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3.  Transfusion-related adverse events at the tertiary care center in North India: An institutional hemovigilance effort 
Aim:
This study was designed to analyze the incidence and spectrum of adverse effects of blood transfusion so as to initiate measures to minimize risks and improve overall transfusion safety in the institute.
Materials and Methods:
During the period from July 2002 to July 2003 all the adverse events related to transfusion of blood and blood components in various clinical specialties were recorded. They were analyzed and classified on the basis of their clinical features and laboratory tests. Attempt was also made to study the predisposing risk factors.
Results:
During the study period 56,503 blood and blood components were issued to 29,720 patients. A total of 105 adverse reactions due to transfusion were observed during the study period. A majority of the adverse reactions was observed in hemato-oncology patients 43% (n = 45) and in presensitized patient groups 63% (n = 66). FNHTR 41% (n = 43) and allergic reactions 34% (n = 36) were the most common of all types of adverse transfusion reactions, followed by AcHTR 8.56% (n = 9). Majority of these AcHTR were due to unmonitored storage of blood in the refrigerator of wards resulting in hemolysis due to thermal injury. Less frequently observed reactions were anaphylactoid reactions (n = 4), bacterial sepsis (n = 4), hypervolemia (n = 2), hypocalcemia (n = 2), TRALI (n = 1), DHTR (n = 1), and TAGvHD (n = 1).
Conclusion:
Analysis of transfusion-related adverse outcomes is essential for improving safety. Factors such as improvement of blood storage conditions outside the blood bank, improvement in cross-matching techniques, careful donor screening, adherence to good manufacturing practices while component preparation, bedside monitoring of transfusion, and documentation of adverse events will help in reducing transfusion-related morbidity and mortality.
doi:10.4103/0973-6247.83245
PMCID: PMC3159249  PMID: 21897598
Hemovigilance; transfusion reaction; adverse events of transfusion; haemolytic transfusion reaction; risk associated with transfusion
5.  Leukoreduced blood components: Advantages and strategies for its implementation in developing countries 
Removal of leucocytes from various blood products has been shown to minimize Febrile nonhemolytic transfusion reactions, HLA alloimmunization, platelet refractoriness in multitransfused patients and prevention of transmission of leukotropic viruses such as EBV and CMV. Rapidly growing size of hemato-oncological patients in our country requiring multiple transfusion of blood and components during the course of their management pose a great challenge to transfusion services to provide them red cell and platelet antigen matched products in alloimmunized subjects. Thus removal of leucocytes below a certain threshold, ≤ 5 × 106 in a blood component certainly helps in prevention of alloimmunization and associated risks in these patients. Currently the best Leucoreduction can be achieved with the help of 3rd and 4th generation leukofilters, both in laboratory and patient bed side, and state of the art apheresis devices. The present article briefly reviews the current literature for pros and cons of leucofilteration and its scope of implementation in the cost constrained settings.
doi:10.4103/0973-6247.59384
PMCID: PMC2847337  PMID: 20376259
Blood component; developing countries; leukoreduced component
6.  Platelet audit: Assessment and utilization of this precious resource from a tertiary care hospital 
Background:
To assess the appropriate utilization of platelet transfusions [random donor platelets (RDP) and single donor platelets (SDP)]; a six-month retrospective audit was carried out in a tertiary care hospital.
Materials and Methods:
A six-month retrospective platelet audit was carried out from May to October 2005 to estimate its preparation, appropriate utilization and wastage rate. Patient's demographics, transfusion triggers and episodes and ABO and Rh (D) group specific or non-group specific transfusions were also assessed.
Results:
About 5525 units of platelets [PRP-PC, 3,813 (69%); BC-PC, 983 (17.8%); PRP, 648 (11.7%) and SDP 81 (1.5%)] were prepared and transfused to 853 patients (RDP to 814 patients and SDP to 39 patients) in 2,093 transfusion episodes. Adult and pediatric hemato-oncology were the main user specialties utilizing 39.1 and 87.6% of the RDPs and SDPs prepared. Of the patients receiving RDPs, 95% were transfused ABO and Rh (D) group specific platelets whereas 100% SDPs transfusions were of group specific platelets. 88% of prophylactic platelet transfusions were appropriate as per the recommended BCSH guidelines. However, 12% of the prophylactic platelets were transfused inappropriately in cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB) surgeries with normal platelet counts and no evidence of bleeding related to platelets. Out of 5,444 RDPs prepared 1,585 (29.11%) units were not utilized.
Conclusions:
Regular audit of blood and blood components is a must so that necessary remedial measures can be taken to maximize appropriate and judicious utilization of each component.
doi:10.4103/0973-6247.28066
PMCID: PMC3168134  PMID: 21938226
Appropriate utilization; platelet transfusion; transfusion audit

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