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1.  Clinical significance of antibody specificities to M, N and Lewis blood group system  
Context:
The clinically significant antibodies are those active at 37°C and/or by the indirect antiglobulin test. Most of the published literature refers to antibodies of Lewis blood group system to be insignificant, whereas antibodies to M and N blood groups are associated with variable clinical significance.
Aims:
The aim of this study is to find the frequency and clinical significance of antibodies to M, N and Lewis blood group systems.
Settings and Design:
The study was carried out retrospectively from January 2009 to December 2012.
Materials and Methods:
Antibody screening was performed by solid phase red cell adherence (SPRCA) technique using four cell screening panel on a fully automated platform GALILEO (Immucor Inc. USA). In case of a positive antibody screen, antibody identification was performed using SPRCA (GALILEO, Immucor Inc. USA).
Results:
A total of 49,077 red cell antibody screens were performed and a total of 427 identifications of red cell antibodies were carried out. A total of 304 specific antibodies were detected: 8.22% of antibodies were of anti-M specificity and 2.96% were of anti-N specificity. Majority (84%) of anti-M and 77.78% of anti-N were of Immunoglobulin G (IgG) class reacting at 37°C. 1.31% of the antibodies were directed against Lewis system antigens of which 0.65% were anti-Lea and 0.65% were anti-Leb. Half of the Lewis system antibodies, i.e., 1 each of anti-Lea and anti-Leb were of IgG class.
Conclusion:
Our study highlights the importance of detecting the thermal amplitude of antibodies with variable clinical significance especially if both IgG and IgM types of antibodies are associated with it so as to establish their clinical significance.
doi:10.4103/0973-6247.137442
PMCID: PMC4140072  PMID: 25161347
Anti-M; anti-N; clinical significance; Lewis
2.  Preoperative predictors of blood component transfusion in living donor liver transplantation 
Context:
Extensive bleeding associated with liver transplantation is a major challenge faced by transplant surgeons, worldwide.
Aims:
To evaluate the blood component consumption and determine preoperative factors that predict the same in living donor liver transplantation (LDLT).
Settings and Design:
This prospective study was performed for a 1 year period, from March 2010 to February 2011.
Materials and Methods:
Intra- and postoperative utilization of blood components in 152 patients undergoing LDLT was evaluated and preoperative patient parameters like age, gender, height, weight, disease etiology, hemoglobin (Hb), hematocrit (Hct), platelet count (Plt), total leukocyte count (TLC), activated partial thromboplastin time (aPTT), international normalized ratio (INR), serum bilirubin (T. bilirubin), total proteins (T. proteins), albumin to globulin ratio (A/G ratio), serum creatinine (S. creatinine), blood urea (B. urea), and serum electrolytes were assessed to determine their predictive values. Univariate and stepwise discriminant analysis identified those factors, which could predict the consumption of each blood component.
Results:
The average utilization of packed red cells (PRCs), cryoprecipitates (cryo), apheresis platelets, and fresh frozen plasma was 8.48 units, 2.19 units, 0.93 units, and 2,025 ml, respectively. Disease etiology and blood component consumption were significantly correlated. Separate prediction models which could predict consumption of each blood component in intra and postoperative phase of LDLT were derived from among the preoperative Hb, Hct, model for end-stage liver disease (MELD) score, body surface area (BSA), Plt, T. proteins, S. creatinine, B. urea, INR, and serum sodium and chloride.
Conclusions:
Preoperative variables can effectively predict the blood component requirements during liver transplantation, thereby allowing blood transfusion services in being better prepared for surgical procedure.
doi:10.4103/0973-6247.115586
PMCID: PMC3757775  PMID: 24014945
Liver transplant; predictors; preoperative; transfusion
3.  Hepatitis B core antibody testing in Indian blood donors: A double-edged sword! 
Background:
Until lately, anti-HBc antibodies were considered an effective marker for occult Hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection and have served their role in improving blood safety. But, with the development of advanced tests for HBV DNA detection, the role of anti-HBc in this regard stands uncertain.
Materials and Methods:
Anti-HBc and HBsAg ELISA and ID-NAT tests were run in parallel on donor blood samples between April 1, 2006 and December 31, 2010 at the Department of Transfusion Medicine, Indraprastha Apollo Hospitals, New Delhi. A positive ID-NAT was followed by Discriminatory NAT assay.
Results:
A total of 94 247 samples were tested with a total core positivity rate of 10.22%. We identified nearly 9.17% of donors who were reactive for anti-HBc and negative for HBsAg and HBV DNA. These are the donors who are potentially non-infectious and may be returned to the donor pool.
Conclusion:
Although anti HBc testing has a definite role in improving blood safety, centers that have incorporated NAT testing may not derive any additional benefit by performing anti-HBc testing, especially in resource-limited countries like ours.
doi:10.4103/0973-6247.95043
PMCID: PMC3353621  PMID: 22623835
Anti-HBc; HBsAg; ID-NAT
4.  Weak D prevalence among Indian blood donors 
doi:10.4103/0973-6247.67030
PMCID: PMC2937297  PMID: 20859520

Results 1-4 (4)