost-effective, and beneficial to the transfusion service in India.
doi:10.4103/0973-6247.83242
PMCID: PMC3159246  PMID: 21897595
Anti-human globulin cross-match; alloantibodies; type and screen
10.  Safety of type and screen method compared to conventional antiglobulin crossmatch procedures for compatibility testing in Indian setting 
Background:
Over the past 30 years, pretransfusion tests have undergone considerable modification. In 1984, AABB recommended that the full cross match could be replaced by an abbreviated cross match in patients with negative antibody screen. However, before implementation of such a policy, issue regarding safety of T & S needs to be evaluated.
Objectives:
The aim of pretransfusion testing (PTT) is to ensure that enough red blood cells (RBCs) in the selected red cell components will survive when transfused.
Results and Conclusion:
We have, therefore in this study; evaluated safety of T & S procedure for PTT in comparison with conventional test tube cross match. The T & S procedure gave a safety of 91.6%. Also, the usefulness of the T & S was shown through the detection of unexpected antibodies in 0.75% (15 out of 2026) of cases.
doi:10.4103/0973-6247.83243
PMCID: PMC3159247  PMID: 21897596
Cross matching; pre transfusion testing; red cell transfusion; type and screen
11.  In vitro function of random donor platelets stored for 7 days in composol platelet additive solution 
Background and Aim:
Platelets are routinely isolated from whole blood and stored in plasma for 5 days. This study was done to assess the in vitro function of random donor platelets stored for 7 days in composol platelet additive solution at 22°C.
Materials and Methods:
The study sample included 30 blood donors of both sex in State Blood Bank, C S M Medical University, Lucknow. Random donor platelets were prepared by the platelet-rich plasma method. Whole blood (350 ml) was collected in anticoagulant Citrate Phosphate Dextrose Adenine triple blood bags. Random donor platelets were stored for 7 days at 22°C in platelet incubators and agitators with and without additive solution.
Results:
Platelet swirling was present in all the units at 22°C on day 7 with no evidence of bacterial contamination. Comparison of the mean values of platelet count, platelet factor 3, lactate dehydrogenase, pH, glucose and platelet aggregation showed no significant difference in additive solution while platelet factor 3, glucose and platelet aggregation showed significant difference (P < 0.001) on day 7 without additive solution at 22°C.
Conclusion:
Our study infers that the platelet viability and aggregation were the best maintained within normal levels on day 7 of storage in platelet additive solution at 22°C. Thus, we may conclude that in vitro storage of random donor platelets with an extended shelf life of 7 days using platelet additive solution may be advocated to improve the inventory of platelets.
doi:10.4103/0973-6247.83244
PMCID: PMC3159248  PMID: 21897597
In vitro; random donor platelets; additive solution; storage
12.  Transfusion-related adverse events at the tertiary care center in North India: An institutional hemovigilance effort 
Aim:
This study was designed to analyze the incidence and spectrum of adverse effects of blood transfusion so as to initiate measures to minimize risks and improve overall transfusion safety in the institute.
Materials and Methods:
During the period from July 2002 to July 2003 all the adverse events related to transfusion of blood and blood components in various clinical specialties were recorded. They were analyzed and classified on the basis of their clinical features and laboratory tests. Attempt was also made to study the predisposing risk factors.
Results:
During the study period 56,503 blood and blood components were issued to 29,720 patients. A total of 105 adverse reactions due to transfusion were observed during the study period. A majority of the adverse reactions was observed in hemato-oncology patients 43% (n = 45) and in presensitized patient groups 63% (n = 66). FNHTR 41% (n = 43) and allergic reactions 34% (n = 36) were the most common of all types of adverse transfusion reactions, followed by AcHTR 8.56% (n = 9). Majority of these AcHTR were due to unmonitored storage of blood in the refrigerator of wards resulting in hemolysis due to thermal injury. Less frequently observed reactions were anaphylactoid reactions (n = 4), bacterial sepsis (n = 4), hypervolemia (n = 2), hypocalcemia (n = 2), TRALI (n = 1), DHTR (n = 1), and TAGvHD (n = 1).
Conclusion:
Analysis of transfusion-related adverse outcomes is essential for improving safety. Factors such as improvement of blood storage conditions outside the blood bank, improvement in cross-matching techniques, careful donor screening, adherence to good manufacturing practices while component preparation, bedside monitoring of transfusion, and documentation of adverse events will help in reducing transfusion-related morbidity and mortality.
doi:10.4103/0973-6247.83245
PMCID: PMC3159249  PMID: 21897598
Hemovigilance; transfusion reaction; adverse events of transfusion; haemolytic transfusion reaction; risk associated with transfusion
13.  The quest for an Indian blood law as of blood transfusion services regulatory framework 
Background:
Blood transfusion services are a vital part of the national health delivery system. The responsibility for ensuring a continuous supply of blood rests with health administrators, who need to galvanize entire communities towards regular and non-remunerated blood donation.
Objective:
The present study aimed to examine the prevailing global regulations and practices related to blood transfusion and press the case for a dedicated blood law in India.
Materials and Methods:
We attempted a comprehensive, annotated assembly of published studies on blood transfusion services in India.
Data Abstraction and Synthesis:
Laws related to blood transfusion services exist in India as a part of the Drugs and Cosmetics Law. In the developed world, most blood donors are unpaid volunteers who give blood for a community supply. In order to augment safe blood transfusion services in India, we have to develop operational legal guidelines on recruitment and retention of voluntary blood donors to direct related organizations for this imperative activity.
Conclusion:
Several factors, such as political will and a professional and ethical approach can help in formulating a common vision, building trust, by providing optimum information towards a social movement for the rational blood transfusion services. We have to come together for a dedicated blood law in order to improve the quality of blood transfusion services in India.
doi:10.4103/0973-6247.83246
PMCID: PMC3159250  PMID: 21897599
Blood law; India; Drugs and Cosmetics Act India
17.  YMDD motif mutation after lamivudine therapy 
doi:10.4103/0973-6247.83252
PMCID: PMC3159254  PMID: 21897603
18.  Re: Heparin-induced thrombocytopenia – Type 2 
doi:10.4103/0973-6247.83254
PMCID: PMC3159255  PMID: 21897604
21.  Para-Bombay: A blind spot in blood grouping? 
doi:10.4103/0973-6247.83258
PMCID: PMC3159258  PMID: 21897607
23.  Regular repetitive voluntary blood donors: What’re their characteristics ? 
doi:10.4103/0973-6247.83260
PMCID: PMC3159260  PMID: 21897609
25.  The culprits behind a hyper-intense spleen 
doi:10.4103/0973-6247.83264
PMCID: PMC3159262  PMID: 21897611

Results 1-25 (52)