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3.  Safety of type and screen method compared to conventional antiglobulin crossmatch procedures for compatibility testing in Indian setting 
Background:
Over the past 30 years, pretransfusion tests have undergone considerable modification. In 1984, AABB recommended that the full cross match could be replaced by an abbreviated cross match in patients with negative antibody screen. However, before implementation of such a policy, issue regarding safety of T & S needs to be evaluated.
Objectives:
The aim of pretransfusion testing (PTT) is to ensure that enough red blood cells (RBCs) in the selected red cell components will survive when transfused.
Results and Conclusion:
We have, therefore in this study; evaluated safety of T & S procedure for PTT in comparison with conventional test tube cross match. The T & S procedure gave a safety of 91.6%. Also, the usefulness of the T & S was shown through the detection of unexpected antibodies in 0.75% (15 out of 2026) of cases.
doi:10.4103/0973-6247.83243
PMCID: PMC3159247  PMID: 21897596
Cross matching; pre transfusion testing; red cell transfusion; type and screen
4.  Transfusion-associated immunomodulation: Quantitative changes in cytokines as a measure of immune responsiveness after one time blood transfusion in neurosurgery patients 
Very few studies in humans have investigated the laboratory evidences suggestive of transfusion-associated immunologic changes. In this prospective study, we examined the effects of perioperative blood transfusion on immune response, by measuring various cytokines production, namely, interferon-gamma (IFN-γ), interleukin-10 (IL-10), and Fas Ligand (FasL). A total of 40 patients undergoing neurosurgery were randomly allocated into four groups: (a) no transfusion, (b) allogeneic non-leukofiltered transfusion, (c) prestorage leukofiltered transfusion, (d) autologous transfusion. Samples were collected before operation (day 0) and postoperative days (post-op) 1, 7, and 14. IFN-γ and IL-10 production capacity was measured in supernatant after whole blood culture and serum FasL levels in patients’ sera using commercially available ELISA kits. Change in ratios (cytokine value after PHA stimulation/control value) of IFN-γ and IL-10 and percentage change from baseline for serum FasL levels across different transfusion groups during the sampling period were calculated. There was an increase in IL-10 production in patients receiving allogeneic non-leukofiltered transfusion on days 1 and 7 (mean ratio 2.22 (± 2.16), 4.12 (± 1.71), 4.46 (± 1.97) on days 0, 1, and 7, respectively). Similarly there was a significant (P<0.05) decrease in IFN-γ production in patients who received allogeneic non-leukofiltered red cell transfusion on post-op days 1, 7, and 14 (mean ratio 6.88 (± 4.56), 2.53 (± 0.95), 3.04 (± 1.38) and 2.58 (± 1.48) on day 0, 1, 7, and 14, respectively). Serum FasL production was increased across all patients till 7th day except for ‘no transfusion’ group and this increase was most significant in the non-leukofiltered group. We conclude that one time transfusion leads to quantitative changes in levels of these cytokines largely through interplay of Th2/Th1 pathways in allogeneic nonleukofiltered blood transfusion; however, soluble mediators like FasL which are also present in autologous and leukofiltered blood products may contribute toward minor immunologic effect in these settings.
doi:10.4103/0973-6247.67021
PMCID: PMC2937301  PMID: 20859504
Cytokines production; immunologic changes; leukofiltration; soluble mediators; transfusion
5.  The external quality assessment scheme: Five years experience as a participating laboratory 
Background and Aim:
Quality assurance in blood banking includes active participation in the external quality program. Such a program offers valuable benefits to patient care, their safety, and an overall quality of laboratory practices. In the year 2002, we participated in the External Quality Assessment Scheme (EQAS) under the World Health Organization (WHO), Bureau of Laboratory Quality Standards, Thailand.
Materials and Methods:
In the current study we evaluated our EQAS test result of the past five years, from 2003 to 2007. Test results of all blood samples such as ABO grouping, D typing, antibody screening, antibody identification, and transfusion transmitted infection (TTI) testing were analyzed and documented.
Results:
Discordant results in one or more instances were observed with antibody identification, weak D testing, and tests for anti-HIV1/2 and HBsAg. Twice we failed to detect the ‘anti-Mia’ antibody in the issued sample and that could be attributed to the absence of the corresponding antigen in the used cell panel. HBsAg was missed due to its critically low titer in the serum and the comparatively low sensitivity of our Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay (ELISA) test kit.
Conclusion:
All these failures in the last five years have helped us to significantly improve our transfusion service in terms of performance evaluation, patient care and safety issues, and the overall quality of laboratory practices. We therefore recommend all laboratories and hospitals to participate in the EQAS program, which will definitely help them to improve from what they learn.
doi:10.4103/0973-6247.59388
PMCID: PMC2847341  PMID: 20376263
External quality assessment scheme; quality control; quality assurance
6.  Quality evaluation of four hemoglobin screening methods in a blood donor setting along with their comparative cost analysis in an Indian scenario 
Background:
Despite the wide range of methods available for measurement of hemoglobin, no single technique has emerged as the most appropriate and ideal for a blood donation setup.
Materials and Methods:
A prospective study utilizing 1014 blood samples was carried out in a blood donation setting for quality evaluation of four methods of hemoglobin estimation along with cost analysis: Hematology cell analyzer (reference), HCS, CuSO4 method and HemoCue.
Results:
Mean value of HemoCue (mean ± SD = 14.7 ± 1.49 g/dl) was higher by 0.24 compared to reference (mean ± SD = 13.8 ± 1.52 g/dl) but not statistically significant ( P > 0.05). HemoCue proved to be the best technique (sensitivity 99.4% and specificity 84.4%) whereas HCS was most subjective with 25.2% incorrect estimations. CuSO4 proved to be good with 7.9% false results. Comparative cost analysis of each method was calculated to be 35 INR/test for HemoCue, 0.76 INR /test for HCS and 0.06-0.08 INR /test for CuSO4.
Conclusion:
CuSO4 method gives accurate results, if strict quality control is applied. HemoCue is too expensive to be used as a primary screening method in an economically restricted country like India.
doi:10.4103/0973-6247.53874
PMCID: PMC2920474  PMID: 20808648
Blood donation; CuSO4; hemoglobin estimation; HemoCue; HCS; cost analysis

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