The objectives of this study include: (1) Determination of the attenuation of strike acceleration that Tae Kwon Do sparring safety pads provide from kicks from Olympic style TKD fighters, (2) The sex and weight differentiation in acceleration achieved within the thorax model with the roundhouse kicks.
This prospective, observational study utilized 15 Olympic style fighters from an “elite” team kicking a water core heavy bag thorax model with roundhouse kicks. The model was fitted with a tri-axial accelerometer (GCDC, model X250-2) to measure g acceleration from strikes to the bag. The bag was kicked in three, 10 kick phases by all subjects: kicks without padding; kicks with hogu on heavy bag, and kicks with hogu and instep guards on feet. The g acceleration readings were recorded in all phases.
Kolmogorov-Smirnov failed for all variables. There were 8 female subjects: median age 14 years, median weight 53.4 kg and 7 male subjects: median age 17 years, median weight 70.45 kg. The ANOVA on ranks of the acceleration from kicks against the bag achieved significance, P=0.001. Spearman rank order correlation between the weights of players and acceleration of strike against the hogu without and with insteps pads was significant, P=0.035/r=0.54 and P=0.018/r=0.59, respectively.
Heavier and male subjects tend to produce more force in strikes. Protective chest guard reduces acceleration to the thorax model, but the utility of instep guards is questionable.
Martial arts; Injury; Safety Equipment; Acceleration; Kick
Muslim athletes may continue training and competing while they are fasting. There is a concern about negative effects of fasting on sports performance. This study aimed to investigate the influence of two training time frames on athletes’ body composition and performance during Ramadan fasting.
An observational study was conducted and thirty four male volunteer athletes from different sports including volleyball, karate, taekwondo and football were assigned in two groups. The first group included 14 elite athletes who during Ramadan voluntarily participated in training sessions at 1 hour before Iftar (BI) and the second group of 20 elite athletes who during Ramadan participated in training sessions at 3 hours after Iftar (AI). Testing was performed one week before; in the first and fourth weeks of Ramadan and one week after Ramadan. Weights, heights and skinfold thickness were assessed at each time point and body mass index was calculated. Each player was assessed for agility and explosive strength as well.
The mean weight and body mass index of both groups decreased significantly during Ramadan (P<0.001). Performance variables were not negatively affected by fasting in BI or AI group athletes.
Weight reduction might come with either BI or AI training schedules in Ramadan. Daytime or evening training did not inversely affect the agility and power performances in a group of elite athletes during Ramadan fasting.
Ramadan Fasting; Athletes; Training time frame; Athletic Performance; Sports
Exercise induced asthma (EIA) is a transient increase in airway resistance after intensive exercise and can be measured as a decline in forced expiratory volume in one second (FEV1). The condition is due to increased training load and inhalation of cold and dry air. Several studies have shown that eucapnic voluntary hyperpnea challenge test (EVH test) is a very sensitive and specific diagnostic method. EVH test develops EIA by hyperventilation of dry gas and the test achieves the same airway obstruction as training in cold and dry air. The test is better than the previously used methacholine challenge test.
Bronchospasm; Asthma Exercise-Induced; Diagnosis; Athletes; Exercise
There is a decrease in quadriceps muscle strength in subjects with patellofemoral pain syndrome. Various types of strengthening exercises of the quadriceps are done as part of its management, but the effect of isotonic eccentric quadriceps muscle exercises on patellofemoral pain syndrome has not been studied. Hence the aim of this exploratory pilot study was to evaluate the effect of eccentric quadriceps training in patients with patellofemoral pain.
Twenty patients (12 female and 8 male, mean ages, 27.50 +/- 6.6 years) with patellofemoral pain syndrome were treated. The eccentric training of the quadriceps was given using a Baltimore Therapeutic Equipment (BTE) Primus machine. The main outcome measures used were percentage time on target as shown by the BTE primus machine, SF-36 Health questionnaire and patellofemoral pain severity scale. Statistical analysis was performed using SPSS 13.
All the outcome measures showed significant improvements (P<0.05). Percentage time on target improved with a mean difference of 23.6, the SF-36 questionnaire showed an improvement in physical component score, mental component score and bodily pain with a mean difference of 10.9, 2.6 and 29.2 respectively and pain score when taken using patellofemoral severity scale also improved with a mean difference of 3.4.
Isotonic eccentric training of quadriceps muscles was found to be effective in reducing pain and improving the functional status of patients with patellofemoral pain syndrome and can be suggested as part of the treatment.
Quadriceps Muscle; Patellofemoral Pain Syndrome; Isotonic Contraction; Eccentric Exercises; Muscle Strength
The aim of this study was to determine the effect of Ramadan fasting on body composition, calorie intake and physical performance in young female athletes undertaking training sessions during Ramadan.
Twelve voluntary female athletes (15-27 years old) were assigned to the research. A prospective study was conducted to investigate the athletes on four different occasions: one week before Ramadan (T1), the second (T2) and fourth (T3) weeks of Ramadan, and two weeks after the end of Ramadan (T4). Food intake, body composition and physical performance (agility, balance and explosive leg power) were investigated on each occasion. Further, Physical performance was assessed by agility, vertical jump and balance tests.
There was a significant main effect for time for body composition indices. A significant decrease was observed in weight (P=0.01) and body mass index (BMI) (P=0.01) in T2 compared with T1, further decrease in weight (P<0.001) and BMI (P<0.001) was observed in T3 compared to T1. Calorie intake decreased significantly in T3 compared with T1 (P=0.008), and increased significantly in T4 compared with T3 (P=0.04). There was a significant main effect for time for agility performance (P=0.03), but no significant main effect for time was observed for vertical jumping (P=0.1) and balance performance (P=0.3).
This study has found that Ramadan fasting could affect the body composition, but not physical performance in female athletes during Ramadan.
Body Composition; Female Athletes; Performance; Ramadan Fasting
The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of Ramadan fasting on circulating levels of interleukin-12 (IL-12) after a brief maximal exercise.
Nine subjects performed a Wingate test on three different occasions: (i) the first week of Ramadan (1WR), (ii) the fourth week of Ramadan (4WR), and (iii) three weeks after Ramadan (AR). Blood samples were taken before, immediately and 60 min after the exercise. Plasma concentrations of IL-12 were measured using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Variance analysis revealed no significant effect of Ramadan on Ppeak and Pmean during the three testing periods.
Considering the effect of Ramadan on plasma concentrations of IL-12, analysis of the variance revealed a significant Ramadan effect (F(2,
16)=66.27; P < 0.001) as well as a significant time effect (F(2,
16)= 120.66; P < 0.001). However, no significant (Ramadan × time) of test interaction (F(4,
32)=2.40; P>0.05). For all measures, IL-12 levels were lower during 1WR and 4WR in comparison with AR (P < 0.05). Considering the exercise effects, IL-12 levels measured immediately after the exercise were significantly higher than those measured before and at 60 minutes after the exercise (P < 0.001).
These results suggest that an acute intense exercise-induced IL-12 response is modified by daytime fasting and modifications in sleep schedule during Ramadan.
Ramadan; Wingate Test; Interleukin-12; Immunity; Sleep Deprivation
Sudden Cardiac Death; Physical Examination; Athletes
Although the contribution of physique and body composition in soccer performance was recognized, these parameters of physical fitness were not well-studied in adolescent players. Aim of this study was to investigate physique and body composition across adolescence.
Male adolescents (N=297 aged 12.01–20.98 y), classified into nine one-year age-groups, child (control group, N=16 aged 7.34–11.97 y) and adult players (control group, N=29 aged 21.01–31.59 y), all members of competitive soccer clubs, performed a series of anthropometric measures (body mass, height, skinfolds, circumferences and girths), from which body mass index (BMI), percentage of body fat (BF%), fat mass (FM), fat free mass (FFM) and somatotype (Heath-Carter method) were calculated.
Age had a positive association with FM (r=0.2, P<0.001) and FFM (r=0.68, P<0.001), and a negative association with BF (r=−0.12, P=0.047). Somatotype components changed across adolescence as well; age was linked to endomorphy (r=−0.17, P=0.005), mesomorphy (r=0.14, P=0.019) and ectomorphy (r=−0.17, P=0.004). Compared with age-matched general population, participants exhibited equal body mass, higher stature, lower body mass index and lower BF.
During adolescence, soccer players presented significant differences in terms of body composition and physique. Thus, these findings could be employed by coaches and fitness trainers engaged in soccer training in the context of physical fitness assessment and talent identification.
Anthropometry; Development; Body Fat; Somatotype; Sport
To determine whether a fifteen-minute water immersion treatment affects the normal ankle joint position sense (JPS) at the middle range of dorsiflexion and plantar flexion actively and passively.
Thirty healthy female volunteers aged between 18 and 30 years were treated by a 15-minute cryotherapy (6 ± 1°C). The subject's skin temperature over antromedial aspect of dominant ankle was measured by the Mayomed device before, immediate and 15 minutes after water immersion. Ankle JPS was tested trough the pedal goniometer at 3 stages similar to the skin temperature. ANOVA (α = 0.05) was performed on each of variables using SPSS 19.0 software.
Skin temperature was seen to decrease after water immersion but subjects did not return to pre-test skin temperature after 15 minutes (P<0.001). The research found no significant difference in JPS at middle range of dorsiflexion and plantar flexion actively and passively before and after cryotherapy.
These findings suggest that 15-minute water immersion at 6°C dose not significantly alter the middle range of plantar flexion/ dorsiflexion JPS at the ankle and is not deleterious to JPS.
Cryotherapy; Ankle; Position Sense; Proprioception; Immersion
Vitamin D deficiency is a worldwide epidemic, with well known impacts on calcium metabolism and bone health, but increasingly recognized associations with chronic health problems such as bowel and colonic cancer, arthritis, diabetes and cardiovascular disease. In recent years in the Sports Medicine literature, there has been an increased focus on the potential impact that inadequate Vitamin D levels may have on athletic performance.
In the early 20th Century, athletes and coaches felt that ultraviolet rays had a positive impact on athletic performance, and while remaining limited, evidence is accumulating to support this view. Muscle structure and function is recognised to play a key role in athletic performance, and both cross-sectional and longitudinal studies allude to a functional role for Vitamin D in muscle. The identification of the Vitamin D receptor in muscle tissue provides a direct pathway for Vitamin D to impact upon Skeletal Muscle structure and function. This review focuses on the current understanding of the action of Vitamin D within skeletal muscle tissue, and the potential impact on performance.
Vitamin D; Sports; Athletic Performance; Exercise; Muscle
Sudden Cardiac Death; Physical Examination; Athletes
Sudden Cardiac Death; Sudden Cardiac Arrest; Athletes
Sudden Cardiac Death; Athletes; Asia
The aim of this study was to investigate the relation between anthropometric variables and total race time including split times in 184 recreational male Ironman triathletes.
Body mass, body height, body mass index, lengths and circumferences of imbs, thicknesses of skin-folds, sum of skin-fold thicknesses, and percent body fat were related to total race time including split times using correlation analysis and effect size.
A large effect size (r>0.37) was found for the association between body mass index and time in the run split and between both the sum of skin-folds and percent body fat with total race time. A medium effect size (r=0.24–0.36) was observed in the association between body mass and both the split time in running and total race time, between body mass index and total race time, between both the circumferences of upper arm and thigh with split time in the run and between both the sum of skin-folds and percent body fat with split times in swimming, cycling and running.
The results of this study showed that lower body mass, lower body mass index and lower body fat were associated with both a faster Ironman race and a faster run split; lower circumferences of upper arm and thigh were also related with a faster run split.
Body Fat; Skin-Fold Thickness; Swimming; Running; Cycling
Physical inactivity is more prevalent among women than men, varies by ethnic group, and becomes increasingly prevalent with age. The aim of this study was to examine the effects of a 12-week exercise program on the cardiovascular disease risk and fitness of Iranian middle aged women.
This was a randomized controlled trial study. Participants in the training group (n=20) performed treadmill running exercise at a high intensity (70-80% of maximum heart rate, 0% grade) for 30 min/day, 3 days/week. On the other hand, participants in the control group (n=20) were asked to maintain their habitual lifestyle and not change their activity or dietary habits. Measurements of body mass index, waist/hip ratio, blood pressure, total cholesterol, and lipoprotein subtractions were taken before program and after 12 weeks. Changes in 10-year risk scores for coronary heart disease were calculated using Framingham risk equation.
Significant decreases in systolic and diastolic blood pressure, reduction in 10-year risk of coronary heart disease, and reduction in lipid levels were found within the training group between baseline and 12-week measurements. No changes were found in these parameters within the control group.
The study provides evidence for the positive effects of exercise training on the reduction of cardiovascular disease risks among women aged 40-55 years.
Exercise; Running; Cardiovascular Disease; Risk Factor; Screening; Framingham Risk Score; Blood Pressure; Women
The purpose of this study was to estimate the dominant handgrip strength and its correlations with some hand and arm anthropometric variables in 101 randomly selected Indian inter-university female volleyball players aged 18-25 years (mean age 20.52±1.40) from six Indian universities.
Three anthropometric variables, i.e. height, weight, BMI, two hand anthropometric variables, viz. right and left hand width and length, four arm anthropometric variables, i.e. upper arm length, lower arm length, upper extremity length, upper arm circumference and dominant right and non-dominant handgrip strength were measured among Indian inter-university female volleyball players by standard anthropometric techniques.
The findings of the present study indicated that Indian female volleyball players had higher mean values in eleven variables and lesser mean values in two variables than their control counterparts, showing significant differences (P<0.032-0.001) in height (t=2.63), weight (t=8.66), left hand width (t=2.10), left and right hand length (t=9.99 and 10.40 respectively), right upper arm length (t=8.48), right forearm length (t=5.41), dominant (right) and non-dominant (left) handgrip strength (t=9.37 and 6.76 respectively). In female volleyball players, dominant handgrip strength had significantly positive correlations (P=0.01) with all the variables studied.
It may be concluded that dominant handgrip strength had strong positive correlations with all the variables studied in Indian inter-university female volleyball players.
Anthropometry; Grip; Hand Strength; Volleyball; Female
This study was performed to introduce and evaluate the potential of kinematic magnetic resonance imaging (KMRI) using a high-field open-magnet magnetic resonance (MR) system.
We attempted to perform KMRI of healthy volunteers’ lumbar spine and knee in the lateral position and ankle in the supine position utilizing the superconducting, horizontally opened, 1.2 T MR system (OASIS, HITACHI, Tokyo, Japan). For the KMRI of the lumbar spine, the volunteer had to lie on one side while maintaining maximally anteflexed, neutral, and maximally retroflexed positions and remain still for the duration of the acquisition time for each posture. In the same way, KMRI of the knee was performed with the volunteer's knee flexed at 0°, 30°, 60°, 90°, and 120° in the lateral position, and KMRI of the ankle was performed with the volunteer's ankle in maximally dorsiflexed, neutral, and maximally plantarflexed positions while lying in the supine position.
We could acquire higher quality kinematic MR images than those acquired using low-field MR systems. The spinal canal, intervertebral discs and foramina, and facet joints in lumbar spine KMRI; the ligaments, menisci and patellofemoral joint in knee KMRI; and the tibiotalar articulation and peroneal tendon in ankle KMRI were clearly depicted.
The results of our pilot trial indicated that a superconducting horizontally opened, 1.2 T MR system offers high-quality KMRI images and can be utilized for the kinematic diagnosis and evaluation of sports injuries.
Joint Motion; Magnetic Resonance Imaging; Kinematic; Open MRI; KMRI
Fasting induces short-term physiological adaptations which spare the body's remaining carbohydrate stores and mobilize lipid stores to provide a substitute fuel for many tissues and organs, especially skeletal muscle. Rodent studies show that regular occurrence of fasting then refeeding, stimulates adaptations in muscle which make the animal better placed to withstand a further period of fasting by possessing a better ability to oxidise lipid.
This review explores the research describing these adaptations, with an emphasis on Ramadan, a human model of repeated fasting/refeeding. Separately, a single bout of endurance exercise places similar metabolic stress on the body as fasting since the exercising muscle must reduce its use of carbohydrate and utilize lipid more readily as exercise progresses. Not surprisingly therefore, adaptations in muscle to repeated bouts of endurance exercise (endurance training) are similar to those seen with repeated fasting/refeeding. Superimposing the stressors of repeated fasting/refeeding and exercise training, and subsequent adaptations to the muscle and exercise response, are examined by describing the published research which has investigated the situation where athletes continue their training whilst participating in Ramadan.
Endurance Training; Metabolism; Carbohydrate; Lipid; Skeletal Muscle
This study was performed to assess and compare the effects of Pilates exercise on flexibility and lumbo-pelvic movement control between the Pilates training and control groups.
A randomized single-blinded controlled design was utilized in the study. Forty healthy male and female volunteers (mean age 31.65±6.21 years) were randomly divided into Pilates-based training (20 subjects) and the control groups (20 subjects). The Pilates group attended 45-minute training sessions, 2 times per week, for a period of 8 weeks. Flexibility and lumbo-pelvic stability tests were determined as outcome measures using a standard “sit and reach test” and “pressure biofeedback” respectively at 0, 4 and 8 weeks of the study.
The results showed that the Pilates training group improved flexibility significantly (P<0.001) during time intervals. This effect was also significantly greater than the control group for both 4 weeks and 8 weeks of the training period (P<0.001). There were 65% and 85% of the subjects from Pilates group passing the lumbo-pelvic stability test at 4 and 8 weeks of training periods respectively. No subjects from the control group passed the test at any stages.
Pilates can be used as an adjunctive exercise program to improve flexibility, enhance control-mobility of trunk and pelvic segments. It may also prevent and attenuate the predisposition to axial musculoskeletal injury.
Pilates Training; Pilates-Based Exercises; Flexibility; Lumbo-pelvic stability; Exercise
To measure the time needed to teach a series of martial arts techniques to proficiency.
Fifteen volunteer subjects without any prior martial arts or self-defense experience were recruited. A panel of martial arts experts selected 21 different techniques including defensive stances, arm blocks, elbow strikes, palm strikes, thumbs to eyes, instep kicks and a carotid neck restraint. The critical elements of each technique were identified by the panel and incorporated into a teaching protocol, and then into a scoring system. Two black belt martial arts instructors directed a total of forty-five 45-minute training sessions. Videotaped proficiency testing was performed weekly. The videotapes were reviewed by the investigators to determine the proficiency levels of each subject for each technique.
The techniques were rated by the average number of training sessions needed for an individual to develop proficiency in that technique. The mean number of sessions necessary to train individuals to proficiency ranged from 27 to 38.3. Using this system, the most difficult techniques seemed to be elbow strikes to the rear, striking with thumbs to the eyes and arm blocking.
In this study 29 hours of training was necessary to train novice students to be proficient in 21 offensive and defensive martial arts techniques. To our knowledge, this is the first study that attempts to measure the learning curves involved when teaching martial arts techniques.
Martial Arts; Learning Curve; Self-defense; Training; Karate; Tae kwon Do
This study was designed to compare the effects of two different relaxation techniques, namely progressive muscle relaxation (PMR) and autogenic relaxation (AGR) on moods of young soccer players.
Sixteen adolescent athletes (mean age: 14.1 ± 1.3) received either PMR or AGR training. Using Profile of Mood States- Adolescents, their mood states were measured one week before relaxation training, before the first relaxation session, and after the twelfth relaxation session.
Mixed ANOVA revealed no significant interaction effects and no significant main effects in any of the subscales. However, significant main effects for testing sessions were found for confusion, depression, fatigue, and tension subscales. Post hoc tests revealed post-intervention reductions in the confusion, depression, fatigue, and tension subscale scores.
These two relaxation techniques induce equivalent mood responses and may be used to regulate young soccer players’ mood states.
Muscle Relaxation; Autogenic Training; Relaxation; Adolescents; Soccer Players
The aim of this study was to examine the influence of selected exercises on motor development in elementary school third grade girl students in Ahwaz City, Iran.
The present study was semi–experimental, performed as field and using experimental and control groups. The statistical population included all third grade girl students of elementary schools of Ahvaz city (10,500 subjects). Forty of whom were randomly selected (cluster stage) and then were divided randomly into two experimental (N=20, Mean age=8.9±0.49) and control (N=20, Mean age=8.9±0.48) groups. Experimental group was given training for eight weeks, 3 sessions per week and each session lasting 45 minutes. To measure motor development, the Test of Gross Motor Development, edition2 (TGMD-2; 2002) was applied. Statistical analysis was performed using independent t-test and paired t-test.
The results showed statistically significant differences between control and experimental groups regarding locomotion skills (8.433, P<0.05), manipulation skills (10.951, P<0.001) and overall motor development (13.203, P<0.001). In fact, selected exercises impacted on the motor development of subjects and led to their motor development progress.
The selected exercises can be used as an appropriate plan to improve motor skill development in third grade of elementary school.
Exercise; Development; Locomotor Activity; Girls; Physical Activity
To determine if functional performance deficits are present in athletes with functional ankle instability (FAI) compared to healthy athletes using various functional performance tests.
Sixty two athletes (mean age-21.7±1.8years; height-168.2±9.1cm; weight-63.8±11.0kg) participated in this case control study. Athletes were divided into two groups: athletes with FAI (FAI group, n=31) and healthy athletes (Non-FAI group, n=31). The FAI group was further divided into two subgroups: FAI with giving way (FAI-GW), FAI with no giving way (FAI-NGW). Functional performance was assessed with the single-limb hopping test, figure-of-8 hop test, side-hop test, single-limb hurdle test, square hop test and single hop test.
Significant differences (P<0.05) were observed for all the functional performance tests (FPTs) except the single hop test between FAI and Non-FAI groups; between FAI-GW, FAI-NGW and Non-FAI groups. Additionally, the involved limb performed significantly worse (P<0.05) than the contra-lateral uninvolved limb of the FAI-GW group for the above-mentioned FPTs.
Significant functional performance deficits were observed in the FAI group in all tests except single hop test with greater deficits observed in the FAI-GW group. Hence, these tests can be used to determine the presence of FAI. However no deficits were identified for the test involving sagittal plane functional activities suggesting that this test can not be used as a criterion to discriminate individuals with FAI. It was further ascertained that functional performance was not affected by limb dominance.
Joint Instability; Ankle; Athletic Performance; Functional Performance
The purpose of the present study was to evaluate effects of regular practice of sun salutation on muscle strength, general body endurance and body composition.
Subjects (49 male and 30 female) performed 24 cycles of sun salutation, 6 days a week for 24 weeks. Upper body muscle strength was determined by 1 repetition maximum (1RM) for bench press and shoulder press technique. Back and leg dynamometry was used to assess strength of back and leg muscles. General body endurance was evaluated by push-up and sit-up tests. Body composition was assessed by noting% body fat by using bioelectric impedance analysis. Perceived intensity of exercise by subjects was noted by Borg scale.
Muscle strength by bench press showed significant increase in male (29.49±9.70 to 36.12±9.09 Kg, P<0.001) and female (10.5±4.42 to 13.16±4.44 Kg, P<0.001) subjects. Strength by shoulder press also increased (males; 22.96±9.57 Kg to 26.53±11.05 Kg, P<0.001, females; 6.83±2.78 to 8.83±3.87, P<0.001). Endurance by push-ups & sit-ups showed similar findings in male (19.0±9.58 to 21.98±8.98, P<0.001 and 24.92±10.41 to 29.84±12.64, P<0.001 respectively) and female (14.66±6.80 to 18.56±6.97 and 13.16±7.75 to 19.23±8.25, P<0.001 respectively) subjects. A significant decrease in body fat percent was observed only in female (27.68±5.46 to 25.76±4.72, P<0.001) but not in male subjects. BMI significantly decreased in both the groups (z=4.37, P<001 and t=5.41, P<0.001 respectively).
From our observations we conclude that sun salutation can be an ideal exercise to keep oneself in optimum level of fitness.
Yoga; Sun Salutation; Muscle Strength; Body Fat; Endurance
The aim of this study was to investigat the offensive efficiency of the professional handball players forming the front and rear lines.
Our investigation was carried out on four matches (final, semi-finals and classifying match) at the 19th male Handball World Championship “Tunisia 2005”. Finalist teams were Tunisia, France, Croatia, and Spain. Matches were recorded using 5 digital camcorders (SONY, DCL, and TRV 130E). Number of passes and the length of the attacks were determined by software “STUDIO 9”. Speed of the ball at the different shootings was calculated by REGAVI software, version 2.57, 2004. Work was dissociated according to 2 variables namely axes and lines.
Players of lateral axes (A4) and front basis (L1) were shorter and thinner than those of the central axis (A3) and rear basis (L2). No differences were observed between lines and axes in age. The analysis of the total shootings to the goal shows that the players of lines and axes present very close values in each team, excepting the Croatian L2 compared to the Tunisian L2. Players of the rear Croatian basis present also a number of attacks concluded by a non-successfully cadred shooting greater than all other groups. In the Spanish group, a significant difference among number of passes concluded by a non-successfully cadred shooting between lines, and front basis vs central axis was noted. No significant difference was found between lines and axes in the Croatian team. Regarding the velocity of shooting, excepting the Croatian team, no differences were found between lines and axes of the other teams. No differences were also noted in the attack duration between lines and axes in Croatian and Tunisian teams. In the Spanish team, duration of attacks concluded by a cadred shooting was most important when finished by an L2 or an A3 player.
The present results demonstrate that finalist teams were found to be clearly characterized by L2 and A3 players taller and weightier than those of L1 and A4. Organized attack was generally concluded by shooting done by an L2 or an A4 player and the shooting velocity did not significantly determine the offensive efficiency.
Offensive Efficiency; Handball; Lines; Axes