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1.  ABO and Rh (D) group distribution and gene frequency; the first multicentric study in India 
Background and Objectives:
The study was undertaken with the objective to provide data on the ABO and Rh(D) blood group distribution and gene frequency across India.
Materials and Methods:
A total of 10,000 healthy blood donors donating in blood banks situated in five different geographical regions of the country (North, South, East and Center) were included in the study. ABO and Rh (D) grouping was performed on all these samples. Data on the frequency of ABO and Rh(D) blood groups was reported in simple numbers and percentages.
The study showed that O was the most common blood group (37.12%) in the country closely followed by B at 32.26%, followed by A at 22.88% while AB was the least prevalent group at 7.74%. 94.61% of the donor population was Rh positive and the rest were Rh negative. Regional variations were observed in the distribution. Using the maximum likelihood method, the frequencies of the IA, IB and IO alleles were calculated and tested according to the Hardy Weinberg law of Equilibrium. The calculated gene frequencies are 0.1653 for IA (p), 0.2254 for IB (q) and 0.6093 for IO (r). In Indian Population, O (r) records the highest value followed by B (q) and A (p); O > B > A.
The study provides information about the relative distribution of various alleles in the Indian population both on a pan-India basis as well as region-wise. This vital information may be helpful in planning for future health challenges, particularly planning with regards to blood transfusion services.
PMCID: PMC4140055  PMID: 25161353
ABO; blood group; rhesus
2.  Analysis of efforts to maintain safe donor in main donor pool after completion of temporary deferral period 
Voluntary blood donation is not satisfactory all over India. In India, about 55% of donation is through voluntary non-remunerated blood donors (VNRBD). However, about one third already motivated blood donors are deferred due to stringent screening criteria, either temporarily or permanently. The temporarily deferred donors could be a good source of blood donation after deferral period.
The present study is carried out to know retrieval of blood donors those who are deferred temporarily.
The present study is carried out in the Regional Blood Transfusion Centre of Western India. All donors screened as per the guideline and deferred donors are categorized as temporary and permanently deferred donors.
Materials and Methods:
From temporarily deferred donors, reason for deferral is considered. As per reason of deferral, time duration for recalling the donor is defined. Based on this, donor is called back to donate again.
Statistical Analysis:
Chi-square test is applied.
A total of 33% donors were deferred either temporarily or permanently. In the repeat donors (5.32%) deferral rate was significantly higher than first time (1.32%) donors. Significant female preponderance was observed (15.05% vs 2.51%). Majority of temporarily deferred donors were less than 40 years of age (80.80%), graduate (82.90%), from low income group (62.90%) and profession was service (48.10%).
Low hemoglobin (78.30%) was the most common reason of temporary deferral, both in first time and repeat donors (71.00%). Efforts to increase the hemoglobin in the repeat donors will improve the donor retention and overall blood safety can be increased.
PMCID: PMC3613667  PMID: 23559769
Donor return; hemoglobin; retrieval; temporary deferral; voluntary non-remunerated blood donors/ blood donor
3.  True positivity of anti-Hepatitis C Virus Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay reactive blood donors: A prospective study done in western India 
A significant number of safe donations are removed from the blood supply, because of the reactive anti-HCV screening test results. This study aimed to assess if the HCV (Hepatitis C Virus) seropositive donors were confirmed positive or not.
Materials and Methods:
More than 68,000 blood donors’ samples were routinely screened and 140 samples were found to be anti-HCV ELISA reactive. These 140 samples were tested by NAT. The NAT negative samples were tested by RIBA. Analysis of samples reactive in single ELISA kit vs. two ELISA kits was done.
Out of 140 anti-HCV ELISA reactive samples, a total of 16 (11.43%) were positive by NAT. The results of 124 RIBA showed 6 (4.84%) positive, 92 (74.19%) negative, and 26 (20.97%) indeterminate results. None of the sample which was reactive in only single ELISA kit was positive by NAT or RIBA.
Only a minority of blood donors with repeatedly reactive anti-HCV screening test is positive by confirmatory testing, but all these blood units are discarded as per existing legal provisions in India. Efforts should be made to retain these donors and also donor units.
PMCID: PMC3439757  PMID: 22988383
Anti-Hepatitis C Virus Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay; nucleic acid amplification test; recombinant immuno blot assay
5.  Serial follow-up of repeat voluntary blood donors reactive for anti-HCV ELISA 
Voluntary non-remunerated repeat blood donors are perceived to be safer than the first time blood donors. This study was planned for follow-up of previous hepatitis C virus (HCV) test results of anti-HCV enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) reactive repeat blood donors. The aim was to suggest a protocol for re-entry of the blood donors who are confirmed HCV negative by nucleic acid test (NAT) and recombinant immunoblot assay (RIBA). A group of repeat voluntary donors were followed retrospectively who became reactive on a cross sectional study and showed HCV reactivity while donating blood regularly.
Material and Methods:
A total of 51,023 voluntary non remunerated blood donors were screened for anti-HCV ELISA routinely. If anybody showed positivity, they were tested by two ELISA kits (screening and confirmatory) and then confirmed infection status by NAT and or RIBA. The previous HCV test results of repeat donors reactive by anti-HCV ELISA were looked back from the records. Data of donors who were repeat reactive with single ELISA kit (in the present study) were analyzed separately from those reactive with two ELISA kits (in the present study).
In this study, 140 (0.27%) donors who were reactive by anti HCV ELISA were included. Out of them, 35 were repeat voluntary donors and 16 (11.43%) were reactive with single ELISA kit. All 16 donors were reactive by single ELISA kit occasionally in previous donations. Their present ELISA positive donations were negative for HCV NAT and RIBA. A total of 19 (13.57%) donors were reactive with two ELISA kits. In their previous donations, the donors who were reactive even once with two ELISA kits were consistently reactive by the same two ELISA kits in their next donations also.
Donor sample reactive by only single ELISA kit may not be considered as infectious for disposal as they were negative by NAT and or RIBA. One time ELISA positivity was found probably due to ELISA kit specificity and sensitivity. Donors reactive with two ELISA kit should be discarded as there is a high positivity with NAT/ RIBA. However, donors reactive by two ELISA kits and negative by NAT and RIBA should be followed up and may not be deferred permanently.
PMCID: PMC3082711  PMID: 21572711
Anti-HCV ELISA; repeat voluntary blood donor; occult infections; donor follow-up; nucleic acid test; recombinant immunoblot assay

Results 1-5 (5)